WHAT IS STRESS?
The term stress has been defined in several different ways. sometimes the term is applied to stimuli or events in our environment that make physical and emotional demands on us, and sometimes it is applied to our emotional and physical reactions to such stimuli. in this discussion, we will refer to the environmental stimuli or events as stressors and to the emotional and physical reactions as stress.
Many sorts of events be stressors, including disasters, such as hurricanes or tornadoes; major life events, such as divorce or the loss of a job; and daily hassles, such as having to wait in line at the supermarket when you need to be somewhere else in 10 minutes. What all this events have in common is that they interfere with or threat our accustomed way of life. when we encounter such stressors, we must pull together our mental and physical resources in order to deal with the challenge. How well we succeed in doing so will determine how serious a toll the stress will take on our mental and physical well-being.
许多事件都是压力源，包括灾难，如飓风或龙卷风; 重大生活事件，如离婚或失业; 每天都有麻烦，比如当你要在10分钟内到别的地方去却不得不在超市排队等。所有这些事件都有共同之处，就是它们干涉或威胁我们习惯的生活方式。当我们遇到这样的压力时，我们必须整合我们的精神和物质资源来应对挑战。我们如何成功地做到这一点将决定压力对我们身心健康将产生多大的影响。
Reacting to stressors
The Canadian physiologist Hans Seyle has been the most influential writer on stress. Seyle proposed that both humans and other animals react to any stressor in three stages, collectively known as the general adaptation syndrome. the first stage, when the person or animal becomes aware of the stressor is the alarm reaction. In this stage the organism becomes highly alert and aroused, energized by a burst of epinephrine. After the alarm reaction comes the stage of resistance , as the organism tries to adapt to the stressful stimulus or to escape from it. If these efforts are successful, the state of the organism returns to normal. If the organism cannot adapt to the continuing stress, however, it enters a stage of exhaustion or collapse.
Seyle developed his model of the general adaptation syndrome as a result of research with rats and other animals. In rats, certain stressors, such as painful tail-pulling consistently led to the same sorts of stress reactions in humans, however, it is harder to predict what will be stressful to a particular person at a particular time. Whether a particular stimulus will be stressful depends on the person’s subjective appraisal of that stimulus. How threa tening is it? How well have I handled this sort of thing in the past? how well will I be able to handle it this time? for one person, being
called on to give a talk in front of a class is a highly stressful stimulus that will immediately produce such elements as a pounding heart and a dry mouth. for another person, being called on to give a talk is not threatening at all, but facing a deadline to complete a term paper is extremely stressful. in humans, moreover, the specific stress reaction is likely to vary widely; some stressful situations give rise predominantly to emotions of fear, some give rise to anger, and some give rise to helplessness and depression.
COPING WITH STRESS 应对压力
It is Friday evening and two young lawyers get phone calls at home. The trial data for an important case has been moved up. Both of the lawyers will now have to prepare a report for the case by Monday morning. It is a threatening situation for both. Each must do extensive research and write a complex document of some 40 pages, all in a single weekend. furthermore, each knows that her work will be evaluated by the firm’s partners, and how well she does may greatly in fluence her future in the firm.
One of the lawyers finds the situation extremely stressful; she feels tremendous anxiety, experiences headaches and stomach upset, and has difficulty working. she somehow manages to produce a report, but she is not at all happy with it. the other lawyer, although she too feels the pressure of the situation, sees it not so much as a threat but as a challenge-an opportunity to show how good she is. she moves into the firm’s offices for the weekend and sleeping only three hours a night, completes a brilliant report with a clear mind and a surge of energy. as this example helps illustrate, stress is caused not so much by events themselves as by the ways in which people perceive and react to events.
其中一位律师认为情况极其紧张; 她感到非常焦虑，经历头痛，胃部不适，而且很难工作。她以某种方式设法做出报告，但她对此并不满意。另一位律师虽然也感受到了这种情况的压力，但并不认为这是一种威胁，而是一种挑战- 一个显示她有多好的机会。她周末进入公司办公室，每晚只睡三个小时，精神清醒，精力充沛，完成了一篇精彩的报告。正如这个有力的例子说明的那样，压力不是由事件本身引起的，而是由人们对事件的感知和反应的方式引起的。
Degree of control控制程度
An important influence on people’s ability to cope with stressful situations is the degree of control that they feel they can exercise over the situation. both animals and humans have been found to cope better with painful or threatening stimuli when they feel they can exercise some
degree of control rather than being passive and helpless victims. such a sense of control can help minimize the negative consequences of stress, both psychological and physical. in one well-known experiment, Jay Weiss administered electric shocks to pairs of rats. In each pair, one of the two animals was given a degree of control over the situation; it could reach through a hole in the cage and press a panel that would turn off the shock both for itself and for its partner. Thus, the two rats received exactly the same number of shocks, but one was passive and helpless, and the other was in control. after a continuous 21-hour session, the animals were sacrificed and their stomachs examined for ulcers. those rats that could exert control had much less ulceration than their helpless partners.
The ability to control painful stimuli often benefits humans, too. For example, the loud music coming into your ears from your iPod is probably not stressful; in fact, it's quite enjoyable. but the same music coming from your neighbor's house can be terribly and stressful. merely knowing that one can control a noise makes it less bothersome. That’s one reason why your loud music does not bother you-you know you can turn it off.
Even when you cannot control them, unpleasant events tend to be less stressful if they are predictable - if you at least know when they will occur. This was demonstrated by Weiss in another study with rats. One group of rats heard a buzzer about 10 seconds before they would receive a shock; although the animals could not escape the shock at least they had a chance to prepare themselves for the expected pain. A second group of rats received no such warnings; The shocks came unpredictably. Weiss found that the rats that were forewarned of the shocks developed fewer ulcers than the rats that were not forewarned. This finding has parallels in human life. the death of a loved one, for example, is usually less traumatic when it is anticipated than when it is unexpected. On a less tragic level, many students find surprise quizzes to be more upsetting than scheduled quizzes that they can prepare for.
即使你无法控制他们，如果不愉快的事件是可预测的，那么往往会减轻压力- 如果你至少知道他们什么时候会发生。Weiss在另外一项关于老鼠的研究中证实了这一点。一组老鼠在接到电击前约10秒钟听到蜂鸣声，虽然动物至少不能逃避震荡，但他们有机会为预期的痛苦做好准备。第二组老鼠没有收到这样的警告; 冲击变得难以预料。Weiss发现，预先警告的老鼠发生的溃疡比没有预先警告的老鼠要少。这一发现与人类生活相似。例如，所爱的人的死亡在预期的时候通常没有比在意想不到的时候痛苦。在不那么悲惨的水平上，许多学生发现突击测验比他们可以准备的定期测验更令人不安。
Are some people generally better than others at coping with stress? Research suggests that the answer is yes - that there is a certain kind of person who has a relatively stress-resistant personality. The leading researcher in this field has been Suzanne Kobasa. Dr.Kobasa found that people who cope well with stress tend to have three characteristics: They are committed to what they are doing, they feel in control (rather than powerless), and they welcome moderate amounts of change and challenge. In studies of people facing stressful situations, Kobasa and her associates found that those with stress-resistant personalities- that is, those who are high in commitment, control, and challenge-experience fewer physical illnesses than those whose personalities are less hardly.
有些人一般比其他人更好地应付压力吗？研究表明答案是肯定的- 有某种人具有相应对抗压力的性格。这个领域的领先研究者是Suzanne Kobasa。Kobasa博士发现，处理压力的人倾向于有三个特点：他们致力于他们正在做的事情，他们感到可控的（而不是无能为力），他们欢迎适度的变化和挑战。在面对压力情况的人们的研究中，Kobasa和她的同事发现那些有抗性的个性- 即那些高度承诺，控制和挑战的人- 比那些性格不那么强壮的人经历更少的身体疾病。
Until quite recently, it was generally believed that to maintain good health people should strive to avoid stressors in their lives. Such a strategy can be quite limiting, however. The desire to avoid stress may also lead people to avoid potentially beneficial changes in their lives, such as job changes or promotions. Moreover, the attempt to avoid stress is often unrealistic. How, for example, can a person avoid such shocks as a parents death? in fact, if people do not confront a certain amount of stress in their lives, they will end up being bored and unstimulated, which also can be physically harmful. In the last analysis, each person needs to come to terms with stress in his or her own way, sometimes trying to avoid it, but sometimes accepting it or even seeking it out as a challenge to be mastered.
STRESS AND ILLNESS压力和疾病
In many stressful situations, the body's response can improve our performance – we become more alert, and better able to take effective action. But when stress is encountered continually, the body's reactions are more likely to be harmful than helpful to us. As will be seen later in this unit, the production of stress-related hormones seems to make people more susceptible to heart disease. And stress reactions can reduce the disease-fighting effectiveness of the body's immune system, thereby increasing susceptibility to illnesses, ranging from colds to cancer. Other diseases that can result at least in part from stress include arthritis, asthma, migraine headaches, and ulcers. Workers who experience the greatest amount of job pressure have been found to be especially likely to suffer from a large number of illnesses. Moreover, many studies have shown that people who have experienced major changes in their lives are at an unusually high risk for a variety of illnesses.
As an example of stress-induced illness, take the case of stomach ulcers, small lesions in the stomach wall that afflict one out of every twenty people at some point in their lives. Ulcers are a common disorder among people who work in occupations that make heavy psychological demands from assembly line workers to air-traffic controllers. In such cases, stress tends to be the culprit. Stress leads to increased secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid normally helps to break down foods during digestion, but in excess amounts it can eat away at the stomach lining, producing ulcers.
Stress and cancer 压力与癌症
One of the least understood diseases, and partly for that reason one of the most feared, is cancer, which is the second leading cause of death in America.Medical scientists and researchers are still trying to understand the biological mechanisms of cell behavior that underlie the onset and development of cancer. However, studies seem to suggest that there may be links between emotions and cancer.
These links involve the functioning of the body’s immune system, a collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstream and defend the body against invasion by foreign agents, including bacteria and viruses, and against cells that become cancerous. Psychological factors can influence immune functioning and the field of research on these influences is called psychoimmunology. It is believed that small cancers form frequently in everyone, but our immune system usually rejects them. However, prolonged stress may lead to elevated levels of corticosteroids and to lower levels of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the brain. These and other changes apparently make it harder for the immune system to reject cancer cells. When the organism copes with the stress in an active way, these changes in the immune system seem to be minimized when the organism reacts with helplessness and depression, the changes are maximized.
These links between stress, helplessness, immune function, and cancer have been demonstrated experimentally in studies with animals. In one study, conducted by Sklar and Anisman, three groups of mice were injected with the same number of cancer cells. One group was exposed to an electric shock that they could learn to escape by jumping over a barrier to safety. A second group was exposed to the same duration of shock, but had no means of actively coping with the stress. The third group was never shocked. The cancer grew the fastest and led to the earliest death in the animals that had no means of coping with their stress. In contrast, the animals that growth from those that had not been shocked at all.
The link between stress, helplessness, and cancer has been demonstrated in humans as well. In one dramatic study in1981, Richard Shekelle and his co-workers studied over 2, 000 men who had taken a psychological test that diagnoses depression and other emotional states. Seventeen years later, the researcher found that those men who had been highly depressed at the time of the testing had twice the chance of dying of cancer as men who had not been depressed since depressed people tend to drink more alcohol or smoke more cigarettes, which in turn increases their risk of cancer, Shekelle took this into account when he analyzed his data; the association between depression and cancer still held, regardless of drinking or smoking rates. in another study, widowed husbands were found to have a decline in the function of their white blood cells -part of the immune system-within two months of their wives deaths.
压力，无助和癌症之间的联系也在人类中得到证明。理查德·谢克尔（Richard Shekelle）和他的同事在1981年的一个戏剧性的研究中，研究了2000多名经过心理测试诊断出抑郁症和其他情绪状态的男性。十七年后，研究人员发现那些在测试时高度抑郁的男性患癌症的机率是没有抑郁的男性的两倍，因为抑郁症患者往往喝更多的酒或者吸更多的香烟，反过来又增加了患癌症的风险，Shekelle在分析他的数据时考虑到了这一点; 无论饮酒或吸烟率如何，抑郁症和癌症之间的关系仍然存在。在另一项研究中，丧偶的丈夫在其妻子死亡的两个月内被发现其白血细胞的功能下降- 免疫系统的一部分。
There is also some evidence that people’s emotions are involved in cancer once it has begun. in a study of women who underwent mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer, Greer found that women who reacted to their diagnosis with either a fighting spirit or strong denials were more likely to be free of disease eight years later than were women who reacted with stoic acceptance or with feelings of helplessness.
还有一些证据表明，一旦癌症开始，人们的情绪就会与癌症有关。在对早期乳腺癌接受乳房切除术的妇女进行的一项研究中，格里尔发现，那些女性对自己的诊断做出的反应要么是战斗精神，要么坚决否认的比那些坚忍接受或感到无助的女性更可能没有疾病。Recommendations for treatment治疗建议
Findings on the links between emotional reactions to stress and the progression of cancer have given rise to some recommendations for the treatment of cancer patients. In particular, programs
that can help give cancer patients a greater feeling of control over their destinies and that can help them adopt a “fighting spirit” might just increase their odds of survival. Although there is no solid evidence as yet that such programs can in fact extend people’s lives, developing such programs remains an exciting frontier in health psychology.
Heart disease 心脏病
Heart disease is western society’s number-one killer. it is the leading cause of death for both men and women, and accounts for more than one in four of all deaths in America. Heart disease used to be considered a male disease, and among the middle-aged this is still true. However, since 1984, more women than men actually die from heart disease in the United States each year. it is just that the onset of heart disease starts later in women than in men. some good news, though for both genders is that deaths from heart disease in the united states have been falling since the beginning of the twenty-fist century. Worldwide, however, the picture is not so good. Heart disease rates are climbing rapidly all around the globe as more and more cultures adopt a Western Lifestyle-smoking more, exercise less, and eating a diet higher in fats.
Heart disease usually involves the formations of a fatty substance called plaque in the walls of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. If the arteries become narrowed enough or blocked, the person may suffer a heart attack (death of a region of heart muscle tissue). Among the many factors that have been found to be related to the risk of developing heart disease are high blood pressure(or hypertension), a history or heart disease among one’s close relatives (indicating a possible genetic predisposition to the disease), cigarette smoking, being relatively overweigh, and a high level of a fatty substance called cholesterol in the blood. In addition to all of these well -established risk factors, it is now clear that stress can have a major impact on the development of heart disease. People who continually undergo a great deal of stress -and who lack the ability to control it -are at significantly greater risk for heart disease than people who undergo less stress or who can manage stress successfully. Jobs that impose high psychological demands but that provide the worker with little control-such as a cook, a waiter, or a hospital orderly -seem to breed heart disease.
那些持续承受巨大压力的人，以及缺乏控制能力的人，心脏病的风险明显高于那些压力较小或能够成功应对压力的人。强加心理要求但给工人提供少量控制的工作- 例如厨师，服务员或医院有秩序的- 似乎会滋生心脏病。
The type a behavior pattern行为模式的类型
Whereas some jobs may make heavier psychological demands than others, certain sorts of people, regardless of their occupation, seem to make heavy psychological demands on themselves-and, as a result, run a greater risk of heart disease. people with a particular personality style, called the coronary prone behavior pattern and commonly labeled type A, have been found to be especially susceptible to heart disease. Type A people are hard-driving, competitive, and aggressive. They experience great time urgency, always trying to do more and more in less and less time. people who have an opposite sort of personality are termed Type B. others are categorized somewhere in between.
Many studies have confirmed that Type A people are more susceptible to heart disease than Type B People. One probable reason is that Type A people tend to make greater demands on themselves and to expose themselves to more stressful situations than do Type B people. One study of college football players found, for example, that Type A players were rated by their coaches as playing harder than Type B players when they were injured. Type A people also tend to have an unusually intense physiological reaction to the stress that they encounter. When they are faced with a challenging situation, they tend to manifest higher blood pressure and greater increases in heart rate and in the level of epinephrine in their blood than Type B people. Some researchers believe that this greater physiological reactivity under stress-sometimes called hot reactivity-is the key to the link between the type a pattern and heart disease.
许多研究证实A型人比B型人更容易患心脏病。一个可能的原因是A型人比B型人更倾向于对自己提出更高的要求，使自己面临更多的压力。例如，一项针对大学生足球运动员的研究发现，A型运动员被教练评为比受伤的B型运动员更努力。A型人也往往对他们遇到的压力有非常强烈的生理反应。当他们面对具有挑战性的情况时，他们的血液中的血压比B型人更高，心率和血液中的肾上腺素水平更高。一些研究人员认为，压力下的这种更大的生理反应性- 有时被称为热反应性- 是模式类型与心脏病之间关系的关键。
The bulk of the research on psychological factors in heart disease has focused on men rather than women. even among women who face highly stressful situations, whether at work or at home, the risk of heart disease remains considerably lower than for men. Many biological and psychological factors may contribute to this difference. Among them is the consistent finding that although women tend to express their emotions more openly than men do, their physiological reactions to stress tend to be less intense. in terms of the risk of heart disease, then it may be better to let ones emotions show outwardly than to bury them inside, where they may eventually cause damage to one's body.
Because of the links between the type a behavior pattern and heart disease, various approaches have been taken to changing this pattern of behavior. for example, Type A people have been taught relaxation exercises and other techniques to manage stress. They have been encouraged to develop nonstressful hobbies and they have been given therapy sessions to help change their pressured view of the world. Some programs have had a degree of success in altering the behavioral and psychological reaction of Type A individuals. So far, however, the success has been limited. The Type A pattern seems to be learned over the course of many years, and it is supported by such, it is not a simple matter to change this pattern. indeed, as Joan Borysenko notes, "one of the most stressful things for a Type A is to be told to relax.”
由于行为模式与心脏病之间的联系，已经采取了各种方法来改变这种行为模式。例如，A 型人已经被教授放松练习和其他技术来管理压力。他们被鼓励发展非压抑性的爱好，他们接受了治疗课程来帮助改变他们对世界的压力。一些项目在改变A型人的行为和心理反应方面取得了一定程度的成功。但是到目前为止，成功是有限的。A型模式似乎是在多年的学习过程中得到这样的支持，改变这种模式不是一件简单的事情。事实上，正如琼·博里森科（Joan Borysenko）所指出的那样，“对A型来说，压力最大的事情之一就是放松。”Reading2
The risks of smoking
The risks of smoking are hardly a well-guarded secret. The "Smoking Can be Harmful to your health” warning is on every pack of cigarettes sold in the united states, and 97 percent of adults and teens agree that smoking is associated with lung cancer. Nearly as many people also acknowledge smoking’s links with other respiratory ailments and heart disease. A teen-to-the-grave smoker has a 50 percent chance of dying from the habit. according to the World Health Organization(WHO), the death rate from smoking will soon grow to 10 million people in the world every year, meaning that half a billion people alive today will be killed by tobacco. Eliminating smoking would increase life expectancy worldwide more than any other preventive measure. It is no wonder then that, because smoking is generally viewed as the most important behavioral risk to health, it has become a central concern of health psychologists.
吸烟的危险几乎不是一个保守的秘密。在美国出售的每包香烟中，“吸烟对你的健康有害”是警告的，97％的成年人和青少年认为吸烟与肺癌有关，几乎同样多的人也承认吸烟与其他呼吸疾病和心脏病，青少年吸烟者有50％的机会死于这种习惯，根据世界卫生组织（World Health Organization，WHO）的统计，吸烟的死亡率很快会增长到全球1000万人这意味着今天活着的五亿人将会被吸烟所杀，与其他任何预防措施相比，消除吸烟将会增加全世界的预期寿命，这也就不足为奇了，因为吸烟一般被认为是最重要的行为风险健康，已经成为健康心理学家关注的重点。
Why do people start smoking?
Smoking is a pediatric disease. It usually begins during early adolescence. It is especially common among those who get low grades school who drop out of school, who feel less in control of their future, and whose friends, parents and siblings smoke.
We learn behaviors through the models we imitate and the social rewards we receive, adolescents are self-conscious and often think the world is watching their every move. so, they may begin smoking to imitate cool models, to get the social rewards of being accepted by other smokers, and
to project a mature image. Typically, teens who start smoking have friends as who smoke and suggest its pleasures, and who offer them cigarettes among teens whose parents and best friends are nonsmokers, the rate is close to zero.
我们通过模仿的模式学习行为，获得社会回报，青少年是自觉的，常常认为世界正在观察他们的一举一动。那么他们可能会开始吸烟，模仿酷酷的模特，获得被其他吸烟者接受的社会奖励，并且展示一个成熟的形象。通常情况下，开始吸烟的青少年有朋友抽烟，并建议他们吸烟的快乐并提供他们香烟。在父母和最好的朋友是非吸烟的青少年中，率接近于零Why do people not stop smoking?
Once addicted to nicotine we find it very difficult to stop. Tobacco products are as addictive as heroin and cocaine. Studies in Britain and the Unite States show that at least one in three of those who try cigarettes becomes hooked. This addiction to smoking is partly physiological; smokers becomes used to the effects of nicotine and experience painful withdrawal when they give it up. In addition, people become physiologically dependent on smoking as a way of reducing anxiety and with particular situations. Because of these physiological and psychological forces , quitting is difficult and the relapse rate is high.
Helping smokers quit
Psychologists have helped develop a variety of behavior modification techniques to get people to stop smoking. These efforts include public warnings, counseling, drug treatments, hypnosis, aversive conditioning (e.g., making people smoke cigarette after cigarette until they feel sick), and support groups. The good news is that these treatments are often effective. the bad news is that all but one-fifth of the participants eventually succumb to the habit again. For those trying to quit by themselves, that is, without group support, the odds are even lower.
心理学家已经帮助开发了各种行为改变技术来让人们戒烟。这些努力包括公共警告，咨询，药物治疗，催眠，厌恶的调理（例如，让人们在香烟后抽烟直到他们感到不舒服）和支持团体。好消息是，这些治疗往往是有效的。坏消息是，只有五分之一的参与者最终再次屈服于这种习惯。对于那些试图自行退出的人来说，没有群体的支持，这个可能性就更小了。Better news comes from the Centers for Disease Control(CDC) which reports that half of Americans who have ever smoked do manage to quit eventually after repeated attempts. Because so many people have stopped or not started smoking, the percentage of American, Canadian and British smokers has dropped sharply over the last 30 years. The drop has been most pronounced in these countries in the male smoking rate, which now barely exceeds that of women. Thanks in part to such trends, the death rate due to coronary heart disease in these countries has declined by about 30 percent since the mid-1960s smoking-related cancer deaths have also been declining, especially among men.
However, despite declining cigarette sales among educated. Western adults, per capita cigarette consumption is near an all-time high worldwide. smoking has skyrocketed in Asia. in china, where many men, but no more than 1 in 10 women smoke cigarette consumption soared from 100 billion cigarettes a year in the early 1950s to 1.6 trillion at the century’s end. In Japan, 35 percent (50 percent of men) are smokers. Today, cigarette companies are targeting developing countries, such as Kenya and Zimbabwe, where rates of cigarette consumption have been historically low. the WHO therefore has predicted that in the next three decades, 70 percent of tobacco-related deaths will occur in developing countries, where people tend to be less aware of the dangers of smoking. 然而，尽管受过教育的卷烟销售下滑。西方成年人的人均卷烟消费量接近全球历史最高水平。吸烟在亚洲迅速蔓延。在中国，男人很多，但是在十几岁的女人中，每十年只有十分之一的女人吸烟的消费量从五十年代初期的每年1000亿支，到本世纪末的1.6万亿。在日本，35％（50％的男性）是吸烟者。今天，卷烟公司正在瞄准发展中国家，比如肯尼亚和津巴布韦，那里的卷烟消费率历来都很低。。世卫组织因此预测，在今后三十年中，70％与烟草有关的死亡将发生在发展中国家，人们往往不太了解吸烟的危害。
It is vastly easier to begin smoking than once addicted to stop. Social and psychological analyses of why adolescents start smoking have helped generate educational programs that teachers can implement easily and inexpensively. According to the National Cancer Institute, The key ingredients of such programs are:
Information about the effects of smoking
Information about peer, parent, and media influences
Training in refusal skills, through modeling and role-playing
The informational ingredients can also be offered through mass media. In 1998, Florida initiated a massive youth-oriented media campaign to reduce the allure of smoking, and by early 1999, the number of 12 to 14 year-olds who reported smoking had dropped by19 percent from the previous year.
There is another way to discourage smoking: Make it more immediately costly. The most effective rewards and punishments are immediate. When the delayed rewards of exercise compete with the immediate discomfort of doing so, the immediate consequences win out. Likewise, even knowing that in the long run smoking is often suicidal behavior, many continue to smoke. If we could only raise the immediate costs, consumption would surely go down. this is, in fact, what happened when the price of cigarettes in the united states went up by 70 percent between 1997 and 2001. following this increase, teen smoking began declining, especially in states that also had strong smoking-prevention program.
HEALTHFUL BEHA VIOR
In this section. we study two very different approaches to managing stress and thus the conditions for greater healthfulness: exercise and spirituality.
Many studies suggest that aerobic exercise that is, exercise that increases heart and lung fitness, such as jogging, swimming, and biking, can reduce stress, depression and anxiety. In a 2002 survey, for example, non-exercisers were twice as likely as exercisers to report being " not too happy.” but if we state this observation the other way around –that stressed and depressed people exercise less -cause and effect become unclear.
Experiments have resolved this ambiguity. In one experiment researchers randomly, assigned one-third of mildly depressed female college students to a program of aerobic exercise and another third to a treatment of relaxation exercises, the remaining third -the control group- received no treatment. As Figure 2.3 shows, 10 weeks later, the women in the aerobic exercise group reported the greatest decrease in depression.
实验已经解决了这种模棱两可的说法。在一项实验中，研究人员随机分配了三分之一的轻度抑郁的女大学生参加有氧运动，另外三分之一接受了放松训练，剩下的三分之一对照组没有接受任何治疗。如图2.3所示，10周后，有氧运动组的女性报告抑郁症的降幅最大。More than 150 other studies confirm that exercise reduces depression and anxiety and can therefore be a useful addition to treatment that includes antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy. In fact, some research suggests that exercise is better than drugs in preventing symptom recurrence.
另有150多项研究证实，运动可以减轻抑郁和焦虑，因此可以成为包括抗抑郁药物和心理治疗在内的治疗的有益补充。事实上，一些研究表明，运动在预防症状复发方面比药物好。Researchers are now wondering why aerobic exercise alleviates negatives emotions. Researchers know that exercise releases certain chemicals in the body’s bloodstream that can affect of emotions. However, they also wonder whether the benefits of exercise are a side effect of the sound sleep that people experience after exercise, or perhaps a sense of accomplishment or the fact that one’s improved physique may influence one’s emotional state and self-esteem.
Research certainly reveals that exercise not only boosts our mood, but also strengthens the heart,
increases blood flow, keeps blood vessels open, and lowers both blood pressure and the blood pressure reaction to stress. Compared with inactive adults, people who exercise suffer half as many heart attacks. One study that followed Finnish twins for nearly 20 years showed that occasional exercise reduced the risk of death by 29 percent compared with no exercise. Daily exercise reduced death risk by 43 percent. By one estimates, moderate exercise adds two years to one’s expected life.
Throughout history, religion and medicine have joined forces in caring for the sick. Hospitals, which were first established in monasteries, often carried the name of saints. However, as medical science matured, healing and religion diverged. Rather than asking God to heal their sick children from smallpox, people were able to vaccinate them. Rather than seeking a spiritual healer when burning with a fever, people were able to use antibiotics. Recently, however, religion and healing have been converging once again.
Of the United states' 135 medical schools, 101 offered spirituality and health courses in 2005, up from five in 1992.
Since 1995, Harvard Medical School has annually attracted 1,000 to2.000 health professionals to its Spirituality and Healing in Medicaine conferences.
Duke University has established a Center for Spirituality, Theology, and Health.
A survey found that 99 percent of U.S. family physicians agreed that “personal prayer meditation, or other spiritual practices” can enhance medical treatment.
一项调查发现，99％的美国家庭医生认为“个人祷告冥想或其他精神疗法”可以提高医疗水平。Is there fire underneath all this smoke? More than 1.000 sudies have sought to correlate the faith factor with health. A U.S. National Health Interview survey in 1999 followed, 21,104 people over eight years. After controlling for age, sex, race and religion, researchers found that non-attendees of religious were 1.87 times more likely to have died than those attending more than weekly. This translated into a life expectancy at age 20 of 83 years for frequent attendees and 75 years for infrequent attendees .
These findings indicate that, as a predictor of heath and longevity, religious involvement rivals
nonsmoking and exercise effects. Such findings demand explanation. Can you imagine what might account for the correlation?
Consider one obvious Possibility: Women are more religiously active than men, and women outlive men. So perhaps religious involvement is merely an expression of the gender effect on longevity.
Second, religiously active people have healthier lifestyles; for example, they smoke and drink less. Third, social support is another variable that may help explain the faith factor. For all the major organized religions in the world, faith is not solo spirituality, but a communal experience support networks exist for people when misfortune strikes. Finally, in many very religious communities, divorce, which is highly stressful, is almost nonexistent.
But even after controlling for gender, unhealthful behaviors, social ties, and divorce, the mortality studies find much of the mortality reduction remaining, Researchers therefore speculate that a set of variables exist that may explain this. these variables include the well-being associated with a coherent worldview, a sense of hope for the long-term future, feelings of ultimate acceptance, and the relaxed meditation of prayer. these variables might also explain another recent finding among the religiously active healthier immune functioning and fewer hospital admissions.
Although the religion -health correlation is yet to be fully explained, Harold Pincus, Deputy Medical Director of the American Psychiatry Association believes these findings "have made clear that anyone involved in providing health care services, cannot ignore the important connection between spirituality, religion, and health.”
Let’s summarize the contents of this unit: sustained emotional reactions to stressful events can lead to sickness. however, we can cope with stressors by problem solving or emotional coping, and we by making ourselves emotionally and physically stronger.
Nonverbal communication is communication without words. You communicate nonverbally when you gesture, smile or frown, widen your eyes, move your chair closer to someone, wear jewelry, touch someone, or raise your vocal volume, even when you say nothing.
Your ability to use nonverbal communication effectively can yield two major benefits. First, the greater your ability to send and receive nonverbal signals, the higher your attraction, popularity, and psychosocial well-being are likely to be. Second, the greater your nonverbal kills, the more successful you are likely to be in a wide variety of interpersonal communication situations, including business communication, teacher student communication, intercultural communication, courtroom communication, and in close relationships, politics, and health care.
In this unit, we will look at five different channels of nonverbal communication: (1)gestural communication, (2)facial communication (3)eye communication, (4) touch communication, and (5)spatial messages. We begin our study of nonverbal messages by considering gestural communication.
在这个单元中，我们将看五种不同的非语言交流渠道：（1）手势沟通，（2）面部交流，（3）眼睛交流，（4）触摸交流，（5）空间信息。我们通过考虑手势沟通开始研究非语言信息。Types of gestures
An especially useful classification in kinesics, the study of communication through body movement, identifies five types of gestures: emblems illustrators, affect displays, regulators, and adaptors.运动学中一个特别有用的分类，通过身体运动进行交流的研究，确定了五种类型的手势：象征插画家，情感的展示，监管和编剧。
Emblems are substitutes for words; they are body movements that have rather specific translations, such as the nonverbal signs for OK，Peace, Come here, "Go away, Who, me?”“Be quiet,”“I’m warning you,” “I’m tired,” “and it's cold.”Emblems are as arbitrary as any words in any language. Consequently, your present culture's emblems are not necessarily the same as your culture's emblems of 300 years ago or the same as the emblems of other cultures. For example, the sign made by forming a circle with the thumb and the forefinger may mean “nothing” or “zero” in France, “money” in Japan, and something sexual in certain southern European cultures. But, just as the English language is spreading throughout the world, so too is the English nonverbal language. The American use of this emblem to mean "OK" is spreading just as fast as, for example, English technical and scientific terms.
Illustrators accompany and literally illustrate verbal messages. Illustrators make your communications more. vivid and help to maintain your listener's attention. They also help to clarify and intensify your verbal messages. In saying, "Let’s go up, for example. you probably move your head and perhaps your finger in an upward direction. In describing a circle or a square, you more than like make circular or square movements with your hands. Research points to another advantage of illustrators: They increase your ability to remember. People who illustrated their verbal messages with gestures remembered about 20 percent more than those who did not gesture. We are aware of illustrators only part of the time; at times they may have to be brought to our attention and our awareness. Illustrators are more universal than emblems: they will be recognized and understood by members of more cultures than will emblems.
Affect displays are the movements of the facial area that convey emotional meaning-the expressions that show anger and fear，happiness and surprise, and eagerness and fatigue. They are the facial expressions that show your true feelings when you are trying to present a false image and that lead people to say, "You look angry what's wrong ?” however, consciously control affect displays, as actors do when the play a role. Affect displays may be unintentional (as when they show your true feelings), or intentional (as when you want to show anger or love).
Regulators monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual. When you listen to another, you are not passive; you nod your head, purse your lips, adjust your eye focus, and make various paralinguistic sounds, such as “mm-mm” or “tsk”. Regulators are culture-bound: Each culture develops its own rules for the regulation of conversation. Regulators also include such broad movements as shaking your head to show disbelief to show that you want to hear more.
Regulators communicate what you expect or want speakers to do as they are talking: for example, "Keep going," “Tell me what happened,” "1 don't believe that. Are you sure?" "Speed up, and" “Slowdown.” Speakers often receive these nonverbal behaviors without being consciously aware
of them. Depending on their degree of sensitivity, speakers modify their speaking behavior in accordance with these regulators.
Adaptors satisfy some need and usually occur without conscious awareness; they are unintentional movements that usually go unnoticed. Researchers identify three main types of adaptors based on their focus, direction, or target: self-adaptors, alter-adaptors, and object-adaptors.
Self-adaptors usually satisfy a physical need, generally serving to make you more comfortable; examples include scratching your head to relieve an itch, moistening your lips because they feel dry, or pushing your hair out of your eyes. When these adaptors occur in private, they occur in they entirety you scratch your head until the itch is gone. But in public these adaptors usually occur in abbreviated form. When people are watching you, for example, You might put your fingers to your head and move them around a bit but probably not scratch with the same vigor as when in private.
Alter-adaptors are the body movements you make in response to your current interactions. Examples include crossing your arms over your chest when someone unpleasant approaches moving closer to someone you like.
Object-adaptors are movements involve your manipulation of some object. Frequently observed examples include punching holes in or drawing on a piece of paper, clicking a ballpoint pen, or chewing on a pencil. Object-adaptors are usually signs of negative; for example, you emit more adaptors when you feel hostile than when you feel friendly. Further, as anxiety and uneasiness increase so does frequency of object-adaptors.
Throughout your interpersonal interactions your face communicates, especially signaling your emotions. In fact, facial movements alone seem to communicate the degree of pleasantness, agreement and sympathy a Person feels; the rest of the body doesn’t provide any additional
information. For other aspects, however-for example, the intensity with which an emotion is felt -both facial and bodily cues are used.
Some nonverbal-communication researchers claim that facial movements may communicate at least the following eight emotions to happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, and interest. Others propose that, in addition, facial movements may communicate bewilderment and determination.
一些非语言交流的研究人员声称，脸部运动至少可以传达以下八种情绪：幸福，惊奇，恐惧，愤怒，悲伤，厌恶，蔑视和兴趣。另一些人则建议，此外，面部运动可能会传达迷惑和决心。of course, some emotions are easier to communicate than others. for example, in one study, happiness was judged with an accuracy ranging from 55 percent to 100 percent, surprise from 38 percent to 86 percent, and sadness from 19 percent to 88 percent. Research finds that women and girls are more accurate judges of facial emotional expressions than men and boys.当然，有些情绪比别人更容易沟通。例如，在一项研究中，快乐的判断准确率在55％到100％之间，惊奇从38％到86％，悲伤从19％到88％不等。研究发现，女性和女性比男性和男性对面部表情的判断更准确。
As you have probably experienced, you may interpret the same facial expressions differently depending on the context in which they occur. For example, in a classic study, when a smiling face was presented looking at a glum face, the smiling face was judged to be vicious. But when the same smiling face was presented looking at a frowning face, it was judged to be peaceful and friendly. In general, notes surprisingly, people who smile are judged to be more likable and more approachable than people who don't smile or people who pretend to smile. And women perceive men who are smiled at by other women as being more attractive than men who are not smiled at. But men -perhaps being more competitive-perceive men whom women smile at as being less attractive than men who are not smiled at.
正如你可能已经经历的那样，你可以根据它们出现的环境来解释相同的面部表情的不同。例如，在一个经典的研究中，当笑容呈现在一张阴沉的脸上时，笑脸被判断为是恶毒的。但是当看到一张皱着眉头的脸上露出同样的笑容时，被认为是和平友善的。一般而言，令人惊讶的是，笑的人被认为比不笑的人或假装微笑的人更可爱，更平易近人。而女人则认为被其他女人笑的男人比不被笑的男人更有吸引力。但是，男人- 也许更具竞争力- 认为女人所笑的男人比不笑的男人更没有吸引力。
In the same way that you learned the nonverbal system of communication unconsciously as a child, you also learned certain facial management techniques that enable you to communicate your feelings to achieve the effect you want-for example, to hide certain emotions and to emphasize others. Consider your own use of such facial techniques. As you do so, think about when you might do the following.就像你小时候无意识地学习了非语言沟通系统一样，你也学习了一些面部管理技巧，使你能够表达自己的感受，达到你想要的效果- 例如，隐藏某些情绪，强调其他情绪。考虑你自己使用这种面部技术。当你这样做的时候，想想你什么时候可以做下面的事情。
Intensify your facial expression, as when you exaggerate your surprise when friends throw you a surprise party. 加强你的面部表情，就像你夸大你的惊喜，当朋友给你一个惊喜派对时
Deintensify your facial expression, as when you cover up your own joy in the presence of a friend who didn't receive such good news.加强你的面部表情，就像你在一个没有收到这样的好消息的朋友面前掩饰自己的喜悦一样。
Neutralize your facial expression, as when you cover up your sadness to keep from depressing others.中和你的面部表情，就像你掩饰自己的悲伤，以免压抑他人。
Mask your facial expression, as when you express happiness order to cover up your disappointment at not receiving the gift you expected. 掩盖你的面部表情，就像当你表达快乐的时候，为了掩饰你没有收到你所期待的礼物而失望
These facial management techniques help you display emotions in socially acceptable ways. For example, when someone gets bad news about which you secretly take pleasure, the display rules dictate that you frown and otherwise nonverbally signal your sorrow. If you place first in a race and your best friend barely finishes, the display rules require that you minimize your expression of pleasure in winning and avoid signs of gloating. If you violate these display rules, you’ll be judged as insensitive. So, although facial management techniques may be deceptive, they are also expected -and, in fact, required by the rules of polite interaction.这些面部管理技巧可以帮助你以社会可接受的方式展示情感。例如，当有人得到你偷偷高兴的坏消息时，显示规则指示你皱眉，否则非语言地表示你的悲伤。如果你第一次参加比赛，你最好的朋友几乎没有完成，显示规则要求你最大限度地减少获胜的乐趣，并避免出现幸灾乐祸的迹象。如果您违反这些显示规则，您将被判定为不敏感。所以，虽然面部管理技巧可能是欺骗性的，但它们也是可以预料到的- 事实上，礼貌互动的规则是必需的。
When you express emotions facially, a feedback effect is observed. This finding has given rise to the facial feedback hypothesis, which holds that your facial expressions influence your own physiological arousal. For example, in one study, participants held a pen in their teeth to simulate a sad expression and then rated a series of photographs. Results showed that mimicking a sad expression actually increased the degree of sadness the subjects reported when viewing the photographs.当你表达情绪表面，反馈效果是观察。这一发现引起了面部反馈假说，认为你的面部表情影响你自己的生理唤醒。例如，在一项研究中，参与者在他们的牙齿中拿着一支笔来模拟悲伤的表情，然后对一系列照片进行评分。观看照片时，受试者报告的结果显示，模仿悲伤表情实际上增加了悲伤程度。
Generally, research finds that facial expressions can produce or heighten feelings of sadness, fear, disgust, and anger. But this effect does not occur with all emotions; smiling, for example, won’t make you feel happier. And if you're feeling sad, smiling is not likely to replace your sadness with happiness. A reasonable conclusion seems to be that your facial expressions can influence some feelings, but not others.一般来说，研究发现面部表情可以产生或增加悲伤，恐惧，厌恶和愤怒的感觉。但是，这种效应并不是所有的情绪都会发生。例如，微笑不会让你感到更快乐。如果你感到难过，微笑不可能用快乐取代你的悲伤。一个合理的结论似乎是你的面部表情可以影响一些感觉，而不是其他的。
EYE COMMUNICA TION
Occulesis is the study of messages communicated by the eyes. These messages vary depending on the duration, direction, and quality of the eye behavior. For example, in every culture there are