Unit1 种族或民族的传承就如性别和社会等级一样对塑造身份很重要，并且种族还能影响一个人的生活质量、教育机会和职场晋升。长期以来美国社会挣扎着去面对和克服基于民族的种族主义和种族歧视问题。远在内战开始前，美国各反奴隶制群体就开始反对奴役美国黑人并致力于废除全美奴隶制度的工作，不光是美国黑人因肤色和民族而遭受不公的待遇和歧视，这些群体还包括：19世纪被运到美国修建穿越全美铁路的中国人，19世纪后期为了寻求更好生活的欧洲移民，20世纪为了养家而赴美做苦力的日本人以及从北部移居美国的拉美人。由于人们对种族，阶级和性别之间相互影响的意识增强，从小学到研究生各个层次的学校课程都包含了关于种族、等级和性别的内容或者说开设了致力于我们个人身份和个人历史重要成分的整套课程。 UNIT 2 毋庸置疑，语言也是一种政治工具、手段，以及权利的证明。它是个人身份的最鲜明而又最重要的特征: 它揭示了个人身份，使一个人与公众或社区的身份相关联或分离。在某些特定的时间和地点，讲某种语言是危险的，甚至是致命的。再或者，一个人也许和其他人说同一种语言，但是他说话的方式会使他的家世被暴露，或（也有可能正如他所期望的）被隐藏起来。这一点在法国如此，在英格兰也更是如此： 在那个潮湿小岛上的（占主导地位的）方言，使得英格兰人完全理解英格兰岛上所使用的英语，但对于其他岛外的人来说，却完全无法理解这种语言。在英格兰开口讲话，就相当于（如果我可以用一句黑人英语来说的话）”把你的一切公诸于世”： 你已经对人坦白了你的父母双亲，你的青年时代，你的教育背景，你的个人收入，你的自尊，甚至还有你的前途。 UNIT
4.除了立法之外，国会听证会在没有来自市民的群众团体的压力下是不可能取得任何成就的。最终，你的信件、电话和传真才能成为反抗电视暴力的最好武器，并可以抑制犯罪，保障你在宪法第二修正案中的权益。当你在电视节目中看到一些毫无意义而又不必要的暴力时，给相关的电视网络管理人写信，让他们了解你的感受。更好的方法是记下在暴力节目播出的间隙有哪些产品和服务在广告中播出，并且对那些公司的领导讲出你的愤怒和不满。最后，只有作为消费者、电视观众和选民的你，可以要求消除那些使我们社会的充满血腥暴力的电视节目。如果所有的美国来福枪协会成员和持枪者在这场反抗中能尽到他们的本分，我们就可以消除那些威胁到孩子和我们的权利法案的电视暴力节目。 UNIT 5 我父亲是芝加哥学派的一名经济学家，所以我的儿时记忆都是有关科斯定理，施蒂格勒经济法则和买卖排放权的重要性等内容。当其他孩子还在地毯上玩耍，对怪兽充满恐惧的时候，我却在和那些貌似浮动而实际上很稳定的竞争性货币打交道，还时不时地做着有关美联储将要破坏商业周期的噩梦。我是女生的这个事实从未被真正提到过，就像拥有一双蓝眼睛也仅仅是我的一个事实一样。有时，我会把作为女孩当作是一种特殊的奖励： 比如说成为啦啦队队员，被带去参加正式舞会。对于我来说，参加所谓的“女性”活动并不意味着我受到了某种压迫或是这类活动阻碍了我的思想或妨碍了我做其他我想做的事。毕竟，当我从舞会回来的时候，可以为自己所做出的任何选择与父亲一起讨论。事实上，我也听到过一些人说作为一名女性并不都意味为着享受快乐和游戏，但是这些人一般都被称作女权主义者，正如每个新进的保守派所知道的那样，女权主义者往往都是夸张的。 实际上，也正因如此你才能分辨出他们是女权主义者——因为他们一直都在夸大其词。不要问我如何知道的这些或是这些对于我思想有什么影响。正如任何一个有自己思想体系的人所知道的那样，你不是在提出问题而仅仅是在为你的信念寻找证据。拥有自己的思想体系指的就是这个。 UNIT
The pearl 吉纳，一位穷渔夫，刚发现了一颗非常大而且非常珍贵的珍珠，准备去最近的城镇把它卖掉。他急切需要钱给刚给蝎子螫伤的孩子看病。吉纳发现珍珠前，他---一位可以看病的医生拒绝给孩子治病，因为吉纳付不起治疗费。 一个小镇就像个集群动物，有神经系统头肩膀和肢。它与其他城镇不想连。因此没有两座城镇是相似的。城镇里还有完整的感情。要知道消息是怎样传遍整个小镇的可是个难解之谜。消息传得似乎比小男孩冲出去告诉别人的速度还快，比女人隔着篱笆大声说消息的速度还要快。? 在吉纳胡安纳和其他渔夫回到吉纳的茅草屋前，小镇的神经正随着消息--吉纳发现了世界上最大的珍珠--传播而奔腾，跳动。跑得气喘吁吁的小男孩还没说出这个消息，母亲们早已知晓了。消息席卷而过茅草屋，激起波浪泡沫，然后冲进镇里的石头灰泥瓦房里。消息传到正在花园里散步的牧师，他的眼中露出若有所思的表情，他想起教堂的有些地方该维修了，他纳闷珍珠值多少钱。他想知道是否为吉纳的婴儿施过洗礼，或是否主持过他的结婚仪式。消息传到零售商那儿的时候，他们看着卖的不太好的男式衣服。?? 消息传到医生那儿的时候，他正在给一位妇人看病，这位夫人的疾病其实就是“年龄太老的问题”，尽管他们两人都不承认这点。弄清楚谁是吉纳后，医生变得严肃认真而又明智起来。医生说，“他是我的一个病人，我在给他的孩子治疗被蝎子螫伤的伤口。”眼珠在肿眼泡的眼眶内转来转去，医生想起巴黎，想起那他住过的既宽敞又豪华的房间。越过他的老年病人，医生仿佛看见自己坐在巴黎的一家餐馆，男侍者正在打开酒瓶。 消息早早地传到了教堂前乞讨者，他们咯咯地高兴地笑着，因为他们知道没有比突然
英译汉短文翻译 1. Job security is extremely hard to come by these days, no matter what profession you choose. It isn't enough to pursue a field with perceived stability, say the experts. You'll want to find something you feel passionate about, can make a living doing and that involves using skills you can easily apply to other fields. 在当前的经济形势下，无论你从事何种职业，就业稳定都很难找到稳定的就业机会。专家们表示，光是追求预计能够带来稳定就业的领域是不够的。你希望追求的方向应该是你所热爱的、能够借以维持生计的职业，并且能够运用到一些你可以轻松转换到其它领域的技能。 2. Love plays a pivotal role on out life. Love makes you feel wanted. Without love a person could go hayward and also become cruel and ferocious. In the early stage of our life, our parents are the ones who shower us with unconditional love and care, they teach us about what is right and wrong, good and bad. But we always tend to take this for granted. It is only after marriage and having kids that a person understands and becomes sensitive to others feelings. Kids make a person responsible and mature and help us to understand life better. 爱在生活之外扮演了一个关键的角色。爱使你想要得到些什么。没有爱，一个人将走向不归路，变得凶暴、残忍。在我们最初的人生道路上，我们的父母给予了我们无条件的关爱，他们教会我们判断正确与错误、好与坏。然而我们常常把这想当然了，只有等到我们结了婚并且有了孩子之后，一个人才会懂得并注意别人的感受。孩子让我们变得富有责任心、变得成熟稳重，并且更好的理解人生 3. When companies have different employees on the same job and one of them is paid differently, many unfairness issues surface. "It can happen in any 'open shop' that differentiates pay for any reason (seniority, performance, etc.)," says Dauphinais. You could run the risk of alienating valued colleagues if they learn you earn more for what they perceive to be the same job. 公司雇佣不同的人员从事同一岗位的工作时，如果其中有个人的薪资不同时，很多不公平的问题就会浮出水面。Dauphinais 说：“这种情况在任何开放行业都有可能发生，因为不同的原因（资历，表现等）员工的薪酬不同”。如果你让同事知道你们在做相同的工作，而你的工资比他们高，那么你就可能会被你很重视的同事疏远。 4. Spouses are a bigger source of stress than bosses, research shows. There may be no place like home, but if you want to relax then you might be better off at work, according to the survey.
human creations, language may be the most remarkable. Through language we share experience, values, exchange ideas, transmit knowledge, and sustain culture. Indeed, language is vital to sense of reality by giving meaning to events. 在人类所有的创造中，语言也许是影响最为深远的。我们用语言来分享经验，表达(传递？)价值观，交换想法，传播知识，传承文化。事实上，对语言本身的思考也是至关重要的。和通常所认为的不同的是，语言并不只是简单地反映现实，语言在具体描述事件的时候也在帮助我们建立对现实的感知。——语序的调整。 Good speakers have respect for language and know how it works. Words are the tools of a speaker?s craft. They have special uses, just like the tools of any other profession. As a speaker, you should be aware of the meaning of words and know how to use language accurately, clearly,vividly,and appropriately. 好的演讲者对语言很重视，也知道如何让它发挥更好的效果。词语是演讲者演讲的重要“武器”，具有特殊的用途，这和任何其他的工作技艺没什么两样。作为演讲者，必须知道词语的具体含义，也要懂得如何做到用词准确、清晰、生动、适当。 Using language accurately is as vital to a speaker as using numbers accurately to a accountant. Never use a word unless you are sure of its meaning. If you are not sure, look up the word in the dictionary. As you prepare your speeches, ask yourself constantly, “What do I really want to say? What do I really mean?” Choose words that are precise and accurate. 演讲者准确地使用语言和会计准确使用数字是一样重要的。确定词意后再措词。如果不确定，请先查词典。当你在准备演讲的时候，要不断地问自己：“我到底要说什么？我到底想表达什么意思？”用词一定要精准。 Using language clearly allows listeners to grasp your meaning immediately. You can ensure this [by using familiar words （that are known to the average person and require no specialized background）; by choosing concrete words in preference to more abstract ones, and by eliminating verbal clutter]. 用词清晰可以让听众迅速理解你的意思（抓到你的点）。要做到这一点，就要尽量使用一般人都熟悉的不需要专业知识就能懂的词语；多用具象词汇少用抽象词汇；还有要减少口误。 Using language vividly helps bring your speech to life. One way (to make your speech vivid)|is through imagery，or the creation of word pictures. You can develop imagery by using concrete language, simile, and metaphor. Simile is an explicit comparison between things （that are essentially different yet have something in common）; it always contains the words “like”or “as”. Metaphor is an impli cit comparison between things that are different yet have something in common; it does not contain the words “like” or “as”. 生动地用词能让演讲鲜活起来！比喻，这种能产生文字图像的修辞，可以使演讲达到生动的效果。比喻要用具象的语言，分为明喻和隐喻。 明喻是指在本质上有区别但仍然有相同点的事物之间做一个明确的比较，一般句中会含有“像”或“似”。隐喻则是一种隐藏的比较，不会出现like 和as 这些连接词。 Another way to make your speeches vivid is by exploiting the rhythm of language. Four devices for creating rhythm are parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and antithesis. Parallelism is the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences. Repetition is the use of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences. Alliteration comes from repeating the initial constant sounds of close or adjoining words. Antithesis is the juxtaposition of
Just as Adam was cast out of Eden, I was kicked out of university; but while his transgression was eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge, my sin was ignoring the tree. After my dismal performance in my first year of university, I contemplated the reasons for my failure. Now, I understand the two factors that contributed to my downfall: the lack of a career goal and premature independence. 正如亚当被逐出伊甸园，我被撵出了大学校门：亚当违反的戒律是偷吃了善恶之树的禁果，我的罪恶就是无视知识之树。在我大学第一年差劲表现之后，我仔细考虑自己被逐出大学的原因。现在我意识造成我被逐出校园的两个因素：缺乏职业目标和过早的独立。 Without a career goal, I lacked direction and motivation. About halfway through my final year of high school, I was hounded by my parents to enroll in university, but until that time had not given any thought to what career I wanted to pursue. To silence their nagging, I told them I wanted to be an engineer. Though I got high marks in math, physics, and chemistry, I was bored with them, and my dislike of the science became apparent in the first four months of university. I failed all my science courses. 没有职业目标，我缺乏方向和动机，大约在中学最后一年过了一半时，我被父母追逼着到大学注册，但直到那时候我还未考虑我想追求什么职业。为了让他们不再说我，我告诉他们我想当一名工程师。虽然我在数学、物理和化学上得了高分，但是我对这些课感到厌倦，接着在大学的最初四个月里我不喜欢这些理科课程变得明显了。所有的理科课程都不及格。B． (1) 当他向朋友借钱时，又一次遭到拒绝，顿时勃然大怒。(fury)When he went to borrow money from his friend and was refused again, he flew into fury. (2) 在这次战役中，除了偶尔的无线电联络之外，麦克同部队之间的其它联系都被切断了。 (cut off) Mike was cut off from all but occasional radio communications with his armies in the campaign. (3) 我们正在向前走着，看到一只兔子突然从洞里跳出来，穿过田野。(pop up) As we walked along，we saw a rabbit pop up from it's burrow and scurry across the field. (4) 有人认为对加拿大整个地区的独家经销商来说，三百架钢琴的年销售量未免太保守了。 (sole) Someone thinks the annual sale of 300 pianos for a sole distributorship in Canada is rather conservative. (5) 有人认为，要结婚就应结为终身伴侣；法律对离婚者太宽大了。(lenient) Some people think if people marry, it ought to be for life, the laws are altogether too lenient with divorcees. (6) 在头四圈里，本杰明一直与那名德国赛车手并驾齐驱。(stay abreast of)Over the first four laps, Benjamin stay ed abreast of the German driver. (7) 速度、耐力和战术是选手在比赛中夺冠的重要因素。(tactics) Speed, endurance and tactics are important factors in gaining the victory. (8) 一支球队能够在常年锦标赛中不断的蝉联冠军，关键是临场状态奇佳、合作无间、斗志 高昂。(morale) A soccer team that remains championship year after year must have kept up it's extraordinary performance with close coordination among its high-morale members. Unit 4 英译汉：The capital account is a record of investment and capital transactions between a
Lesson One: The Time Message Elwood N, Chapman 新的学习任务开始之际，千头万绪，最重要的是安排好时间，做时间的主人。本文作者提出了7点具体建议，或许对你有所启迪。 1 Time is tricky. It is difficult to control and easy to waste. When you look a head, you think you have more time than you need. For Example,at the beginning of a semester, you may feel that you have plenty of time on your hands, but toward the end of the term you may suddenly find that time is running out. You don't have enough time to cover all your duties (duty), so you get worried. What is the answer? Control! 译：时间真是不好对付，既难以控制好，又很容易浪费掉，当你向前看时，你觉得你的时间用不完。例如，在一个学期的开始，你或许觉得你有许多时间，但到学期快要结束时，你会突然发现时间快用光了，你甚至找不出时间把所有你必须干的事情干完，这样你就紧张了。答案是什么呢？控制。 2 Time is dangerous. If you don't control it, it will control you. I f you don't make it work fo r you, it will work against you. So you must become the master of time, not its servant. As a first-year college student, time management will be your number one Problem. 译：时间是危险的，如果你控制不了时间，时间就会控制你，如果你不能让时间为你服务，它就会起反作用。所以，你必须成为时间的主人，而不是它的奴仆，作为刚入学的大学生，妥善安排时间是你的头等大事。 3 Time is valuable. Wasting time is a bad habit. It is like a drug. The more time you waste,the easier it is to go on wasting time. If seriously wish to get the most out of college, you must put the time message into practice. 译：时间是珍贵的，浪费时间是个坏习惯，这就像毒品一样，你越浪费时间，就越容易继续浪费下去，如果你真的想充分利用上大学的机会，你就应该把利用时间的要旨付诸实践。 Message1. Control time from the beginning. 4 Time is today, not tomorrow or next week. Start your plan at the Beginning of the term. 译：抓紧时间就是抓紧当前的时间，不要把事情推到明天或是下周，在学期开始就开始计划。 Message2. Get the notebook habit. 5 Go and buy a notebook today, Use it to plan your study time each day. Once a weekly study plan is prepared, follow the same pattern every week with small changes. Sunday is a good day to make the Plan for the following week.
英译汉练习短文6篇· Passage 1 Satiric Literature1 Perhaps the most striking quality of satiric literature is its freshness, its originality of perspective. Satire rarely offers original ideas. Instead, it presents the familiar in a new form. Satirists do not offer the world new philosophies. What they do is look at familiar conditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish, harmful, or affected. Satire jars us out of complacence into a pleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioningly accept are false. Don Quixote makes chivalry seem absurd; Brave New World ridicules the pretensions of science; A Modest Proposal dramatizes starvation by advocating cannibalism. None of these ideas is original. Chivalry was suspected before Cervantes2, humanists objected to the claims of pure science before Aldous Huxley3, and people were aware of famine before Swift4. It was not the originality of the idea that made these satires popular. It was the manner of expression，the satiric method, that made them interesting and entertaining. Satires are read because they are aesthetically satisfying works of art, not because they are
Presenting a speech （做演讲） Of all human creations, language may be the most remarkable. Through 在人类所有的创造中，语言也许是影响最为深远的。我们用语言 language we share experience, formulate values, exchange ideas, transmit 来分享经验，表达(传递？)价值观，交换想法，传播知识， knowledge, and sustain culture. Indeed, language is vital to think itself. 传承文化。事实上，对语言本身的思考也是至关重要的。[Contrary to popular belief], language | does not simply mirror reality but also helps to create our sense of reality [by giving meaning to events]. 和通常所认为的不同的是，语言并不只是简单地反映现实，语言在 具体描述事件的时候也在帮助我们建立对现实的感知。 ——语序的调整。 Good speakers have respect for language and know how it works. Words are the tools of a speaker’s craft. They have special uses, just like the tools of any other profession. As a speaker, you should be aware of the meaning of words and know how to use language accurately, clearly,vividly,and appropriately. 好的演讲者对语言很重视，也知道如何让它发挥更好的效果。词语是演讲者演讲的重要“武器”，具有特殊的用途，这和任何其他的工作技艺没什么两样。作为演讲者，必须知道词语的具体含义，也要懂得如何做到用词准确、清晰、生动、适当。 Using language accurately is as vital to a speaker as using numbers accurately to a accountant. Never use a word unless you are sure of its meaning. If you are not sure, look up the word in the dictionary. As you prepare your speeches, ask yourself constantly, “What do I really want to say? What do I really mean?”Choose words that are precise and accurate. 演讲者准确地使用语言和会计准确使用数字是一样重要的。确定词意后再措词。如果不确定，请先查词典。当你在准备演讲的时候，要不断地问自己：“我到底要说什么？我到底想表达什么意思？”用词一定要精准。 Using language clearly allows listeners to grasp your meaning immediately. You can ensure this [by using familiar words （that are known to the average person and require no specialized background）; by choosing concrete words in preference to more abstract ones, and by eliminating verbal clutter]. 用词清晰可以让听众迅速理解你的意思（抓到你的点）。要做到这一点，就要尽量使用一般人都熟悉的不需要专业知识就能懂的词语；多用具象词汇少用抽象词汇；还有要减少口误。 Using language vividly helps bring your speech to life. One way (to make your speech vivid)|is through imagery，or the creation of word pictures. You can develop imagery by using concrete language, simile, and metaphor. Simile is an explicit comparison between things （that are essentially different yet have something in common）; it always contains the words “like”or “as”. Metaphor is an implicit
1.Our big old house was closely related with the joys and sorrows of four generations. 2.I planted these roses a long, long time ago before your mother was born. 3.Many sons left home to fight against the Fascist Nazi. 4.Take the first friendly greeting and always keep it deep in your heart. 1.He has prepared answers to the questions that he expects to confront during the interview. 2.His sad story touched us so deeply that we nearly cried. 3.The two of them are walking hand in hand along the river bank, chatting, laughing, and looking happy. 4.When he heart the exciting news, tears of joy welled up in his eyes. 5.People from Shanghai can understand Suzhou dialect with ease, for Shanghai dialect and Suzhou dialect have much in common. 6.Henry and his wife are looking into the possibility of buying a new house within three years. 7.He finally gave in to his daughter’s repeated requests to further her education abroad. 8.We locked all our valuables away before we went on holiday. 9.Although we have parted from eah other, I hope that we will remain good friends and that we will care for and help each other just as we did in the past. 10.At that critical moment, the army commander summoned all the officers to work out new strategies and tactics which would make it possible to conquer the enemy. Unit 2 1.A gracious manner adds the greatest splendour to your image. 2.I firmly believed the note my guest sent me didn’t take long to write. 3.The simple phrase “Excuse me.” made most of your irritation disappear. 4.Being on time is a virtue which belongs not only to the past but also to the present. 5.Y ou shouldn’t accept the other person’s presence without thinking of its importance. 6.Good manners produce the same feelings or actions in others. 1.I am sorry I am late; I was at a meeting and couldn’t get away. 2.At the concert whnever a singer finished singing a beautiful song, the audience would burst into loud cheers to show their appreciation. 3.As a stylish dresser, she is always wearing stylish clothes, but she seldom cares about what she eats or drinks. 4.The nurse tells me that the doctors have done wonders for your heart disease. 5.When awarding the prize, the chairman complimented the winner on his great contribution to mankind. 6.This problem has bothered the experts for many years. 7.The crowd of demonstrators melted away when the police arrived. 8.Since punctuality is a good habit, we should pay much attention to it and make great efforts to cultivate this good habit. 9.The old man cherishes that girl, as if she were his own daughter. 10.It is just a routine physical checkup, nothing to get worried about.
Unit 1 1.他对这次面试中可能提到的问题作好了准备。（confront） He has prepared answers to the questions that he may confront during the interview. 2.他悲惨的遭遇深深打动了我们，使我们几乎哭出声来。（touch） His sad experience touched us so deeply that we nearly cried. 3.他们俩手挽着手沿着河边散步，有说有笑。(hand in hand) The two of them are walking hand in hand along the riverbank, chatting and laughing. 4.听到这令人激动的消息之后，他眼睛里涌出欢乐的泪水。(well up) When he heard the exciting news, tears of joy welled up in his eyes. 5.上海人容易听懂苏州话，因为上海话和苏州话有许多共同之处。(in common) People from Shanghai can understand Suzhou dialect with ease, for Shanghai dialect and Suzhou dialect have much in common. 6.亨利和妻子正在考虑能不能在3年内买一幢新房子。(look into) Henry and his wife are looking into the possibility of buying a new house within three years. 7.女儿再三请求到国外去深造，他最终让步了。（give in to） He finally gave in to his daughter’s repeated requests to further her education abroad. 8.我们在动身去度假之前把所有的贵重物品都锁好了。（lock away） We locked all our valuables away before we went on holiday. 9.虽然咱们分手了，但我希望咱们依然是好朋友，像以前一样互相关心，互相帮助。(part) Although we have parted from each other, I hope that we will remain good friends and that we will care for and help each other just as we used to. 10.在紧急关头，军长召集全体军官开会，制定新的克敌战略战术。（summon） At the critical moment, the army commander summoned all the officers to work out new strategies and tactics to conquer the enemy. Unit 2 1.一个由外交部长率领的政府代表团昨天抵达南非，开始对该国进行为期3天的友好访问。（head） A government delegation headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs arrived in South Africa yesterday, starting a three-day friendly visit to the country. 2.看看这些讽刺社会弊端的漫画实在好笑。（awfully funny） It is awfully funny to look at these caricatures which satirize social ills. 3.计算机是最有用的教学工具之一，所有的功课以及所有的问题和答案都可在屏幕上显示出来。（show on a screen） Computers are one of the most useful teaching tools, for all your lessons as well as all the questions and all the answers can be shown on a screen. 4.张利的母亲前天突然病倒，他赶紧派人请来医生。（send for） Zhang Li’s mother fell ill the day before yesterday, so he sent for a doctor immediately.