Music：language we all speak
27-31 list of heading
27、music isn’t necessary for getting through the day,, and if it aids in reproduction, it does so only in highly direct ways.
Scientists have always been intrigued by the connection between music and language
28、some 2,500 years ago, Pythagoras was the first to note a direct relationship between the harmoniousness of a tone combination.
29、This music is mouth idea is often accompanied by the notion that music formally speaking at least.
30、Previous studies have found that many laboratory animals don’t show a great affinity for the human variety of music
31、Is as deeply rooted in our biology and in our brains as language is.
Regardless of what language they speak the voice all mothers use with babies is the same,something between speech and song.
32、对应在section A第三段：while language has long been considered essential to unlocking the mechanisms of human intelligence.
33、对应在B的第二段：Musicologists have long emphasized that while each culture stamps a special identity onto its music;music it self has some universal qualities.=common feature despite cultural influences on it
34、对应在B段第三段：Pythagoras was the first to note a direct relationship between the harmoniousness of a tone combination and the physical dimensions of the object that produced it
35、对应在C段第一段：the explanation of music , like the explanation of any product of the mind, must be rooted in biology, not in numbers per se.
36、对应在D段第二段：Marc Hauser and Josh Mcdermott of Harvard argued in the July issue of Nature Neuroscience that animals don’t create or perceive music the way we do
37、对应在C段第一段：Charles Rosen discussed the long------standingnotion that while painting and sculpture reproduce, at least some aspects of the natural world, and writing describes thoughts and feelings we are all familiar with music is entirely abstracted from the world in which we live.
38、对应在E段第二段：for babies,music and speech are on a continuum. Mother use musical speech to regulate infants emotional states.
40、根据主题：the function of music in human society
28、对应在C段：some faces are often falsely read as expressing some emotion, even when they are neutral,.....
29、对应在A段：facial expressions are a from of nonverbal communication....but also occur in most other mammals and some other animal species.
30、对应在D段：he supports his data with statistics on the relation between the blink rates of presidential candidates and their success in their races
31、对应在H段：findings on contempt(which is social)are less clear, though there is at least some preliminary evidence that this emotion and its expression are universally recognized.
32、对应在D段：Nervousness can also be measured by examining each candidate’ s perspiration, eye contact and stiffness.
34、对应在G段：the study concluded that certain facial expressions correspond to particular emotions and cannot be covered.=be related to
36-38对应在G段：regardless of cultural background, and regardless of whether or not the culture has been isolated or exposed to the mainstream
1、对应在A段：parker had come here to discover precisely how it does this, not from surly biological interest, but with a concrete purpose in mind......NG
2、对应在A段：thewater’s spreading out incredibly fast....Its skin is far more hydrophobic than I thought.\
4、对应在E段：in reality, gecko feet aren’t sticky---they’re dry and smooth to the touch---and owe their remarkable adhesion to some two billion.spatula-tipped filaments per square centimeter on their toe pads, each filament only a hundred nanometers thick.
6、对应在最后一段：For all the power of the biomimetics paradigm, and the brilliant people who practice it , bio-inspiration has led to surprisingly few mass-produced products and arguably only on e houshold word-----velcro
7、对应在最后一段：Velcro, which wa
9、对应在D段：it rumples if you breathe on it and must be reinforced with carbon-fiber spars.
10、对应在F段：he also crafted Stickybot’s legs and feet with a process he calls shape deposition manufacturing.
11、对应在G段：Stickybot now walks up vertical surfaces of glass, plastic and glazed ceramic.
12、对应在G段：the department of defense’s defense advanced research projects agency(DARPA), which funds the project, ha it in mind for surveillance
13、对应在G段：I would like to see Stiekybot have a real-world function. Whether it’s a toy or another application. Sure, it would be great if it eventually has lifesaving
or humanitarian role
14、对应在A段：Even researchers who study TV for a living marvel at the medium’s hold on them personally.
15、对应在A段最后一句：Less attention has been paid to the basic allure of the small screen-----the medium, as opposed to the message
16、对应在B段第一句：the term”TV addiction” is imprecise and laden with value judgments, but it captures the essence of a very real phenomenon.
21、对应在A段：Percy Tannenbaum of the University of California at Berkeley has written:”Among life ‘s more embarrassing moments have been countless occasions when I am engaged in conversation in a room while a TV set is on....’
22、对应在E段：the attraction seems to spring from our biological“orienting response”First described by Ivan Pavlov in 1927
23、对应在F段：Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri and their colleagues began to study whether the simple formal features of television
24、对应在G段：Annie Lang’s research team at Indiana University has shown that heart rate decreases for four to six seconds after an orienting stimulus
25、对应在A段：however stands out for its prominence and ubiquity---the world’s most popular pastime.
Theory of mind in children
14、对应在H段：Schatz studied the spontaneous speech of three-year-olds and found that these children used mental terms.
15、对应在B段：Most children under four years gave the incorrect answer that Maxi will look in the green cupboard.
16、对应在F段：Lewis investigated older children living in extended families in Crete and Cyprus. They found that children who socially interact with more adults, who have more friends.
17、对应在C段：younger children may have been affected by the complexity and too much information of the story in the task described above.=sophisticated reasoning
18、对应在E段：Meins and her colleagues have found that what they term mindmindedness in maternal speech to six-month old infants is related to both security o attachment and to TOM abilities.
19、对应在F段：young children are more likely to talk about their thoughts and feeling with peers than with their mother.
20、对应在最后一段：a different explanation has been put forward by Harris. Summary 21-27
21、对应在A段：A considerable amount of research since the mid 1980s has been concerned with what has been termed children ’s theory of mind.
22、对应在B段：Maxi left some chocolate in a blue cupboard before he went out.
23、对应在B段：Most children under four years gave the incorrect answer that Maxi will look in the green cupboard.
24、对应在C段：most normally-developing children are unable to pass the tasks until around age four
25、对应在F段：Lewis investigated older children living in extended families in Crete and Cyprus
26、对应在F段：They found that children who socially interact with more adults
27、对应在F段：it is likely to be more challenging because other children.....
Lost tribes of the green Sahara
Scatter v 分散
Rovers n 漫游者
Inexorable adj 无情的
Head off 阻止
Acquaint with 与...熟悉
Skeptical adj 怀疑
Burial n 埋葬
Excavate v 挖掘
Gauge n. 测量仪器；测量标准
Innovative 创新的；革命的adj innovation 创新n Merger n (企业等的)合并
Consultant n 顾问，咨询者
Venture capital n风险投资
Entrepreneur n 企业家
Clinical trials 临床试验
Cannibalization n.为修配而拆用旧设备的部件Intrapreneurs n 企业内部强人
28、F段: devolving power and setting up internal ideas-factories and tracking stocks so that talented staff will not leave.=retain best employees
29、C段：trading intangible assets=innovation 无形的财产
30、30、G段：....can hinder the sort of innovative behaviour
31、B段：The stars of American business tend today to be innovators such as Dell, Amazon and Wal-Mart.=Example of three famous American
32、F段：Procter&Gamble is now shifting its entire business focus from countries to products=change its concentration
33、E: with plenty of cheap venture capital.....entrepreneurs can conduct early-stage research, selling out to the big firms when they reach expensive.
34.对应A段第四行：U magic Systems is a young firm, setting up websites that will allow clients to consult the virtual versions of these personalities=new representative of....
35.对应B段第五行：Amazon and Wal-mart, which have produced ideas or products that have changed their industries 不同于e xchanged their innovation experience
36.对应 E段take it first to a big company.和题目small company不相符
37.对应I段：he tried to hawk his ‘virtual experts’ idea three years ago to the idea labs of firms such as IBM hawk v 兜售
38.对应C段倒数第三行trading in intangible assets in the United States has risen from $15 billion 1990 to $100 billion in 1998, with an increasing proportion of the rewards going to small firms and individuals =It is getting more important
39.对应D段：In the management of creativity, size is your enemy.
文中又举例：大小公司的时间对比：Gillette spent ten years ....It took a British supermarket only a year or so...
Clay tablets n黏土便笺
Antiques store n古董店
Copying press n复印机
Carbon paper n 复写纸
Shining infrared light n红外线
Ink n 墨水
Document n 文件；文档
Xerography n 静电复印技术；静电射线透照术
Billboard n 宣传板；广告牌
Duplicate v 复制
Portable adj 便携的
Reproducible adj 可再生的
14、对应在A段第四行：when the Sumerians firstly transposed spoken words into stylus marks on clay tablets. 题目所提到papyrus 纸莎草纸n
16、对应在C段：the machines were displaced, Beginning in the late 1800s...NG
17、对应在D段：these machines and their successors were welcomed by secretaries
18、对应在D段倒数第三行：All required expensive chemically treated papers.
19、对应在E段倒数第五行：unlike its numerous competitors made sharp,permanent copies on ordinary paper
Numerous competitors=earlier copying inventions ordinary paper=plain
20对应在E段第二行：introduced its first xerographic, which it called the Model A With many drawbacks=comically difficult to operate
23对应在F段: Carlson’s invention was indeed a commercial triumph
24由数字10对应在G段：when he was 10,his favorite possession was a toy typewriter.
When he was 10= at the age of 10 fancy=favorite
25由New York定位到G段：he would learn there might be useful to him when he became an inventor
26对应在G段：his charities business during the final decade of his life was prodigious
Language strategy in Multinational company
Harmonization n 和谐；融洽
Negotiation n 谈判；转让
Allowance n. 津贴
Functional multilingualism 功能性的多语言
Legislation n 方法
Aspiration n 渴望；抱负
Ambiguity n 含糊
Pre-requisite n 提前必不可少的东西
Negotiation n 谈判
27、对应在B段：a survey of British exporting companies found that over a third used English 3exclusively in dealing with foreign customers.
29、对应在C段：relying on a mix of languages, pidgins and gestures to communication being regular punctuated.
30、对应在C段：16% of international business transaction：are conducted in a cocktail of Languages.
31、32、对应在D段：these can be very expensive with a top simultaneous.
32、对应在D段：they will of course endeavor to provide a hi-fidelity translation but in this circumstance the interpreter and guess work.
Tally n 帐；记分
Ice Age Symbol 冰川时代标志
Amerindian pictograms 象形文字
Clay tokens 黏土象征
Flock paper 毛面纸
Excavation n 挖掘
Bulla n 垂饰
Proto n 原型
Decimal system n 小数单位
Imperial clerk 帝国职员
Lunar notation n 月亮标记
Civilization n 文明
Script n 脚本
37 NOT GIVEN
39 NOT GIVEN
Education Philosophy of Children
Statistic n 数据
Agrarian economy 农耕经济n
Middle class n 中产阶级
Industrial Revolution 工业革命
Feral children 野孩儿
Kindergarten n 幼儿园
Innocent n 无辜的；清白的
Infancy n婴儿期；幼儿infant 婴儿n
Homelike adj 在自己家似的
Mute n 哑巴; adj哑的，沉默的
1、A段：对应在第三行：there is evidence that as many as 30 percent of all children died before they were 14 days old.
2、C段: his writings on the role of government are seen as foundational to many political movements and activities .....His ideas are equally foundatioanl to several areas of psychology.
3.D段：Jean Jacquesd Rousseau lived during an era of ......
Johan Heinrich Pestalozz lived during the early stages of ....
=two famous educator
4、E段：one of the best documented cases of all the so-called feral children concerned a young man who was captured in a small town in the south of .....
Feral children=wild kid
5、对应在B段：for the poorest children, ....as additional in come was needed to help support the family and young children were forced into early employment.=need to work
6、对应C段：coupled with the creation of a middle class and the redefinition of roles of family members 1800s
7、对应F段：By the time of Froebel’s death in 1852, dozens of kindergartens had created in Germany.
8、对应F段：their use increased in Europe and the movement eventually reached and flourished in the United Stated in 20th century
9、对应在E段倒数第四行：But, after five years and despite all of his efforts, Itard considered the experiment to be a failure=not successful
10、对应D段Rousseau observed children and adolescents extensively and spoke of children’s individuality but he based much of his developmental theory on observation in writing the book
11、对应B段：the theory was designed to create a emotionally healthy homelike learning environment=promote some emotional activities between school and family 12、对应D段：In the original state of nature,...people were “noble savages”
, innocent，free and uncorrupted=corruption is not a characteristic