UNIT ELEVEN CATERRING CULTURE
烹饪艺术culinary art ['k?lin?ri] adj. of, relating to, or used in the kitchen or in cookery
民以食为天food is the paramount necessity of the people Paramount ['p?r?maunt] adj of the greatest importance or significance; pre-eminent
Necessity [ni'sesiti] n. something needed for a desired result; prerequisite
under the necessity (of doing sth.)不得己而(做某事), 不得不(做某事), 被迫(做某事)
色、香、味color, aroma [?'r?um?]n.. and taste
作料调配the blending ['blendi?]n. of seasoning ['si:zni?]n. something that enhances the flavour of food, such as salt or herbs
调味艺术the art of proper seasoning
食物质地the texture of food
刀功slicing ['slaisi?] n. technique
乳猪suckling pig ['s?kli?]n. an infant or young animal that is still taking milk from the mother
点心pastries ['peistri] n.
黄酒yellow rice wine
烈性白酒strong white liquor
小啜take a sip
馒头steamed bread [sti:m] n.
主食staple food ['steipl]adj.
food style 饮食习惯
solid diet 丰盛的食物
health food 保健餐
Little Italy 小意大利城
native specialties ['spe??lti]n. 家乡特色菜
Creole accent ['?ks?nt] n. to the food 克里奥耳口味physical well-being 身体健康
ironic [a?'r?n?k] 讽刺的
preservative [pri'z?:v?tiv] something that preserves or tends to preserve, esp a chemical added to foods to inhibit decomposition 防腐剂
山珍海味delicacies from land and sea
TEXT PASSAGE ONE
China's long history, vast territory and extensive contact with other nations and cultures have given birth to the distinctive Chinese culinary art. An ancient Chinese saying, still popular today, goes, food is the paramount necessity of the people. With several thousand years of creative and accumulative efforts, the Chinese food has become increasingly popular among more and more overseas gourmets ['ɡu?mei]n., virtually functioning as an envoy of friendship in China’s culture exchange with foreign countries.
Modern Chinese food enjoys a world wide reputation as the kingdom of cuisine, The exquisite ['ekskwizit] Chinese culinary art, regarded Indisputably [,indis'pju:t?bl] as one of the world's finest culinary traditions, has prevailed all over the world . 3．中餐烹调所用的天然配料，品种繁多，几无穷尽；烹调方法，亦层出不穷，不可悉数。足以说明了中餐馆以及中餐烹调之所以名扬海外的缘由。
The nearly endless variety of natural ingredients and methods of preparation employed in Chinese cuisine stand out unequaled in the world, which may very well account for the universal popularity of Chinese restaurants and Chinese cooking oversea.
The three essential factors, or key elements, by which Chinese cooking is judged are known as "color, aroma and taste". 5．"色"作为"色、香、味"三要素中的首要标准，充分体现在宴会菜肴的装盘、摆放和图案上。最能显示色彩的是首先上桌的那道煞费苦心而精心制作的冷盘。
The "color" of Chinese food, the first of these elements which is so evident in a Chinese banquet, includes the layout and design of dishes, best exemplified in particular by the large elaborately-prepared cold dish served at the beginning of the dinner.
"Aroma"implies more than what one's nose can detect [di'tekt] directly; it also includes the freshness of the raw materials used and the blending of seasonings.
"T aste"is the art of proper seasoning, though it also involves the texture of food and fine slicing techniques.
These three essential elements, "color", "aroma", "taste", are achieved by the careful coordination of a series of delicate activities: selecting ingredients, mixing flavor, timing the cooking, controlling the heat and finally, laying out the food on the plate for the table.
Visitors to China are often surprised when a typical dinner for a table of ten people consists of four courses of cold dishes, four courses of hot dishes, coupled with soup and steamed rice; they consider this a lavish ['l?vi?] spread.
But in Chinese mind, a dinner prepared as above for guests is the minimum requirement.
12．准备10 道份量适中的菜肴并不为过，即使献上16 道菜，亦不足为奇。
Ten courses of dishes, not necessarily prepared in huge quantities, would not be considered excessive, and few people would blink at sixteen.
In china, a standard banquet will consist of four to eight prepared cold dishes, eight hot dishes served one at a time, two to four whole-size showpiece dishes (such as a whole fish, a whole suckling pig or a whole chicken), in addition to soups, steamed rice and pastries.
Overseas visitors should remember that it is often unnecessary to eat more than a single mouthful of a dish at a Chinese banquet.
In this way, a Chinese banquet takes on the character of a buffet reception in the West.
Often beer, yellow rice wine and strong white liquor are served at a Chinese banquet.
People at a stable will usually "Gan Bei" when toasting each other.
"Gan Bei" means to raise up one's wine glass or liquor cup and drink it all the way down so that the glass or cup is "dried up to the last drop".
People dry up their glasses to communicate the message to others that they are sincere and joyful.
It is quite acceptable for a foreign guest to take a sip instead of emptying the glass when toasting with his or her Chinese host.
However, an average Chinese meal at home is quite different in composition from a Chinese banquet.
At an everyday home meal, an adult may consume two small bowls of steamed rice, or a large bowel of noodles, or several pieces of steamed bread, accompanied by several meat or vegetable dishes, but not the other way round.
For most Chinese, about 75 percent of an average meal's calories comes from grain sources instead of meat or vegetable dishes.
Traditionally, everyone at the Chinese dining table has his or her own bowl of staple food, that is, steamed rice, noodles or steamed bread, while the dishes are placed in the middle of the dinner table to be shared by all.
25．这一古老的风俗习惯反映了食物在中华文明史上的重要地位：占据餐桌中心位置的是炒菜，而不是鲜花，晚餐的主要话题常常是食物。This age-old custom is one manifestation of the importance of food in Chinese civilization: It is the cooked dishes, rather than flowers, that serve as centerpieces on a Chinese table; food is frequently the main topic of dinner-time conversation. 26．菜肴的各种色彩和材料搭配，给人以美的享受，共食一碗菜的习俗有助于家庭成员之间的团结和友谊。
Variety in the color and texture of the dishes serves aesthetic ends, while the ritual of sharing the food from the same dish plates is conducive to family togetherness and friendship.
In more health conscious environments, however, only "public" chopsticks and spoons are used to remove food from the plates in the middle of the dining-table, so as to prevent any possible spread of diseases.
28．以上所介绍的情况对外国客人来说，虽不应是一种离奇的"天方夜谭"，却也说明中国人在饮食方面所持的价值观与西方人有很大的不同。While none of the above observations should not strike a foreign visitor as particularly strange or exotic, they demonstrate that the Chinese approach some aspects of catering service with a set of values very different from those in the West. 29．不过，中国人民与世界各族人民都有一个相同的基本概念，那就是，亲朋好友相聚，美味佳肴、琼浆玉液相敬，实属人生之最大快乐也。There is one key concept, however, which the Chinese share with the rest of the world. That is, fine food and drink, taken in the company of good friends, is one of life's supreme [sju:'pri:m] pleasures.
PASSAGE TWO 英译汉：
1．Many changes are taking place in Americans' food styles.
2．The United States is traditionally famous for its very sold and unchanging diet of meat and potatoes.
3．Now we have many different alternatives to choose from: various ethnic foods, nutrition-balanced health food, and convenient and delicious fast food, in addition to the traditional home-cooked meal.
4．Ethnic restaurants are commonplace in the United States. Because the United States is a country of immigrants, there is an immense variety in its catering cultures.
5．Any large American city is filled with restaurants serving international cooking.
6．Many cities even have ethic sections: Chinatown, Little Italy, or Germantown.
7．With this vast ethnic choice, we can enjoy food from all over the world.
8．This is a pleasant thought for those who come here to travel or to work; they can usually find their native specialties. 对于那些来美国旅游或工作的人来说，一想到这点便会深感愉快，他们可以在美国找到自己家乡的特色菜。
9．Besides sections of the cities, there are regions which are well known for certain food because of the people who settle there.
10．For example, southern California has many Mexican restaurants, and Louisiana has a strong Creole accent to its food. 比如，南部加利福尼亚拥有墨西哥餐馆，而路易斯安娜的食物具有强烈的克利尔风味。
11．Creole is mixture of French, African, and Caribbean Island food.
12．Health food gained popularity when people began to think more seriously about their physical well-being.
13．The very term "health food" is ironic because it implies that there is also "unhealthy" food.
14．Health food includes natural food with minimal processing, i.e., there are no preservatives to help it last longer or other chemicals to make it taste or look better.
15．Most health food enthusiasts are vegetarians: They eat no meat; they prefer to get their essential proteins from other sources, such as beams, cheese, and eggs.
16．Fast-food restaurants can be seen all over the country.
17．Speed is a very important factor in the life of an American.
18．People usually have a short lunch break or they just do not want to waste their time eating.
19．Because fast-food restaurants are places which take care of hundreds of people in a short time, there is usually very little waiting.
20．And the food is always cheap.
21．Some examples are burger, pizza and fried chicken places.
22．Americans' attitude toward food is changing, too.
23．The traditional big breakfast is losing popularity.
24．People are rediscovering the social importance of food.
25．Dinner with family or friends is again becoming a very special way of enjoying and sharing.
26．Like so many people in other cultures, many Americans are taking time to relax and enjoy the finer tastes at dinner, even if they still rush through lunch at a hamburger stand.
TEXT FOR PRACTICE PASSAGE ONE 汉译英：
If you hear someone say "I like Chinese food", he is taking too much for granted.
As a matter of fact, there is no such simple thing as the so-called "Chinese food".
A more accurate statement in this instance should be such that expresses one's preference for a particular Chinese cuisine or a particular regional way of cooking.
With a territory as large and a history as long and complex as China's, it is inevitable that distinct regional differences in cuisine have evolved over the course of centuries.
Numerous factors are involved in this inevitable distinction: geography, climate, transportation, migration, influence from overseas cultures, etc.
Although there is no agreement on the precise number of Chinese regional cuisine, those concerned with such matters agree that the four principal culinary regions are Shandong, Sichuan, Canton(Guangdong) and Yangzhou, with Fujian-T aiwan most commonly listed as a fifth.
It should be pointed out that these designations are not hard and fast geographical boundaries.
Beijing food, for instance, falls within the realm of Shandong cooking, but includes some Sichuan dishes and Mongolian-influenced specialties.
while the cuisine of the entire densely populated Yangtze River delta area, including Wuxi, Suzhou, Shanghai and Hangzhou dishes, falls under the category of Yangzhou cuisine.
The frequent overlapping and borrowing that take place among the regional cuisine leads one to the conclusion that they are most conveniently distinguished by their famous dishes, rather than by any prevailing style or taste.
The four major cuisine traditions in China can be roughly distinguished by these generalities:
Shandong cuisine is generally salty, with the prevalence of light-colored sauces.
With a rich variety of strong flavors, Sichuan cuisine is best known for being spicy-hot.
Canton cuisine, the hardest to categorize, emphasizes light cooking and seemingly limitless range of ingredients.
While emphasizing the original flavors of carefully selected ingredients, Yangzhou cuisine is essentially a combination of the best elements of northern and southern cooking.
According to some others, the characteristic flavors of China's four major cuisines can be summed up in the following expression:" The light southern (Canton) cuisine, and the salty northern (Shandong) cuisine; the sweet eastern (Yangzhou) cuisine, and the spicy western (Sichuan) cuisine."
1．You will find restaurants for every situation in the U.S..
2．If you're in a hurry, you may just want to grab some "junk food" at a grocery store, or you can get a bite to eat at one of the many fast food chains, like McDonald's, Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, or T aco Bell.
3．Or you can get a hero or submarine ['s?bm?ri:n, s?bm?'ri:n]水下的；海底的sandwich "to stay" or "to go" from a sandwich shop or deli.
4．Some of these places have tables, but many don't.
5．People eat in their cars or take their food home, to their offices or to parks.
6．If you prefer sitting down but still don't want to spend much, you can try a cafeteria. ['k?fi'ti?ri?] [美]自助食堂[餐馆]
7．At all of these places, you pick and choose your own food and then pay at a cash register.
8．But you usually have to clear the table when you finish!
9．Coffee shops are usually less expensive and less dressy than fine restaurants.
10．So are pizza places, pancake house, sandwich shops and family restaurants.
11．But the name of a restaurant won't necessarily tell you much about the kind of place it is or the food it serves.
12．Like most fast food restaurants and cafeterias, many restaurants don't serve alcoholic beverages['bev? rid?] 饮料(如茶、酒、牛奶、汽水、低度汽水等).
13．This is often because they want people to feel comfortable bringing their children.
14．Minors can eat at restaurants that serve beer and wine, but they are not allowed to enter pubs, taverns['t?v?(:)n] 酒馆, cocktail lounges [laund?] 闲荡, 漫步or bars.
You may be asked to show some ID that proves your age before you go into a bar.
In the United States, the law forbids people under the age of 21 from drinking alcoholic beverages.