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1. allot

2. go through fire and water

3. reside

4. sobbed

5. made no mention of

6. sacrifice

7. came upon

8. rhythm

9. volume 10. something of a


1. I stayed on as an assistant professor.

2. I hold it to my ear because I want to hear time tick away.

3. The salary is not wonderful, but the duties are light.

4. The moral of the lesson is not to talk to strangers.

5. Yes, but it cannot hold a candle to Huangshan.


1. The nasty smell from the kitchen made her stomach churn.

2. When she sank into drunkenness, she was able to forget her sorrow.

3. In the 1500 meters, Martin and Parker came first and third respectively.

4. The two hills Shunner Fell from the north and Lovely Seat from the south flank the famous Butter Tubs Pass.

5. Levi, in gratitude to Joshua, gave a party for him.

Iv. 1. ambition-----ambition-----regardless of 2. discourse---by way of 3. is engraved---inward V. 1. have come upon/across 2. had come out 3. come on/up 4. came across 5. comes down to 6. came around/to 7. comes to 8. came through 9. came up with 10. comes up


1. the Wilsons

2. Mark Twain

3. Annie Johnsons

4. another Winston Churchill

5. a Mrs. Burton

6. a Budweiser

7. A Monet

8. an old Ford Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze 1. Text-related 1. go through fire and water 2. salary 3. give---no peace 4. sink into 5. ambition 6. By way of 7. expressive 8. churned 9. engraved 10. not hold a candle to 11. inward

2. Theme-related

1. Success

2. literacy

3. significantly

4. promoting

5. appropriate

6. too

7. later

8. repetition

9. invented 10. less

II. Translation

Although my grandmother was illiterate, she had a good stock of myths and legends. When I was young I gave her no peace, constantly asking her to tell me stories. After she had finished her housework, she would lift me onto her lap and tell stories, all the while rocking me in rhythm. Having noticed my interest in stories, my parents lost no time in initiating me into reading. They bought many storybooks with illustrations, and whenever free, they would read these stories to me over and over again. By and by I had a vocabulary large enough to read on my own.



I. 1.

1) appetite 2) destructive

3) agency 4) processed

5) saturated 6) utter

7) hoisted 8) referring to

9) retrieve 10) Unfortunately


1)Peter was chasing the dog and Tom was riding the wooden horse in the garden.

2)They all looked on except one young man. He took her to the hospital instantly.

3)I laid charges against the company and won the case.

4)If we want to stay competitive, first of all we need to modernize our factory.

5)They got irrigation water from the dammed rivers.


1)Except in the oases the desert is almost devoid of vegetation, although some

stunted, thorny shrubs grow in the western Sahara.

2)The fruits growing wild in the coastal forest are edible.

3)The national security agency made recommendations for improving safety

standards in airplanes / to improve safety standards in airplanes.

4)The Beatles enjoyed success on a scale unparalleled by any previous pop group.

5)The emergence of language was a defining factor in the evolution of modern



1)Excluding other factors such as quality and price, products which are attractively

packaged are bound to attract more consumers, particularly children and young people. Packaging has become an important way to boost / of boosting the sales of products.

2)In the eyes of some businessmen, consumers' health comes second to profits.

They sell chicken infected with salmonella and crabs with traces of antibiotics. 3)It can be hard to go vegetarian. The important thing is to make changes you feel

comfortable with, at your own pace. While stopping consuming any products for which animals are bred and slaughtered may be ideal, even a slight reduction in meat consumption is a step in the right direction.


1) get over 2) got to

3) get through 4) get over

5) get by 6) get away

7) got in 8) get …out

9) get along 10) get away with

II. Collocation

1.I asked her why she didn't make use of her talent and sing a pop song on the

graduation day.

2.Uncle Tom, the long-suffering slave in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's

Cabin, died a miserable death.

3.We still have to learn how to live a harmonious life, not only with other people

but also with the environment.

4.Breathing a deep breath, he ran up to take the penalty kick.

5.I dreamed a bad dream last night in which I was running through the forest, and

being chased by a bear.

6.My friend smiled a bitter smile when I asked her whether she'd found all the

money she'd lost.

7.Black people have a hard fight to fight before they win real equality.

8.People with mood disorders often sleep a troubled sleep. They toss and turn,

restlessly occupied with negative thoughts.

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

(1) exclude (2) stubborn

(3) devoid of (4) bow to

(5) potent (6) drawbacks

(7) contaminating (8) heightened

(9) infected (10) come second to

2. Theme-related

(1) consumption (2) between

(3) packed (4) evident

(5) population (6) encouraging

(7) grave (8) against

(9) criticize (10) itself

II. Translation

Study after study has uncovered the fact that there is a close correlation between food and a number of chronic diseases. For example, a decreased risk of certain chronic diseases is associated with an increased consumption of plant-based foods. Therefore, in the past decade, the American Dietetic Association has urged Americans to reduce their intake of animal fats, and to boost consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grains. Meanwhile, the United States Department of Agriculture has released a document containing the food guide pyramid, which encourages a minimum of three vegetable and two fruit servings per day. However, many Americans still don’t meet /

listen to these recommendations.



I. 1.

1) invitation 2) eloquent

3) concede 4) contradictory

5) conceals 6) guilty

7) generalize 8) get caught in

9) for now 10) as a last resort


1)Non-smoking area. John’s very intolerant of people who smoke.

2)She is an interesting character, and a bit of a mystery to me.

3)Because it does not reveal their marital status.

4)We are planning on trekking through the Malaysian Rainforest.

5)He muttered something under his breath that I couldn’t understand.

6)They may need to wear protective rubber gloves and clothing.

7)The chairperson said sometimes unemployment tempted the youth into criminal


8)Though she never admitted it, the look on her face when I mentioned James’

name gave her away.


1)Throughout history, people have been intrigued by the question of whether there

is intelligent life elsewhere in the universe.

2)The hill farmers' lot has never been easy and in recent years has been assailed by

a series of major crises.

3)As with most people in his family, Grey is a great talker when he's in the mood to


4)Few people find it necessary to condemn white lies on the grounds that they are

not real lies.

5)All the evidence of your qualifications and skills that backs up the claims you

m a k e i n y o u r résumé should be included.


1)In general, everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an

understanding of ourselves. To disregard what the world thinks of us is not only arrogant but also utterly shameless.

2)Eddie was adamant that his son should never indulge in vain wishes; he believed

that it was absurd for his son to pursue a romantic but utterly impractical career in the future.

3)Those considering an adventurous safari in Central Africa should be aware that

there is an extremely small, but nonetheless present, risk of encountering bandits on the road. Thus they should decide for themselves whether such potential risks will be personally acceptable to them and their companions.


1) go around / round 2) Go for

3) went off 4) go on

5) is going on 6) go about

7) go along 8) go through

9) go by 10) go over

II. Usage

1.The manager was chatting with the chairman of the board about something that

concerned the future of their cooperation and I could tell that he was being careful with his words.

2.Tom didn't really like the food, but he was being polite and ate quite a bit.

3.He kept tapping on his teacup with his spoon because he was getting impatient

waiting for the waiter to come around.

4.By handing in papers off the Internet, students are being stupid because they run

the risk of being caught and expelled from school.

5.He was being a coward by not being truthful to himself and others.

6.Some of the nurses were very rude and told Edgar he was being a nuisance when

he complained.

7.Don't talk nonsense. I'm being serious.

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

(1) go along (2) honesty

(3) straightforward (4) indulge in

(5) What about (6) dodge

(7) assert (8) absurd

(9) resort (10) juggle

2. Theme-related

(1) asserting (2) go along

(3) because (4) part

(5) Mistakes (6) exceptions

(7) end (8) resort

(9) dying (10) freedom

II. Translation

The new president of our university disapproves of the idea that we should be allowed to tell lies under certain circumstances. He believes that if people get used to telling any kind of lie, they will indulge themselves and eventually be stuck with the bad habit. To tell or not to tell a lie can sometimes become a very sticky issue, but our president insists on the notion that nobody in the world of education should dodge the responsibility of attaching primary importance to honesty while teaching the young. I agree with him. What about you?



I. 1.

(1) for myself (2) concluded

(3) infinite (4) internal

(5) misery (6) mode

(7) ventured (8) visible

(9) observation (10) commended


1)I lay in bed feeling thoroughly wretched.

2)It is fragrant with the smell of apple blossom.

3)They are fine specimens of the veteran revolutionaries.

4)I’d like to enroll in the modern art course if it is not too late.

5)The taste is slightly bitter, and it has a strange odor.


1)The scheme does nothing to help families on low incomes and is sure to provoke

/call forth/draw/ arouse criticism.

2)Jenny is terribly uncertain as to whether Bob is the right boy for her.

3)These goods bear no resemblance to those I saw printed in the advertisements.

4)In China, where black hair and black eyes are the norm, her blond hair and blue

eyes are rather conspicuous.

5)We did not have time for a rehearsal before the performance because of the delay

of our flight.


1)The new parliament member, an energetic politician and ardent advocate of the

welfare system, said: "The investigation has revealed that there are still people who lead a wretched existence in our society. To leave them to their own devices is to deny them the basic human right, the right to a decent life."

2)One day my professor entrusted me with a task of doing a certain experiment and

meantime gave explicit instructions that I must read his new book beforehand.

The book, however, did not commend itself to me. Could I go ahead without reading it? The perplexity haunted me for quite a while. Then I decided I could not look him in the face if I betrayed his trust. So I started reading his book in earnest before turning to the experiment.

3)The day I left for college, my father gave me an alarm clock and an English

learner’s dictionary. Both proved useful in my subsequent years of study. The latter helped to make me accurate in my writing while the former helped me to be punctual. However, I had to part with the clock with reluctance later when it was proved to be beyond repair.


1) turned to 2) turned…down

3) turn up 4) turned out

5) turned…over6) turned on

7) turned away 8) turns out

9) turned in 10) turning in

II. Confusable Words

1) come 2) Come; bring; bring

3) take; taken 4) went; went; going

5) went; came 6) take

7) bring 8) come

9) brought 10) went / came

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

(1) Enrolling (2) specimen

(3) leave him to his own devices (4) investigation

(5) By and by (6) content with

(7) entrusted (8) reluctance

(9) infectious (10) observation

(11) mode (12) grounded in

2. Theme-related

(1) known (2) only

(3) doing (4) assistance

(5) assignment (6) simply

(7) But (8) turned

(9) singled (10) because

II. Translation

When I enrolled in Math 202, I anticipated difficulties because I was not well grounded in mathematics in high school. The course was taught by Professor Richardson, a fine specimen of an old-fashioned gentleman, very cordial to his

students. However, when it came to academic matters, he was by no means an easy person. Before he started his lecture, he discoursed enthusiastically on the importance of working in an orderly fashion, of being thoroughly prepared before each class, and of not being content with what you have learned. His attitude towards work was infectious, and by and by I became an ardent math lover, too.



I 1.

1) percentage 2) zone

3) warmth 4) diverse

5) widen 6) looked around

7) in the face of 8) in perspective

9) temperate 10) theoretical


1) Its profits shrank from $5 million to $1.25 million in the last global financial crisis.

2) They will have to adhere to the cultural norms of the organization in order to be successful with their database project.

3) My hometown is/lies halfway in between Salk Lake City and Denver.

4) I saw waves battering (against) the rocks at the bottom of the cliff.

5) Flood waters washed away the only bridge connecting the village to the outside world.


1) Your report on the new car park is fine, but why don't you beef it up with some figures?

2) There is a wide variation among Internet providers in cost, features, software, reliability and customer service.

3) Poverty is one of the reasons for the high incidence of crime in this neighborhood.

4) I suggested we sing and dance for the elderly people in the nursing home, and all my roommates were in favor of my idea.

5) Doctors who are compelled to work 36 hours at a stretch cannot possibly be fully efficient.


1) Much of the loss of biodiversity currently being experienced is attributed to human activity. Natural extinction is being accelerated by human populations wiping out entire ecosystems for development and single crop farming. Destroying naturally diverse vegetation destroys the life sustained by that habitat. We already know the scary effects of deforestation on global warming, but do we stop to think about the thousands of animal and insect species that are dying off because of global warming?

2) In August 2005, some scientists from esteemed scientific organizations predicted that a temperature increase of 2 °C above the pre-industrial level could trigger the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which would have overwhelming consequences for sea levels and biodiversity. At the current level of climate change, this prediction could become a reality in 10-15 years.

3) With huge amounts of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere global surface temperature would rise to a great extent, thereby melting the north and south pole glaciers causing drought, and throwing agriculture into turmoil.The effects would be magnified if temperatures keep going up dramatically.


1) think back to/on 2) think … over

3) thought of 4) think of …as

5) think up

1) picked up 2) picked out

3) picked up 4) picked on

5) picks at

II. Word Family

1. 1) contaminated 2) contaminate 3) contamination 4) uncontaminated

2. 1) habitable 2) habitation 3) inhabit 4) uninhabited

5) uninhabitable 6) inhabited

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze


1)beef up 2) coastal

3) in favour of 4) residents

5) theoretical 6) disastrous

7)battered 8) shrinking

9) migrate 10) washed away

11) Scary 12) humanity


1) predicting 2) accuracy

3) basis 4) collide

5) atmosphere 6) melts

7) affected 8) actions

9) striving 10) technologies

II. Translation

Most scientists no longer doubt that the world is warming up and that humanity has altered climate. They agree that the long-term effects of global warming will be disastrous for the planet and its inhabitants. What is more, climate change won’t be a smooth transition to a warmer world. Some regions will be greatly affected by abrupt climate changes. Enormous areas of densely populated land like coastal Florida would become uninhabitable. Hundreds of millions of residents would have to migrate to safer regions. Therefore, it is no surprise that global warming has made its way onto the agenda of world leaders.



I. 1. 1) the hard way 2) solemn

3) wrote out 4) champion

5) ownership 6) privilege

7) To be sure 8) handicap

9) surge 10) cut the ground from under …feet

2.1) The committee aims to achieve reconciliation between the two opposing


2) The management's refusal to increase the minimum monthly grant.

3) Public places such as metro stations, theaters, and museums have been

made more accessible to the disabled.

4) His love for the countryside brought forth a series of remarkable


5) It embodies the ideals of freedom and equality.

3. 1) The books are keyed to the interests of children.

2) We will not stand by and let the small village schools get closed for lack

of funds.

3) Their response was in effect a refusal to our request though they didn't

turn it down explicitly.

4) Generous to a fault, he paid for all the expenses

5) We shall always feel we are deeply in your debt.

4. 1) Under the leadership of Sam Walton, Wal-Mart prospered at an amazing speed. Asked about the underlying reasons for the great success, he said, "To begin with, it's the two orientations that characterize the culture of this company: cooperative with regard to making decisions, and trusting in relation to fellow workers. Every employee has a strong sense of obligation to the company and boundless enthusiasm for the work."

2) Most chapters of this book are dedicated to the effects of games on children. According to the author, in performing and observing actions, like the collision of two objects, babies can have first-hand experience of the relations implicit in the phenomena. And team sports can help to shape children's personality in a positive way, because they can learn how to cooperate with each other in the competition.

3) Martin Luther King and Rosa Parker had a lot in common. They were black people as well as civil rights heroes. They led black people to combat discrimination and inequality and to try to gain control over their own destinies. Faced with great difficulties and failures, they hung on and never gave up because they held to the notion that all men are created equal. (destiny, in common, combat, notion, hang on)

5. 1) set out 2) set off

3) set in 4) set aside

5) set up 6) set about

7) set off 8) set up

9) set up 10) set apart

II. Words with Multiple Meanings

1. According to the manager, what he wants is a simple yet effective sales plan.

2. Usually he was a serious man, yet this joke reduced him to hearty laughter / set him laughing heartily.

3. The governor has put forward a series of policies to cut the state budget, but the effects of the new measures have yet to be seen.

4. He is not yet 20, but his technical control, confidence, brilliance and intellectual depth display an outstanding maturity.

5. John wouldn't let me see his essay, because he hasn't finished it yet.

6. Maybe the reason scientists have yet to receive signals from extraterrestrial intelligence is that there isn't any extraterrestrial intelligence sending signals.

7. She knew the sensible thing to do was to leave the place as soon as possible, yet she wanted to stay.

8. Her selective yet comprehensive exhibition draws mainly from public collections, among them many of the United States' most distinguished libraries. Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. 1) personalities 2) embody

3) underlying 4) collision

5) leadership 6) ownership

7) ideals 8) champion

9) the hard way 10) prospered

2. 1) indication 2) sensitive

3) career 4) resign

5) supply 6) disciplined

7) promoted 8) criticized

9) surrender 10) respected

II. Translation

Robert Lee’s father’s life had been plagued by poor financial investments. He was jailed twice for unpaid debts and in the end was forced to flee the country. Lee’s mother was the dominant force in shaping Lee’s personality. Against the poignant failure of her husband, she was determined that the tragedy should not be repeated in the life of her children. Self-control, a sense of obligation and an indomitable spirit were the virtues she taught Lee. In 1825, with an aspiration to win back the family honor, Lee began studying at West Point Military Academy. This began a new chapter of his life. Over the four years, he consistently finished near the top of every course.



I. 1. 1) anonymous 2) piling up

3) advent 4) sober up

5) articulate 6) dwindle

7) not least of all 8) vague

9) busted 10) rotting

2. 1) Its theme was that philosophy has very close links with mathematics and

artificial intelligence.

2) He is illiterate; worse still, he has a criminal record and lives in a world of

lies and deceit.

3) They carried out first aid to save the patient from bleeding to death.

4) They suggested that I go for broke, and be undeterred in pursuit of my


5) He thinks it highly unlikely that such good luck will come his way again.

3. 1) The advent of spring —symbol of renewal —has been a constant theme in

Edward's writings.

2) Why those nasty things were being said of her was just beyond her

comprehension, and as for myself I have never heard anything so offensive in all my life.

3) Malcolm Padina, managing director of Informix Software Inc, has called for a

new initiative to purge the market of software pirates / software pirates from the market.

4) New evidence implicated Melancia in a financial scandal in February 2008.

5) Pains were tearing at my chest as I was running a two-mile race. I felt my

knees sinking lower and lower as if I were running across quicksand.

4. 1) Operating a vehicle while intoxicated is a serious offence in itself, but few cases hit the headlines unless they involve serious injury.

2) Ten years ago, when Bruce R., a 57-year-old insurance broker from Southern California, was on the verge of suicide after having gambled away the trust of his family and a small remnant of business partners, little help was available. He was, at one point, advised by two doctors that he just needed to get his gambling "under control"—which is like telling a drug addict to take drugs more moderately.

3) The company was facing great financial problems due to the devastating effects of nationwide economic depression. Naturally the CEO’s sudden resignation at such a difficult time led to great resentment from the board of directors. The only hope they had was that the banks would keep the firm from bankruptcy by accepting a reorganization plan.

5. 1) fall under 2) fall behind

3) had fallen apart 4) fall back on

5) fall to 6) had left off

7) leave out 8) Leaving aside

9) be left alone 10) left behind

II. Usage

1. a. figurative b. literal

2. a. literal b. figurative

3. a. figurative b. literal

4. a. literal b. figurative

5. a. figurative b. literal

6. a. literal b. figurative

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. 1) legalize 2) philosophy

3) sober 4) addicts

5) spouses 6) deceit

7) dwindle 8) pile up

9) lured 10) criminal

11) revenue 12) hit the headlines

2. 1) indicate 2) compulsive

3) addictions 4) financial

5) combination 6) blueprint

7) retirees 8) explosion

9) identified 10) trigger

II. Translation

Gamblers’ family members always pay a steep price. They not only have to endure the pain of having their wealth wiped away overnight, but they are also frequently overwhelmed with feelings of depression and hopelessness.

A nationwide survey found that over 2 million adults identified a spouse's gambling as a significant factor in a prior divorce. The number of divorces in a county in Mississippi has nearly tripled since the advent of casinos. The county has also witnessed increases in domestic violence since then.

A considerable body of evidence showed that the expansion of legally sanctioned gambling destroys individuals, ruins families, increases crime, and ultimately costs society far more than the revenues government collects.

Unit 8


I.1. 1) fragment 2) terrific

3) scratched out 4) strode

5) presumably 6) token

7) tame 8) engagement

9) cursed 10) see through


1) She blushed and lowered her head.

2) She keeps the dishes warm in the oven and waits up no matter how late it is.

3) Well, I heard fragments of their conversation in the office and it seems they’ve been contemplating a trip like that for some time.

4) She intends to make teaching her profession.

5) He plucked up enough courage to ask Ruth to marry him but she rejected his proposal.


1) It fell to our lot/us to filter through the enemy defense lines and nobody knew if we

would get back from the mission.

2) The latest news has confirmed the initial report that seven people have died in the


3) There is a rare form of lung cancer distinguishable from the usual type only under

the microscope.

4) For the sake of your health, it is important not to let yourself get overweight.

5) Miss Perkins was held in deep affection by all the children/had won all the

children’s deep affection.


1) prominent genius for Whoever

2) had a passion for at random no doubt fill in make an effort to

3) in particular are trustworthy applause airing their own views


1) take up

2) takes to

3) take over

4) take on

5) took off

6) taking down

7) took back

8) was taken on

9) take after

10) took…in

II Usage

1) as though it had come out of someb ody’s attic

2) as if I had come from another planet

3) as if everyone is watching me, and noticing my blushes

4)as though nature were holding its breath

5) as though their dream had come true at last

6) as though her attention had drifted elsewhere

7) as though it were a lifeline

8) as though they would succeed

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

(1) pluck up courage

(2) in mourning

(3) unexpected

(4) distress

(5) paradise

(6) token

(7) intrude

(8) no doubt

(9) foreseen

(10) fell to

2. Theme-related

(1) behaviors

(2) eliminate

(3) distance

(4) positive

(5) participating

(6) genuinely

(7) keen

(8) concern

(9) attentive

(10) respect

II. Translation

Henry, a frail-looking man of fifty, was older than his robust wife Mary by 20 years. Everyone assumed that she would outlive him. So no one, including Henry himself, had foreseen that Mary would die a sudden, unexpected death. For several weeks, he looked greatly distressed and became a completely changed person. He even speculated whether it would be better for him to rejoin his wife in paradise. Though each of us expressed our deep sympathy, no one thought it appropriate to intrude upon his family uninvited, in consideration of their need for peace and privacy at such a moment.

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