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You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.


A They play hard, they play often, and they play to win. Australian sports teams win more than their fair share of titles, demolishing rivals with seeming ease. How do they do it? A big part of the secret is an extensive and expensive network of sporting academies underpinned by science and medicine. At the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), hundreds of youngsters and pros live and train under the eyes of coaches. Another body, the Australian Sports Commission (ASC), finances programmes of excellence in a total of 96 sports for thousands of sportsmen and women. Both provide intensive coaching, training facilities and nutritional advice.

B Inside the academies, science takes centre stage. The AIS employs more than 100 sports scientists and doctors, and collaborates with scores of others in universities and research centres. AIS scientists work across a number of sports, applying skills learned in one - such as building muscle strength in golfers - to others, such as swimming and squash. They are backed up by technicians who design instruments to collect data from athletes. They all focus on one aim: winning. ‘We can't waste our time looking at ethereal scientific questions that don't help the coach work with an athlete and improve performance,' says Peter Fricker, chief of science at AIS.

C A lot of their work comes down to measurement - everything from the exact angle of a swimmer’s dive to the second-by-second power output of a cyclist. This data is used to wring improvements out of athletes. The focus is on individuals, tweaking performances to squeeze an extra hundredth of a second here, an extra millimetre there. No gain is too slight to bother with. It’s the tiny, gradual improvements that add up to world-beating results. To demonstrate how the system works, Bruce Mason at AIS shows off the prototype of a 3

D analysis tool for studying swimmers. A wire-frame model of a champion swimmer slices through the water, her arms moving in slow motion. Looking side-on,

Mason measures the distance between strokes. From above, he analyses how her spine swivels. When fully developed, this system will enable him to build a biomechanical profile for coaches to use to help budding swimmers. Mason's contribution to sport also includes the development of the SWAN (SWimming ANalysis)system now used in Australian national competitions. It collects images from digital cameras running at 50 frames a second and breaks down each part of a swimmer's performance into factors that can be analysed individually - stroke length, stroke frequency, average duration of each stroke, velocity, start, lap and finish times, and so on. At the end of each race, SWAN spits out data on each swimmer

D ‘Take a look,' says Mason, pulling out a sheet of data. He points out the data on the swimmers in second and third place, which shows that the one who finished third actually swam fas ter. So why did he finish 35 hundredths of a second down? ‘His turn times were 44 hundredths of a second behind the other guy,' says Mason. ‘If he can improve on his turns, he can do much better’ This is the kind of accuracy that AIS scientists' research i s bringing to a range of sports.

With the Cooperative Research Centre for Micro Technology in Melbourne, they are developing unobtrusive sensors that will be embedded in an athlete's clothes or running shoes to monitor heart rate, sweating, heat production or any other factor that might have an impact on an athlete's ability to run. There's more to it than simply measuring performance. Fricker gives the example of athletes who may be down with coughs and colds 11 or 12 times a year. After years of experimentation, AlS and the University of Newcastle in New South Wales developed a test that measures how much of the immune-system protein immunoglobulin A is present in athletes' saliva. If IgA levels suddenly fall below a certain level, training is eased or dropped altogether. Soon, IgA levels start rising again, and the danger passes. Since the tests were introduced, AIS athletes in all sports have been remarkably successful at staying healthy.

E Using data is a complex business. Well before a championship, sports scientists and coaches start to prepare the athlete by developing a ‘competition model', based on what they expect will be the winning times. ‘You design the model to make that time,' says Mason. ‘A start of this much, each free-swimming period has to be this fast, with a certain stroke frequency and stroke length, with turns done in these times.' All the training is then geared towards making the athlete hit those targets, both overall and for each segment of the race. Techniques like these have transformed Australia into arguably the world's most successful sporting nation.

F Of course, there's nothing to stop other countries copying-and many have tried. Some years ago, the AIS unveiled coolant-lined jackets for endurance athletes. At the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996, these sliced as much as two per cent off cyclists' and rowers' times. Now everyone uses them. The same has happened to the ‘altitude tent', developed by AIS to replicate the effect of altitude training at sea level. But Australia's success story is about more than easily copied technological fixes, and up to now no nation has replicated its all-encompassing system.

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has six paragraphs, A-F.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

1 a reference to the exchange of expertise between different sports

2 an explanation of how visual imaging is employed in investigations

3 a reason for narrowing the scope of research activity

4 how some AIS ideas have been reproduced

5 how obstacles to optimum achievement can be investigated

6 an overview of the funded support of athletes

7 how performance requirements are calculated before an event

Questions 8-11

Classify the following techniques according to whether the writer states they

A are currently exclusively used by Australians

B will be used in the future by Australians

C are currently used by both Australians and their rivals

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 8-11 on your answer sheet.

8 cameras

9 sensors

10 protein tests

11 altitude tents

Questions 12 and 13

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.

12 What is produced to help an athlete plan their performance in an event?

13 By how much did some cyclists' performance improve at the 1996 Olympic Games? READING PASSAGE 1真题解析:




结构 A段:澳大利亚体育成绩斐然 B段:科技是第一生产力

C段:精确测量和数据分析 D段:精确测量和数据分析的实例

E段:数据的实际应用 F段:不可复制的成功



fair adj.合理的pro n.职业运动员

demolish v.击败;破坏,毁坏 under the eye of 在……的注意下

rival n.竞争者,对手 body n.团体,机构

seeming adj.表面上的(通常事实并非如此) finance v.给……提供经费

ease n.不费力,轻松 excellence n.优秀,卓越

extensive adj.广泛的,涉及面广的 intensive adj.强化的

underpin v.以……为稳固基础 nutritional adj.营养的


centre stage 中心地位 squash n.壁球

collaborate v.合作 instrument n.仪器,器械

golfer n.打高尔夫球的人 ethereal adj.飘渺的,引申为不切实际的


come down to(sth.)可归结为 wire-frame adj.线框的

second-by-second 每秒的 slice v.划开;切开

output n.输出 slow motion 慢动作

wring…out of 原义为扭,榨取,此处引申为从……中(经过努力)获得 side-on 从侧面stroke n.划动,划水

tweak v.扭,用力拉 spine n.脊柱

world-beating adj.举世瞩目的 swivel v.旋转

prototype n.原型 biomechanical adj.生物力(学)的

profile n.原义为轮廓、外形,此处意为模型 velocity n.速度,速率

lap n.一圈

budding adj.发展中的 spit out 原义是吐出,此处引申为显示出、分析出

frame n.帧,画面


turn time 转身时间 immunoglobulin n.免疫球蛋白

unobtrusive adj.不显眼的,不醒目的 present adj.存在的

sensor n.传感器 saliva n.唾液

embed v.使插入;使嵌入 ease v.减轻,减弱

sweat v.出汗,发汗 remarkably adv.显着地,引人注目地;非常地

experimentation n.实验,试验

immune-system 免疫系统的


complex adj.复杂的 transform v.转换,转变,改变

championship n.冠军赛 arguably adv.可论证地(可辩论地),有理由说地

gear v.调整,(使)适合

segment n.部分


unveil v.展示(新产品);揭开 altitude tent 高原帐篷

coolant-lined 流线型散热 replicate v.复制

endurance n.耐力;忍耐力 encompass v.包含或包括某事物

slice v.减少,降低


1. A lot of their work comes down to measurement—everything from the exact angle of a swimmer's dive to the second-by-second power output of a cyclist.



come down to:归结为;涉及If a complicated situation or problem comes down to something, that is the single most important thing

It all comes down to money in the end.归根到底,一切都是因为钱。

2. No gain is too slight to bother with.




(2)gain n.获得

① [C] an advantage or improvement, especially one achieved by planning or effort

② [U&C] an increase in the amount or level of something

③ [U] financial profit, especially when this seems to be the only thing someone is interested in The party made considerable gains at local elections.该党派在地方选举中获得许多利益。

(3) bother v. 努力做: to make the effort to do something

① (not) bother to do something

He didn't bother to answer the question.

② (not) bother about/with

He didn't bother with a reply.

③ (not) bother doing something

Many young people didn't bother voting.

don't/didn't/won't etc. bother

‘ Do you want me to wait for you?’ ‘No, don't bother.’

Why bother to go abroad when there are so many nice places here?

3. You design the model to make that time A start of this much, each free-swimming period has to be this fast, with a certain stroke frequency and stroke length, with turns done in these times.





butterfly stroke蝶泳sidestroke侧泳breaststroke蛙泳backstroke仰泳

(2) frequency 频率 the number of times that something happens within a particular period of time or within a particular group of people

① frequency of

the frequency of serious road accidents重大道路交通事故的发生频率

② the high/low frequency (of something)高/低频率

the higher frequency of diabetes in older people老年人中的糖尿病高发频率

Side effects from prescribed drugs are being reported with increasing frequency.处方药的副作用遭到越来越多的报道。


Questions 1-7




定位词:exchange of expertise, between different sports/collaborate, across a number of sports

文中对应点:B段:…and collaborates with scores of ot hers in universities and research centres. AIS scientists work across a number of sports…



定位词:visual imaging/3D, image

文中对应点:C段:…shows off the prototype of a 3D analysis tool for studying swimmers./It collects images from digital cameras…



定位词:a reason for narrowing/can't waste time

文中对应点:B段:We can't waste our time looking at ethereal scientific questions that don't help the coach work with an athlete…


TIPS:还可以通过题目中的research activity研究活动和原文中的scientific questions科学问题确认所定位的位置。


定位词:AIS ideas reproduce/copying

文中对应点:F段:Of course,there's nothing to stop other countries copying…

找到AIS ideas定位到最后一段,题干中的reproduce是复制的意思,之后从文章中发现句子有复制copying,即可以直接定位。


定位词:Obstacle, investigated/ impact, monitor

文中对应点:D段:…to monitor heart rate,sweating,heat production or any other fact or that might have an impact on an athlete's ability to run.




定位词:Overview, funded support/finance

文中对应点:A段:…finances programmes of excellence in a total of 96 sports for thousands of sportsmen and women.

finances是解题关键,意思为资助,正好跟题干中funded support表达了相同的义项,直接对应。而且之后一句话提及以上项目所提供的服务和建议,可以确信答案。



定位词:Calculated before an event/using data,well before a championship

文中对应点:F段:Using data is a complex business. Well before a championship, …

首先通过well before a championship和文章中before an event定位到F段,之后发现后面提及的“竞争模型”作用就是计算时间和速率,因此内容对应上calculate,此时可断定答案的位置。








Questions 8-11









文章对应点:C段,…SWAN system now used in Australian national competitions. It collects images from digital cameras.

解析:digital cameras是对应词。而前一句已经提到该系统已广泛应用于澳大利亚各项全国赛事之中,而没有提到其他国家,因此可以判断应该只有澳大利亚人在使用。



文章对应点:D段,…With the Cooperative Research Centre for Micro Technology inMelbourne, they are developing unobtrusive sensors that will be embedded in an athlete's clothes…





文章对应点:D段:…AIS and the University ofNewcastle in New South Walesdeveloped a test that measures how much of the immune-system protein immunoglobulin A…/Since the tests were introduced,AIS athletes in all sports have been…

解析:非常容易在前面第一句话中找到跟题目protein tests所对应的词语a test…protein。之后细读前后句,发现后面一句话对于此项科技成果的受益者文章中只提到AIS运动员,即澳大利亚体育学院的运动员,隶属于澳大利亚,所以应该选择A。



文章对应点:F段:The same has happened to the ‘altitude tent',developed by AIS to replicate the effect of altitude training at sea level.

解析:文章中很容易找到用引号括起来的题目中的名词短语,因此只要细心读原句,就会发现开头的‘The same has happened…’同样的事情也发生在……根据经验应该顺着文章向上追溯,发现跟‘altitude tent’相同情况的是1996年奥运会上澳大利亚人受益的流线型散热运动服现在全世界都在用。因此‘altitude tent’也被世界各国应用。所以答案应该选择C。且根据此段话大意可以了解文章只提到两种研究成果被别国运用,即高原帐篷和流线型散热服。所以可以间接判断前三项成果是由澳大利人独享的。

Questions 12-13

●题目类型:问答题Answer questions属于主观题。




对应点:help an athlete plan, produced / prepare the athlete by, developing

解析:Help an athlete plan their performance对应上prepare the athlete by之后,要认真研究题目所问的是what is produced,断定所作答案必定要填一个名词。因此要细读原文发现有单词developing恰与produced相对应,中文意思是“开发”,则答案必定是开发之后的名词。


正确答案为(a)competition model


对应点:1996 Olympic Games, cyclists, improve

解析:1996 Olympic Games是一个很好的定位词。

定好位后要认真研究题目。分析问句是‘By how much…improve’,意思为“提高了多少”,可以判断出答案需要写一个数字。因此仔细阅读相关语句找到sliced as much as two per cent off cyclists ‘and rowers’ times.很快就可以找到数字百分之二。

TIPS:注意文章的题目要求是填写一个数字而非一个名词,很多考生因为找到1996而盲目地填上成果的名称“coolant-lin ed jackets”,实在是遗憾。因此,语法分析是本题解题的关键。

正确答案是(by)2 per cent/%



A 他们努力竞争,他们积极参与,他们参加比赛完全为了取胜。澳大利亚体育劲旅轻松击败对手,取得辉煌战绩。他们何以做到这一点?成功的秘密在于一个由体育学院和科研机构组成的网络,该网络以科学与医学为基础,涉及面广且耗资巨大。在澳大利亚体育学院(AIS)里,数百名青年选手与职业运动员在教练的指导下共同生活和训练。另一家机构——澳大利亚体育运动委员会(ASC),则为总计96项体育运动中项目的数千名表现突出的男女运动员提供资助。上述两家机构均提供强化训练、训练设备和营养咨询服务。

B 科学在体育科研机构中的地位举足轻重。AIS不仅雇用了上百名在体育方面深有研究的科学家和医生,还与大学及研究中心的几十名专家学者致力合作。AIS的科学家们同时研究多个体育项目,并将一个项目中的研究成果跨界应用,例如将增强高尔夫球运动员肌肉力量的训练方法应用于游泳和壁球中。科学家们也得到了那些设计专用仪器来收集运动员资料的技术人员们的强大支持。他们都只关注一个目标:胜利。AIS的科研主管彼得?弗里


C 专家们的许多工作都涉及具体测量,测量内容包括从游泳运动员潜水的精确角度到自行车运动员每秒功率输出的所有数据。这些资料将有助于运动员发挥最大的潜力来提高运动能力。工作核心是以人为本,其目的在于促使运动员发挥最大潜力来提高哪怕是百分之一秒的速度或者是一毫米的成绩。无论多么微小的收获都值得为之努力。正是这些跬步的积累,才使得澳大利亚取得举世瞩目的体育成就。为了说明系统运作的原理,AIS的科学家布鲁斯?梅森展示了为研究游泳运动员而设计的三维分析工具模型。只见一个游泳冠军获得者的线框模型划开水面,她的双臂以慢动作的形式划动。侧面观察,梅森可以测量每次划动中运动员前进的距离。俯视观察,他可以分析这位运动员的脊柱是怎样转动的。该系统设计完成后,他将能够为教练们建立生物力学的模型,协助培养游泳运动员。梅森对体育事业的贡献还包括游泳运动分析系统(SWAN)的开发,该系统现在正广泛应用于澳大利亚各项全国赛事之中。系统采用摄影频率为50格/秒的数码相机收集影像,然后将游泳运动员的每个动作都分解成可分析的因素,例如划距、划频、每个划水动作的平均持续时间、速率、出发时间、往返时间和结束时间等等。每次比赛结束后,SWAN都会给出每名运动员的数据资料。

D “请看,”梅森一边说一边抽出一张数据资料分析表。他指出获得第二名和第三名运动员的资料,数据证明游的最快的人其实是获得第三名的选手。那么,为什么他会以0.35秒之差落后呢?梅森解释说:“他转身所需的时间比另一名选手长0.44秒。如果能够提高转身的技能,他的成绩将会大大提高。”AIS科学家们的研究将这种精确性带到各种体育项目之中。他们正与位于墨尔本的微技术合作研究中心合作,共同开发可嵌入运动员衣服或跑鞋里的微型传感器,用以监控心律、出汗情况、发热量以及其他一切可能对运动员赛跑能力造成影响的因素。这不仅仅是简单地测评运动员们的表现。弗里克举了一个每年都会因感冒咳嗽而病倒十一二次的运动员的例子来说明了这一点。经过多年试验,AIS与新南威尔士州的纽卡斯尔大学合作研发出一种测试,以测量运动员唾液中免疫球蛋白A的含量。如果免疫球蛋白A的含量突然降到某一水平之下,训练就会减弱强度或完全停止。不久,免疫球蛋白A水平开始回升,危险也最终消除。自推行该测试以来,AIS所有体育项目的运动员们都非常成功地保持着良好的健康状态。

E 数据资料的分析与应用十分复杂。在锦标赛开始之前,体育科学家和教练们就早早着手训练运动员,为比赛做好准备。基于预期中将能夺冠的速度,他们力图使运动员进入“竞赛模式”。梅森说:“人们设计一种模式以达到预期的速度,该模式规定了出发时间的长短、每次划水的速率、一定的划频和划距、转身所需的时间等等。”因此,无论是针对比赛整体还是其每个组成部分,所有的训练都是为了使运动员达到这些目标。诸如此类的先进科技已使澳大利亚成为了一个当之无愧的世界体育强国。

F 当然,许多国家都曾尝试着模仿,这是无法避免的。十几年前,AIS为进行耐力训练的运动员设计出一款流线型散热运动服。在1996年举办的亚特兰大奥运会上,该运动服为自行车运动员和划艇选手们减少了2%的比赛时间。现在,所有的选手都在使用这种新型运动服。“高原帐篷”也是如此,这是AIS为了模仿在海平面高度地点的训练效果而设计研发的。然而,澳大利亚的成功故事绝不仅仅是些可以机械复制的技术方案,这也是为何时至今日也没有任何国家能够效仿其包罗万象的训练系统。

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