Life-casting, can we call it art?
1.D 对应：painters have always used technical back-up------studio assistants to do the boring bits, cameras lucida and obscure.... Boring bits 无聊的二进制back-up=help.
2. In the 19th century, life-casting was to sculpture what photography was to painting; and both were viewed as cheating short-cuts by the senior arts.......for many life-casting was an insult to the sculptor’s creative gesture=figure’s mask
3.G 对应：Barthes proclaimed the death of the author the liberation of the text from authorial intention, and the consequent empowerment of the reader
The liberation of the text=author matters in art
4.H 对应：what counts is the surviving object and our living response to it. The tests are simple: does it interest the eye, excite the brain, move the mind to refection, and involve the heart; is an apparent level of skill involved? 其实就是对art 的评价
5.F the initial impact is on the eye, in the contradiction between unexpected size and extreme verisimilitude. The initial impact =depiction of earlier work
6.Art changes over time, what is art changes, too.=the definition of art
7.Their virtues-of speed and unwavering realism-also implied their limitations; they left little for no room for the imagination.
10.while apparently lesser crafts involve great skills, thought, preparation, choice and ----depending how we define it---imagination.=requires lots of skills.
11.Each new art movement implies a reassessment of what has gone before; what is done now alters what was done before. In some cases, this is merely self-serving, with the new art using the old to justify itself implies a reassessment=reacquaint
12.对应在F段: the initial impact is on the eye, in the contradiction between unexpected size and extreme verisimilitude (逼真的事物)= size and realism
14.F段Selecting a response to one of these things will delay by some tenths of ability to respond to the Others. This called the ‘response selection bottleneck’ theory, first proposed in 1952
15......studies how aging affects our cognitive abilities
16.’if you show an image and play a sound at the same time , one task is postponed’
Show an image and Play a sound=visual and audio elements
Simultaneously=at the same time
17. To demonstrate this, Marois devised an experiment to locate it
18. He has written papers with titles like ‘Virtually perfect time-sharing in dual task performance’dual task=multitasking 说其优点=favor
19.they have to press a key with their index finger different colored circles require presses from different fingers
22.The largest dual-task delays occur when the two tasks are presented simultaneously; progressively shorten as the interval between presenting the tasks lengthens
23.Aircraft engines in one picture have disappeared in the other and they will fail to spot the differences
26.It is not all bad news for over 55s,though. Kramer also found that older people can benefit from practice.
Save endangered language拯救濒危语言
27.A 1990 survey in Australia found that 70 of the 90 surviving aboriginal languages were no longer used regularly by all age groups
28.The wider the portfolio of languages you study, the more likely you are t o get the right answer.
29.1.teach young relative their native tongue;2 Ford foundation reinvigorate a master-appointment program.3create a multimedia archive(档案)
30. Twenty years ago in New Zeal-and, Maori speakers set up language nests,’
31.one factor that always seems to occur in the demise of a language is that the speakers begin to have collective doubts about the usefulness of language loyalty 都是一些消极的词汇
32.The first step in saving dying languages is to persuade the world’s majorities to allow the minorities among them to speak with their own voices=solution of ....
33.对应在D段It’s too early to call this language revitalization. In California the death rate of elderly speakers will always be greater than the recruitment rate of young speakers.
现象：年轻speakers出现的速度小于老年speakers死去的速度--------But at least we prolong the survival of the language prolong=extend
34.对应在E段A similar approach was tried in Hawaii, with some success -----the number of native speakers has stabilized .....
35.对应在A段MK sent a shudder through the discipline of linguistic, with his prediction that half the 6000 or so languages spoken in the world would cease to be uttered within a century cease to ....停止
36.对应在A段eight languages on which he had fieldwork had since passed into extinction.
37.对应在C段A similar foundation in England......raised just $8,000=funding.
38.对应在C段But t here isn’t any such effort organized in the profession. It is only recently that it has become fashionable enough to work on endangered languages
39.The Ford Foundation has also edged into the arena. Its contributions helped to reinvigorate a master apprentice program.....Fluent speakers receive$3,000 to tech a younger relative.....
40.The first step in saving dying languages is to persuade the world’s majorities to allow the minorities among them to speak with their own voices.
Tolerant to minority language speakers=allow minorities to speak with their......
Roller Coaster 过山车
1-2 The traditional lifting mechanism is a long length of chain running up the hill under the track. The chain is fastened in a loop.
Long line of-_____-=long length of______
Be connected firmly to______= be fastened
3-4 .....which is wound around a gear at the top of the hill and another on e at the bottom of the hill Is turned by a simple motor.
At the bottom of the hill=under the hill turned by a simple motor=powered by ______
5.the direct ancestors of roller coasters were monumental ice slides----long steep wooden slides covered in ice, some as high as 70 feet.
Be wrapped up by______=be covered in
6.a few entrepreneurial Frenchmen imported the ice slide idea to France
Modified to______=imported _____to France
7.The warmer climate of France tended to melt the ice=the temperature
8.eventually adding wheels to the sleds = _____was installed
9.it was originally used to transport coal from the top of Mount Pisgah to the bottom of Mount Jefferson.
10.A steam engine would haul passengers to the top of the mountain
Allowed riders to slide downward back again
11.The most expensive ----------文中只提到了tallest and fastest
12.The French continued to expand on this idea, coming up with mor e complex track layouts, with multiple cars and all sorts of twists and turns----------------innovation
13. Because of its immediate popularity , it soon became strictly a passenger train ,.
14.All over the America 对应在F段：Depression gave a crushing blow to amusement parks all over America
Mammoth kill 猛犸象之死
15.定位B段：Now new findings offer support to one of these controversial hypothesis human hunting drove this megafaunal menagerie to extinction
16.定位B段：The overkill model emerged in the 1960s, when it was put forth by Paul S.Martin of the university of Arizona.
17.定位E段：Macphee does not have empirical evidence for the hyper-disease, and it won’t be easy to come by: Hyper lethal disease would kill far too quickly to leave its signature on the bones themselves。Required _____to testify its validity
19.however the increasingly homogeneous environment left them with shrinking geographical ranged death sentence for large animals
20.The final major fluctuation----the so-called Younger Dryas event pushed them over the edge.
21. 对应C段Alroy determined that if each band of ,say,50ppl killed 15 to 20 large mammals a yean humans could have eliminated the animal populations within 1,000 years.
22.对应E段：but not directly Rather he suggests that people may have intoduced hyperlethal disease perhaps through their dogs or hitchhiking vermin.
https://www.sodocs.net/doc/cd15971812.html,rge mammals in particular would have been vulnerable to the pressure because they have longer gestation periods than smaller mammals and their young require extended care
25. The relevant archaeological record contains barely a dozen examples of stone points embedded in mammoth bones(and none, it should be noted, are known from other megafaunal remains)=fossil record
26.the overkill model explains everything the disease and climate scenarios explain
The Fruit Book
28.preface 前言--------The second edition was produced at the request of politicians in western Amazonian.
29. The rural worker’s Union wanted to know whether harvesting wild fruits would make economic sense in the Rio Capim
30. Shanley’s work on the book began a decade ago, with a plea for help from the Rural Workers’Union of Pragominas,......
31.After three logging sales and a major fire in 1997, the researchers were also able to study the ecosystem’s reaction to logging and disturbance
32. The first print ran to only 3,000 copies,but the fruit book has been remarkably influential.
33.34.E段forest fruit had.....;fiber use also.....
35.F段：under uxi，four species weighing 38 kg
36.G段：Fruiting patterns of trees such as uxi were unpredictable,
37.This showed that piguia trees to loggers for a few dollars made little sense.
38.Sth that is often ignored in much of the current research on NTFPs, which tends to focus on their commercial potential
39. This is not to say that wild fruit trees were unimportant. On the contrary,....They are critical for subsistence