Unit One Learning a Language
I．Words and Expressions （Text A）
1. claim (L.2)
Tom claimed to have told the truth. 汤姆声称他说的是实话。
He claimed that he had been to the city. 他声称他去过那座城市。
n. [C] 断言；声称；主张
His claim to know the answer was not believed. 他自称知道答案，但没人相信他。
2. on one’s part (L. 4) 就某人而言；在某人方面
There was no further hesitation, at least on the part of Miss Smith, as to what was to be done.
I apologize for any mistakes on my part. 我为我的失误表示道歉。
3. reference n. [U](L.6) 1. 谈到；提及 2. 参考；查询
He made no reference to his illness till after the lesson. 下课之后他才提到他的病。
The book is full of reference to places that I know well. 这本书里提到许多我熟悉的地方。
In the library are reference books, from which you can get information. 图书馆里有参考书供你查阅。
reference book 参考书 in/with reference to 关于
4. argue v. (L.19) 争论; 争辩
What are they arguing about? 他们在争论什么？
She argued that he should not go. 她提出理由力争他不该去。
5. no doubt (L.21) 无疑；多半
No doubt we learned a lot from that lecture. 无疑我们从那场讲座中学到不少的东西。
No doubt she will help us if we ask her. 如果我们请她帮忙，她一定会帮助我们。
without (a) doubt 无疑地；确实地 beyond doubt 无疑地；确实地
6．have an advantage (over) (L.26-27) 比……处于有利地位; 优于
You have an advantage over me. You can speak English very well. 你比我有优势，因为你英语讲得很好。
His good education means that he has a big advantage over his opponent.
7．go to extremes (L.28-29) 走极端
He often goes to extremes in his views. 他的看法常常走极端。
Sometimes she eats too much and sometimes she eats nothing. She goes from one extreme to the other.
8．assume v. (L.30) 1. 假定；假设 2. 担任；承担
Scientists assume that there are no animals on Mars. 科学家认为火星上没有动物。
I assume that she has received my e-mail. 我想她已经收到了我的电子邮件。
He will assume his new duties in the company. 他明天开始担任公司的新职务。
9．equivalent n.[C] (L.31) 相等物；等值
Is there a Chinese word that is the exact equivalent of the English word “buffet”?
汉语中有没有一个与英文词 “buffet” 完全相等
The portable computer cost the young man the equivalent of two months’ salary.
equivalent a. 相等的；等价的；等值的；等量的 be equivalent to… 与……相等
10. let alone (L.33) 更不必说；别说
He has not even read the first chapter, let alone finished the book.
I can’t drive a car, let alone a truck. 我连小车都不会开，就别提开卡车了。
He is very angry, let him alone. 他很生气，不要惹他。
11．base sth. on / upon sth. (L.35) 以……为基础；以……为依据
I base my hopes upon the news I got yesterday. 我的希望源于我昨天所得到的消息。
This song is based on an old folk tune. 这首歌是以一个民间小调为基础改编而成的。
12．relate vt. (L.46) see or show a connection between 看出或显示出之间的关系；有联系
I can’t relate the two ideas. 我看不出这两个观点之间的关系。
I can’t relate what he does to what he says. 我无法把他所做的同他说的联系起来。
relate …. to … 将……与……联系起来
13．means n.[C] (L. 47) 方式；方法
The quickest means of travel is by plane. 最快的旅行工具是飞机。
They had no means of cooking them. 他们没有办法烹饪它们。
by all means 想一切办法 by means of 用；依靠
by no means 完全不是；绝不
14．relevant a. (L.51) 相关的；有关系的；有关主题的
Any relevant information should be given to the police. 任何相关信息都应该提供给警方。
I don’t think your remarks are relevant to our discussion. 我认为你的话与我们的议题无关。
15. it is natural for sb. to do sth.（L.13） 某人做……在情理之中
It’s natural for children to love their parents. 孩子爱自己的父母是很自然的事情。
It’s natural for the students to choose the courses they are interested in.
16. it is no/not any use doing sth. (L. 16-17) 做……是没用处的/无益的
It is no use asking me. I don’t know any more than you. 你问我没用，我知道的并不比你多。
I don’t think that it’s any use going further. 我认为继续往下做徒劳无益。
17. there are as many … as there are …(L.19-20) 有多少……就有多少……
There are as many good ways of cooking delicious food as there are skillful cooks.
II. Words and Expressions (Text B)
1. have trouble with …(L. 1-2) (在和…打交道时或应付…时) 有困难
That was the first time he had serious trouble with an employer.
He had trouble with the first paragraph and began to read it through a second time.
2. at all costs/ at any cost (L. 2-3) 不惜一切代价；无论如何
I must finish the work by tomorrow at all costs. 我无论如何必须在明天以前完成工作。
at no cost 不花钱 at the cost of 以…为代价
3. rid…of (L.3) 使…摆脱；从…清除
The dentist rid her of her pain by taking out the tooth. 牙科医生拔掉她的牙帮她解除了痛苦。
She denied firmly, ridding us of the doubt. 她坚决否认，这就消除了我们的怀疑。
4 mean every word of it (L. 30) 严肃认真的；当真的；不是开玩笑的
If you can’t finish your thesis before the deadline, you will not be allowed to defend it this academic year. I mean every word of it.
5. clear up (L.34) 解除；解决；澄清
As soon as the matter is cleared up, I shall write to you. 问题一解决，我就给你写信。
His explanation cleared up all the misunderstanding. 他的解释消除了所有误会。
6. astonish vt.(L.46) 使惊异；使大为吃惊
She is astonished that he didn’t come. 他没来，她感到很吃惊。
He looked astonished at the news. 他看上去对那条消息颇感吃惊。
astonishing a. 令人惊异的; 惊人的 astonishment n. 惊奇；惊讶
7. a glimpse of (L.48) 瞥见；看一看
I went there to catch a glimpse of the mountain in the distance. 我去那儿看一看远处的山。
She drew aside the window-curtain and had a glimpse of the river. 她拉开窗帘瞥见那条河。
8 sure enough (L. 50) 果然；果真；毫无疑问；必定
He said it would happen, and sure enough it did happen. 他说这事会发生，果然发生了。
Peter had his head in a tar barrel sure enough. 不出所料，彼得陷入了困境。
9. dive into (L. 60) 全身心投入；潜心钻研
As soon as he got to his office, he dived into a mass of papers on his desk.
III. Reference for Exercises
Enhance Your Language Awareness
WORDS IN ACTION
Working with Words and Expressions
1. 1) If Jane is not here in 10 minutes, we’ll assume that she isn’t coming and we won’t wait for her any longer.
2) They based their estimate on the figures for the last four years.
3) They claim that they have discovered a cure for the disease, but this has not yet been proved.
4) Some Chinese words have no equivalents in English.
5) The rights of the individual are perhaps the most important rights in society.
6) If you want my personal opinion, I don’t think you should go there.
7) The train leaves at about half
past eight — 8:32, to be precise.
8) After years of hard work, she became qualified as a doctor last year.
9) Her new novel is based on her adventures in Africa.
10) The house is too small for a family of five; furthermore, it is in a bad condition.
11) Human beings are much more intelligent than animals.
12) She promised solemnly that she would not say a word about it to anyone.
2. 1) obtain 2) confident 3) communicate 4) advantage 5) relevant
6) helpful 7) extreme 8) enjoyable 9) means 10) process
11) particularly 12) characters 13) astonished 14) apparently
3. 1) fond of 2) is…related to 3) according to 4) To a certain extent 5) vice versa
6) no doubt 7) rid…of 8) cleared up 9) or else 10) at all costs 11) sure enough
12) let alone 13) based on 14) It’s no use 15) in my view 16) was worth
Increasing Your Word Power
1. 1) c 2) d 3) b 4) b 5) b 6) d
2. 1) highly / very 2) quite / very 3) quite / very / increasingly 4) quite / simply / very
3. Adverbs — efficiently, particularly, fluently, quickly, cheaply, continually, probably, adventurously, finally, steadily, slowly, solemnly, really, apparently, tentatively, exactly
Adjectives — efficient, particular, fluent, quick, cheap, continual, probable, adventurous, final, steady, slow, solemn, real, apparent, tentative, exact
4. No Mistake // especially →especial // necessary →necessarily // frequently →frequent //
No Mistake // easy →easily // No Mistake // individual →individually //
many →much // highly →high // apparent →apparently // remarkable →remarkably //
probably →probable // No Mistake
Task 1 1) would/should 2) should/would 3) might 4) would
5) must 6) can’t 7) should; would 8) must
Task 2 1) We passed the afternoon very pleasantly, roller-skating in the sun and talking about our childhood under a tree. / The afternoon passed very pleasantly, while we roller-skated in the sun and talked about our childhood under a tree.
2) On entering the lecture hall, I was surprised at the size of the crowd. / When I entered the lecture hall, I was surprised at the size of the crowd.
3) When I was only a small boy, my father took me to Beijing and we had a lot of fun together.
4) To write well, a person must read good books.
1) doubt 2) efficient 3) where 4) advantage 5) afford 6) claim 7) fluently
8) qualified 9) extent 10) ridiculous 11) perfect 12) as 13) because 14) individual
1. 这个婴儿还不会爬（crawl），更不要说走了。（let alone）
The baby can’t even crawl yet, let alone walk!
2. 威尔声称谋杀案发生时他正在与一群朋友吃饭，但是我认为他在说谎。（claim, in one’s opinion）
Will claimed he was dining with a group of friends at t
he time of the murder, but in my opinion he told a lie.
3. 一定程度上阅读速度与阅读技巧密切相关；有了阅读技巧，你就可以更好地应对课外阅读了。（to a certain extent, relate…to…, cope with）
To a certain extent the speed of reading is closely related to reading skills; and with reading skills you can cope with outside class reading better.
4. 根据规则他俩都可以参加比赛。 （according to）
According to the regulation/rule, they both can play the game /participate in the game.
5. 有些人想当然地认为日语（Japanese）中的每一个词在汉语中都有对应的词语。（assume, equivalent）
Some people assume that there is a Chinese equivalent for every Japanese word.
We have passed all relevant information on to the police.
7. 关于那件事你问我再多的问题也没用，因为我是不会回答你的。（it’s no use）
There is (It is) no use asking me any more questions about that matter because I won’t answer.
8. 事先没有仔细阅读合同（contract）就签了名是吉姆的错误。（on one’s part）
It was a mistake on Jim’s part to sign the contract without reading it carefully.
They refused to provide us with all the information we need.
10. 这起事故与三年前发生的一起事故极为相似。（similar to）
This accident is very similar to the one that happened three years ago.
11. 这部影片是根据莎士比亚的喜剧改编的。（base on）
The film is based on a play by Shakespeare.
12. 如果你的英语和电脑技能都掌握的好，那么你在谋职时就一定比别人更有优势。（have an advantage over）
If you have a good command of English and computer skills, you will surely have an advantage over others in finding a job.
A paragraph = topic sentence (主题句) + developing sentences（扩展句 ）＋concluding sentence（结尾句）
Unity（一致性），Coherence（连贯性）, Logical arguments （论据符合逻辑）, Convincing（具有说服力）
Write a paragraph on the topic, Some People Like Living in the Country. Your paragraph should include a topic sentence, developing sentences and a concluding sentence.
Some people like living in the country. In their eye
s, the country life is very enjoyable. Different from the hustle and bustle of city life, country life is normally peaceful, quiet and slow-paced. There the people don’t have to rush to catch public vehicle as the city people often do. Moreover, the country people in the neighborhood often know each other. They can never fail to receive a friendly nod or a kind word from any one they chance to meet. And the city people, on the other hand, are often strangers to each other, so they seldom exchange some greetings when passing by each other. What’s more, while the city residents are constantly troubled by traffic jams, noises and pollution of different sorts, the country people, living closer to the nature, are almost free from all these troubles. Therefore, it is really pleasant and enjoyable to live in the rural areas.