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研究生学术综合英语1-6课课文及翻译.

Presenting a speech

(做演讲)

Of all human creations, language may be the most remarkable. Through

在人类所有的创造中,语言也许是影响最为深远的。我们用语言

language we share experience, formulate values, exchange ideas, transmit

来分享经验,表达(传递?)价值观,交换想法,传播知识,

knowledge, and sustain culture. Indeed, language is vital to think itself.

传承文化。事实上,对语言本身的思考也是至关重要的。[Contrary to popular belief], language | does not simply mirror reality but

also helps to create our sense of reality [by giving meaning to events].

和通常所认为的不同的是,语言并不只是简单地反映现实,语言在

具体描述事件的时候也在帮助我们建立对现实的感知。

——语序的调整。

Good speakers have respect for language and know how it works. Words are the tools of a speaker’s craft. They have special uses, just like the tools of any other profession. As a speaker, you should be aware of the meaning of words and know how to use language accurately, clearly,vividly,and appropriately.

好的演讲者对语言很重视,也知道如何让它发挥更好的效果。词语是演讲者演讲的重要“武器”,具有特殊的用途,这和任何其他的工作技艺没什么两样。作为演讲者,必须知道词语的具体含义,也要懂得如何做到用词准确、清晰、生动、适当。

Using language accurately is as vital to a speaker as using numbers accurately to a accountant. Never use a word unless you are sure of its meaning. If you are not sure, look up the word in the dictionary. As you prepare your speeches, ask yourself constantly, “What do I really want to say? What do I really mean?” Choose words that are precise and accurate.

演讲者准确地使用语言和会计准确使用数字是一样重要的。确定词意后再措词。如果不确定,请先查词典。当你在准备演讲的时候,要不断地问自己:“我到底要说什么?我到底想表达什么意思?”用词一定要精准。

Using language clearly allows listeners to grasp your meaning immediately. You can ensure this [by using familiar words (that are known to the average person and require no specialized background); by choosing concrete words in preference to more abstract ones, and by eliminating verbal clutter].

用词清晰可以让听众迅速理解你的意思(抓到你的点)。要做到这一点,就要尽量使用一般人都熟悉的不需要专业知识就能懂的词语;多用具象词汇少用抽象词汇;还有要减少口误。

Using language vividly helps bring your speech to life. One way (to make your speech vivid)|is through imagery,or the creation of word pictures. You can develop imagery by using concrete language, simile, and metaphor. Simile is an explicit comparison between things (that are essentially different yet have something in common); it always contains the words “like”or “as”. Metaphor is an implicit

comparison between things that are different yet have something in common; it does not contain the words “like” or “as”.

生动地用词能让演讲鲜活起来!比喻,这种能产生文字图像的修辞,可以使演讲达到生动的效果。比喻要用具象的语言,分为明喻和隐喻。

明喻是指在本质上有区别但仍然有相同点的事物之间做一个明确的比较,一般句中会含有“像”或“似”。隐喻则是一种隐藏的比较,不会出现like 和as 这些连接词。

Another way to make your speeches vivid is by exploiting the rhythm of language. Four devices for creating rhythm are parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and antithesis. Parallelism is the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences. Repetition is the use of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences. Alliteration comes from repeating the initial constant sounds of close or adjoining words. Antithesis is the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.

我们还可以充分利用语言的节奏感使演讲更加生动活泼。具体有以下四种方式——排比,反复,押头韵和对偶。排比是指把一组或一系列相关的字词句以相似结构排列起来。反复是指在连续几个从句或句子的开头或结尾处使用相同的词和词组。押头韵则是通过重复相邻之间单词首个辅音实现的。对偶通常是用平行的结构将相反的想法并列在一起。

Using language appropriately means adapting to the particular occasion, audience, and topic at hand. It also means developing your own language style instead of trying to c opy someone else’s. If your language is appropriate in all respects, your speech is much more likely to succeed.

用语恰当意味着遣词造句要与特定的场合,观众以及谈论的话题相适应。这也意味着你得建立自己的语言风格,不能简单抄袭他人。如果使用的语言与各方面都很契合,那么演讲就更有可能取得成功。

Good speeches are not composed of hot air and unfounded assertions. They need strong supporting materials to bolster the speaker’s point of view.In fact, the skillful use of supporting materials often makes the difference between a good speech and a poor one.The three basic types of supporting materials are examples,statistics and testimony.

好的演讲不能是空话连篇,也不能是一些毫无根据的论断;而是需要有力的论据来支持演讲者的观点。事实上,能否有技巧地使用论据会造成演讲效果的天壤之别。论据有以下三种基本形式:例子,统计资料,引用。

In the course of a speech you may use brief examples—specific instances referred to in passing—and sometimes you may want to give several brief examples in a row to create a stronger impression. Extended examples—often called illustrations, narrations, or anecdotes—are longer and more detailed.Hypothetical examples describe imagery situations and can be quite effective for relating ideas to the audience. All three kinds of examples help to clarify ideas, to reinforce ideas, or to personalize ideas. To be more effective, though, they should be vivid and richly

textured.

在演讲时可以简单举例——即附带地提及几个具体的例子——有时也需要接二连三举例来加深印象。延伸举例——也叫解释、叙述或轶事——更长更详尽。假设举例描述的是想象的情景,能够很好地把想法传达给观众。这三种不同的例子都有助于演讲者清晰地表达观点,强调观点并使之打上演讲者的烙印。当然,要想演讲效果更好,演讲本身必须生动且结构丰富!

Statistics can be extremely helpful in conveying your message, [as long as you use them sparingly and explain them so they are meaningful to your audience.] Above all, you should understand your statistics and use them fairly. Numbers can easily be manipulated and distorted. Make sure {that your figures are representative of {what they claim to measure},that you use statistical measures correctly, and that you take statistics only from reliable sources.}

统计资料非常有助于演讲者传递信息,因为当演讲者适量地运用这些资料并加以解释时,听众就能更好地理解其中的意义。最重要的是,演讲者必须理解这些统计资料并恰当使用。数字很容易被篡改、误报,因此必须确保自己所使用的数据不是张冠李戴的;必须确保自己使用的统计措施是正确的;必须确保自己的统计资料来源是可靠的。

Testimony is especially helpful for student speakers, because they are seldom recognized as expects on their speech topics. Citing the views of people(who are experts)is a good way to make your ideas more credible. When you include testimony in a speech, you can either quote someone verbatim or paraphrase their words. As with statistics, there are guidelines for using testimony.Be sure to quote or paraphrase accurately and to cite qualified unbiased sources. If the source is not generally known to your audience, be certain to establish his or her credentials.

引用他人观点看法对学生演讲者来说尤其有用,因为学生很少会被视为他们演讲相关主题方面的专家。引用专家的观点可以让你的想法更可信。引用的时候,既可以逐字摘抄也可以自己总结一下。和统计资料一样,引用也有原则可循——引用摘抄准确,来源合格无偏见。如果观众对引用来源不太熟悉,一定要(想办法)取得他们的信任。

The impact of a speech is strongly affected by how the speech is delivered. You cannot make a speech without having something to say. But having something to say is not enough.You must also know how to say it.Good delivery does not call attention to itself.It conveys the speaker’s ideas clearly, interestingly, and [without distracting the audience].

演讲的效果如何很大程度上取决于演讲是怎么做的。无话可说做不好演讲,但要做好演讲,仅仅有话可说也是远远不够的,还要知道如何说话才行。好的演讲不是要唤起观众对演讲本身的注意,而是要向观众清晰有趣地传递演讲者的想法,同时还要有观众聚精会神地聆听。

There are four basic methods of delivering a speech: reading verbatim from a manuscript, reciting a memorized text, speaking with PowerPoint, and speaking extemporaneously, or impromptu. The last of these—speaking extemporaneously—is the method (you probably will use for classroom speeches and for most speeches

outside the classroom). When speaking extemporaneously, you will have only a brief set of notes or a speaking outline. Speaking with PowerPoint is widely used now and very effective indeed.

演讲有四种最基本的方法:照本宣科式;背诵式;ppt辅助演讲式和即兴演讲式。最后一项即兴演讲是我们在课堂演讲和大部分课外演讲中都要用到的方法.即兴演讲时,我们手上只有简单的笔记或演讲提纲。现在,用ppt辅助演讲十分普遍,效果显著。

Certainly there are other factors you should consider, such as personal appearance, bodily action, gestures, eye contact, volume, pauses and so on. By paying enough attention to what is mentioned above, you may present an effective speech.

当然还要考虑其他因素——譬如演讲者的个人形象,肢体语言,眼神交流,声音的抑扬顿挫等等。尽量注意上述问题,演讲就会成功!

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