Active reading 2
Dealing with unfamiliar words
4. Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box
5. Answer the questions about the expressions
2.(a) need to be developed with careful
thinking 3.(a) at a time in the future 4.(b) to make someone extremely afraid and nervous
Language in use
with / without
1 Match the uses of with / without with their definitions.
2 Rewrite the sentences using with / without .
1 Her tutor moves his head from side to side. Her tutor spills his coffee into the saucer.
With his head moving from side to side, her tutor spills his coffee into the saucer.
2 “Splendid,” he says. He doesn’t wait for an answer. “Splendid,” he says, without waiting for an answer.
3 Frank McCourt speaks in class. He has an Irish accent.
Frank McCourt speaks in class with an Irish accent.
4 He plans to go on the subway. He has the books covered in purple and white NYU jackets.
He plans to go on the subway with the books covered in purple and white NYU jacket.
5 He’s only allowed to take two courses. He isn’t told why. He’s only allowed to take two courses, without being told why.
6 He would like to ask a question. He doesn’t like to raise his hand.
He would like to ask a question without raising his hand. Collocations
3 Read the explanations of the words and phrases. Answer the questions.
(a) Because the room is very small.
(b) You would climb into bed if you are so tired that it feels like a huge effort.
(c) You would probably need to bend over, and crawl through the hole.
(a)spilt coffee all over your desk
You have accidently knocked over a cup/mug and the coffee has gone (uncontrolled) all over the desk.
(b)toys spilled out all over the carpet
The toys were in a container, such as a box; either the box is too full so some toys are falling out onto the carpet, or the box has been tipped over so most of the toys have fallen out of the box.
(c)crowds were spilling out of the bars and restaurants
Many people are leaving the bars and restaurants all at once, probably because they are closing for the night.
(a) join a band
When they can play a musical instrument and want to play with others.
(b) join the unemployed
You have lost your job and become unemployed
(c) join in
You do the same activity that most other people are doing.
4 burst into
(a) burst into tears
The writer suddenly started crying.
(b) bursts into bloom
Flowers, when they suddenly emerge from buds.
(c) burst into flames.
Put out the flames immediately if you can, or keep well clear and call the emergency services (fire brigade)
(a) a clean licence
This refers to a driving licence. It means that you have been driving safely or at least you have no penalty points on the licence ---a person gets such points as a punishment after breaking the law on the roads eg speeding or causing an accident, and the licence then has a note on it (it’s not “clean”) and the police have a record.
(b) clean language
You avoid using swear words or other examples of bad language.
(c) a clean bill of health
Here this phrase is used metaphorically and means something is working properly, for example,
a car might have “a clean bill of health” after a check or test it is working correctly.
An easy-going person behaves, in a relaxed, calm manner with others and is happy to accept things without getting worried or angry.
(b) easy on the eye
A person who is easy on the eye is pleasant to look at in appearance and in the way they dress.
(c) easier said than done
When something is easier said than done, it is easy to talk about, but difficult to achieve.
(d) take it easy
When they tell you to “Take it easy” they can mean either of two things: You should rest and not do things that will make you tired, or you should keep calm, being less upset or angry.
4. Complete the sentence using the collocations in Activity 3
1 spill out of
2 burst into tears
3 clean language
5 climb through
7 join in
8 burst into bloom
9 clean licence 10 easy on the eye
5 Translate the sentences into Chinese.
1. Finally, with my mother red in the face and short of breath, we find Room 8, I unlock the door, and we all walk in.（?介词 with 表示状态，不必直译。）
2. She impresses me, and I feel so ignorant that I shouldn’t even breathe the same air as her.
3. I don’t know why I have to be introduced to literature but the woman in the admissions office
says it’s a requirement even though I’ve read Dostoyevsky and Melville and that’s admirable for someone without a high school education.（?翻译时将 be introduced to literature 变成主动语态更通顺。）我不知道为什么我非得了解文学。可是招生办公室的那位女士说这门课是必修课，即使我读过陀思妥也夫斯基和梅尔维尔的小说也得选，一个没上过高中的人能读这些书的确令人敬佩，但这门课是必修课。
4. I’m in heaven and the first thing to do is buy the required textbooks, cover them with the purple and white NYU book jackets so that people in the subway will look at me admiringly.（?I am in heaven 不能直译成“我上了天堂”，这句话应意译。）
Then the professor tells us ideas don’t drop fully formed from the skies, that the Pilgrims were, in the long run, children of the Reformation with an accompanying world view and their attitudes to children were so informed.（?注意两个 children 的翻译，第一个需意译。）
6 Translate the sentences into English
1 他们对业余剧社的介绍给苏菲留下了深刻的印象，于是她就报了名。(Amateur Dramatics;
sign up for)
Their introduction of Amateur Dramatics impressed Sophie so much that she signed up for it.
2 网络教育为全职人员提供了利用业余时间接受继续教育的机会。(work full-time)
Online education provides those who work full-time with opportunities to receive further education in their spare time.
3 刚上大学时，他不知道是否需要把老师讲的内容一字不落地都记下来。(be supposed to do; scribble down)
When he first arrived at university, he was not sure whether he was supposed to scribble down every word out of the professor’s mouth.
Nobody detects his despair well hidden behind his smile.
5 有些学生能轻松自如地与陌生人交谈，可有些学生却很难做到这一点。(be easy about) Some students are easy about talking with strangers, while some others find it hard to do so.
Language in use
1 Rewrite the sentences.
1 The restaurant was in a French seaside resort by the Atlantic Ocean. You get excellent seafood from the
The restaurant was in a French seaside resort by the Atlantic Ocean, where you get excellent sea food.
2 My father had decided to take me for lunch to a restaurant. He wanted me to try my first oyster.
My father, who wanted me to try my first oyster had decided to
take me for lunch to a restaurant.
3 The oyster was unlike anything I have ever tasted before or since. It was slippery.
The oyster, which was slippery, was unlike anything I have ever tasted before or since.
4 Chocolate is made from the beans of the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao. Theobroma cacao means “food
of the gods”.
Chocolate is made from the beans of the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao, which means “food of the gods”.
5 The world’s best-selling type of chocolate, milk chocolate, didn’t appear until the end of the 19th century. Milk chocolate
is sweeter and smoother than dark chocolate.
The world’s best-selling type of chocolate, milk chocolate, which is sweeter and smoother than dark chocolate, didn’t appear until the end of the 19th century.
6 Daniel Peter perfected the process of making milk chocolate. He was Swiss.
Daniel Peter, who was Swiss, perfected the process of making milk chocolate.
2 Rewrite the sentences.
1 ... all sorts of shellfish which were clinging onto each
... all sorts of shellfish clinging onto each other ...
2 ... a battery of implements which were used to crack the
... a battery of implements used to crack and crush the shells ...
3 … a process which was first tried in 1825.
… a process first tried in 1825.
4 Condensed milk is a thick, sweet milk which is sold in cans. Condensed milk is a thick, sweet milk sold in cans.
5 Hormones are a chemical substance which is produced by your body. Hormones are a chemical substance produced by your body.
3 Form new words with the following words and the
prefixes/suffixes in the table.
non-: non-fiction non-smoker non-stop
-aholic: alcoholic， shopaholic， workaholic
-sick: airsick， carsick，seasick
-ful: helpful， spoonful
4 Answer the questions with the words you formed in Activity 3. What’s the word for ...
1 ... how you feel if sea makes you ill? (seasick)
2 ... someone who likes shopping a lot? (shopaholic)
3 ... what something is if it allows you to achieve something? (helpful)
4 ... a flight which goes directly from one place to another? (non-stop)
5 … someone who doesn’t smoke? (non-smoker)
6 ... writing which is about real people and events, not imaginary ones? (non-fiction)
5 Translate the sentences into Chinese.
1 Outside the skies were grey and a strong wind was blowing off the sea. It looked as gloomy as I felt.
2 “Now, stop complaining, try one oyster for me, then you can have something nice and easy to eat, maybe some prawns with bread and butter,” he suggested, striking a note of compromise for the first time during the whole meal. “好啦，别抱怨了，就给我尝一只牡蛎，然后你就可以吃些好吃的、顺口的东西，比如黄油、面包加对虾。”他提议说。吃了这么长时间的饭，他的话里头一次有了妥协的意思。