Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, reflects on a visit to China and gives his thoughts on different approaches to learning in China and the West.
Howard Gardner 1 For a month in the spring of 1987, my wife Ellen and I lived in the bustling eastern Chinese city of Nanjing with our 18-month-old son Benjamin while studying arts education in Chinese kindergartens and elementary schools. But one of the most telling lessons Ellen and I got in the difference between Chinese and American ideas of education came not in the classroom but in the lobby of the Jinling Hotel where we stayed in Nanjing.
2 The key to our room was attached to a large plastic block with the room number on it. When leaving the hotel, a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, either by handing it to an attendant or by dropping it through a slot into a box. Because the key slot was narrow, the key had to be positioned carefully to fit into it.
3 Benjamin loved to carry the key around, shaking it vigorously. He also liked to try to place it into the slot. Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the key just so, he would usually fail. Benjamin was not bothered in the least. He probably got as much pleasure out of the sounds the key made as he did those few times when the key actually found its way into the slot.
4 Now both Ellen and I were perfectly happy to allow Benjamin to bang the key near the key slot. His exploratory behavior seemed harmless enough. But I soon observed an interesting phenomenon. Any Chinese staff member nearby would come
over to watch Benjamin and, noting his lack of initial success, attempt to assist. He or she would hold onto Benjamin's hand and, gently but firmly, guide it directly toward the slot, reposition it as necessary, and help him to insert it. The "teacher" would then smile somewhat expectantly at Ellen or me, as if awaiting a thank you ─and on occasion would frown slightly, as if considering us to be neglecting our parental duties.
5 I soon realized that this incident was directly relevant to our assigned tasks in China: to investigate the ways of early childhood education (especially in the arts), and to throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. And so before long I began to introduce the key-slot anecdote into my discussions with Chinese educators. 我很快意识到，这件小事与我们在中国要做的工作直接相关：考察儿童早期教育（尤其是艺术教育）的方式，揭示中国人对创造性活动的态度。因此，不久我就在与中国教育工作者讨论时谈起了钥匙槽口一事。
TWO DIFFERENT WAYS TO LEARN
6 With a few exceptions my Chinese colleagues displayed the same attitude as the staff at the Jinling Hotel. Since adults know how to place the key in the key slot, which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the slot, and since the child is neither old enough nor clever enough to realize the desired action on his own, what possible gain is achieved by having him struggle? He may well get frustrated and angry ─certainly not a desirable outcome. Why not show him what to do? He will be happy, he will learn how to accomplish the task sooner, and then he can proceed to more complex activities, like opening the door or asking for the key ─both of which accomplishments can (and should) in due course be modeled for him as well.
7 We listened to such explanations sympathetically and explained that, first of all, we did not much care whether Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the slot. He was having a good time and was exploring, two activities that did matter to us. But the critical point was that, in the process, we were trying to teach Benjamin that
one can solve a problem effectively by oneself. Such self-reliance is a principal value of child rearing in middle-class America. So long as the child is shown exactly how to do something ─whether it be placing a key in a key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a misdeed ─he is less likely to figure out himself how to accomplish such a task. And, more generally, he is less likely to view life ─as Americans do ─as a series of situations in which one has to learn to think for oneself, to solve problems on one's own and even to discover new problems for which creative solutions are wanted.
TEACHING BY HOLDING HIS HAND
8 In retrospect, it became clear to me that this incident was indeed key ─and key in more than one sense. It pointed to important differences in the educational and artistic practices in our two countries.
9 When our well-intentioned Chinese observers came to Benjamin's rescue, they did not simply push his hand down clumsily or uncertainly, as I might have done. Instead, they guided him with extreme facility and gentleness in precisely the desired direction. I came to realize that these Chinese were not just molding and shaping Benjamin's performance in any old manner: In the best Chinese tradition, they were ba zhe shou jiao ─"teaching by holding his hand" ─so much so that he would happily come back for more.
10 The idea that learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding applies equally to the arts. Watching children at work in a classroom setting, we were astonished by their facility. Children as young as 5 or 6 were painting
flowers, fish and animals with the skill and confidence of an adult; calligraphers 9 and 10 years old were producing works that could have been displayed in a museum. In a visit to the homes of two of the young artists, we learned from their parents that they worked on perfecting their craft for several hours a day.
11 In terms of attitudes to creativity there seems to be a reversal of priorities: young Westerners making their boldest departures first and then gradually mastering the tradition; and young Chinese being almost inseparable from the tradition, but, over time, possibly evolving to a point equally original.
12 One way of summarizing the American position is to state that we value originality and independence more than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity. American educators fear that unless creativity has been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other hand, skills can be picked up later.
13 However, I do not want to overstate my case. There is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific, technological and artistic innovations past and present. And there is a danger of exaggerating creative breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements is all too apparent (the "standing on the shoulders of giants" phenomenon).
14 But assuming that the contrast I have developed is valid, and that the fostering
of skills and creativity are both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills?
Finding a way of teaching children to appreciate the value of money can be a problem. Yet the solution, David Owen suggests, is simple -- just open a bank. Easier said than done? Well, it turns out to be not quite so difficult as it sounds, as you'll discover in reading about the First National Bank of Dave.
Children and Money
1 Parents who decide that the time has come to teach their children about money usually begin by opening savings accounts. The kids are attracted at first by the notion that a bank will pay them for doing nothing, but their enthusiasm disappears when they realize that the interest rate is tiny and, furthermore, their parents don't intend to give them access to their principal. To a kid, a savings account is just a black hole that swallows birthday checks.
2 Kid: "Grandma gave me twenty-five dollars!"
Parent: "How nice. We'll put that check straight into your savings account."
Kid: "But she gave it to me! I want it!"
Parent: "Oh, it will still be yours. You just have to keep it in the bank so that it can grow."
Kid (suspicious) : "What do you mean by 'grow'?"
Parent: "Well, if you leave your twenty-five dollars in the bank for just one year, the bank will pay you seventy-five cents. And if you leave all of that in the bank for just one more year, the bank will give you another seventy-five cents plus two and a half more cents besides. That's called compound interest. It will help you go to college."
3 The main defect in such saving schemes is that there's nothing in them for the kids. College is a thousand years away, and they probably think they'd just as soon stay home anyway. Indeed, the true purpose of such plans is usually not to promote saving but to prevent consumption. (1) Appalled by what their children spend on candy and video games (or, rather, appalled by the degree to which their children's overspending seems to mimic their own), parents devise ways to lock up their children's resources. Not surprisingly, kids quickly decide that large sums aren't real money and that all cash should either be spent immediately or hidden in a drawer.
4 To avoid this problem with my two children, I started my own bank. It's called the First National Bank of Dave. I set up an account for each child, using the same computer program I use to keep track of my checkbook. Because I wanted my kids' deposits to grow at a pace that would hold their attention, I offered an attractive interest rate-five per cent a month. (2) Compounded, that works out to an annual rate of more than 70 per cent. (No, I don't accept deposits from strangers.) Allowances are deposited automatically on the first day of each month. The kids can make other deposits, or withdrawals, whenever they like.
5 The Bank of Dave, which has been in operation four years, instantly turned both my children into keen savers. My son still comes to me with change he has found on the floor of the car, saying, "And credit this today." Both kids' accounts grew so fast that after two years I had to roll back my monthly interest rate to three per cent. The kids protested when I announced the change, but they nodded solemnly when I explained that the law of supply and demand applies even to the supply of money. The
kids help me calculate their interest -- a useful lesson in averaging and percentages. (3) I give them unlimited access to their funds, no questions asked, and I provide printed statements on demand. 戴夫银行经营了4年，一下子就把我的两个孩子变成了热心的储蓄者。至今我儿子在车里找到零钱仍会来找我说，“今天就把这个上账。”两个孩子的存款增长很快，两年之后，我不得不将月利率降至3厘。我宣布调低利率时两个孩子反对，可当我解释说供求法则同样适用于货币供应后，两人严肃地点头赞同。两个孩子帮我一起计算他们的利息——这可是学习计算平均值与百分比的颇为有用的一课。他们使用自己的资金我不加任何限制，不作任何询问，我还根据要求随时提供打印的账单。
6 The high rate of interest is not the only attractive feature of the Bank of Dave. Equally important from the kids' point of view is that their accounts belong to them. When they save, they harvest the benefit; when they want to spend, they don't need permission. Children who have no control over their own funds have no incentive not to beg for money and then spend every dollar that comes into their hands.
7 The way to help children become rational consumers is to give them more control, not less. Before we go on vacation, I'll usually give my kids an extra twenty bucks or so, which I deposit in their accounts. I tell them that they can spend the extra money on a T-shirt, save it, spend it before we leave, or do anything else they want with it -- but that while we are on vacation, they won't receive any additional pocket money from me (except in the form of communal purchases considered by custom to be vacation entitlements, such as candy, ice cream, movie tickets, and so on). Because any money they spend starts out as theirs, not mine, they think twice before throwing it away. In a souvenir store on Martha's Vineyard a couple of summers ago my son quietly studied the unpromising merchandise while a friend of his loudly cajoled his parents into paying five dollars for a toy gun, which fell apart almost before we got back to the car. My son ended up spending thirty-three cents for an unopened geode, which he later cracked open by hitting it with a hammer -- a good value, it seemed to me. If he had been spending my money instead of his, he undoubtedly would have wanted a toy gun instead.
8 "Children are instinctive capitalists. If given enough leeway, they quickly become shrewd managers of their own finances. When parents fail in their efforts at financial education, it's usually because for reasons of their own they have managed to make saving seem painful and dull. Money is fun, and it's almost entirely self-explanatory. (4) The only way to teach kids to adopt a long-term perspective is to give them a short-term incentive for doing so.
Does being rich mean you live a completely different life from ordinary people? Not, it seems, if your name is Sam Walton.
THE RICHEST MAN IN AMERICA, DOWN HOME
Art Harris 1 He put on a dinner jacket to serve as a waiter at the birthday party of The Richest Man in America. He imagined what surely awaited: a mansion, a "Rolls-Royce for every day of the week," dogs with diamond collars, servants everywhere.
2 Then he was off to the house, wheeling past the sleepy town square in Bentonville, a remote Arkansas town of 9,920, where Sam Walton started with a little dime store that grew into a $6 billion discount chain called Wal-Mart. He drove down a country road, turned at a mailbox marked "Sam and Helen Walton," and jumped out at a house in the woods.
3 It was nice, but no palace. The furniture appeared a little worn. An old pickup truck sat in the garage and a muddy bird dog ran about the yard. He never spotted any servants.
4 "It was a real disappointment," sighs waiter Jamie Beaulieu.
5 Only in America can a billionaire carry on like plain folks and get away with it. And the 67-year-old discount king Sam Moore Walton still travels these windy back roads in his 1979 Ford pickup, red and white, bird dogs by his side, and, come shooting season, waits in line like everyone else to buy shells at the local Wal-Mart. 只有在美国，一个亿万富翁才能像普通百姓一样，安稳地过着普普通通的日子。67岁的廉价店大王萨姆·穆尔·沃尔顿仍然开着他那辆红白两色的1979年出厂的福特牌轻型货车穿行在弯弯曲曲的乡间小道上，身边坐着他的捕禽猎犬。当狩猎季节来临时，他跟别人一样在当地的沃尔玛商店排队购买猎枪子弹。
6 "He doesn't want any special treatment," says night manager Johnny Baker, who struggles to call the boss by his first name as a recent corporate memo commands. Few here think of his billions; they call him "Mr. Sam" and accept his folksy ways. "He's the same man who opened his dime store on the square and worked 18 hours a day for his dream," says Mayor Richard Hoback.
7 By all accounts, he's friendly, cheerful, a fine neighbor who does his best to blend in, never flashy, never throwing his weight around.
8 No matter how big a time he had on Saturday night, you can find him in church on Sunday. Surely in a reserved seat, right? "We don't have reserved seats," says Gordon Garlington III, pastor of the local church.
9 So where does The Richest Man in America sit? Wherever he finds a seat. "Look, he's just not that way. He doesn't have a set place. At a church supper the other night, he and his wife were in back washing dishes."
10 For 19 years, he's used the same barber. John Mayhall finds him waiting when he opens up at 7 a.m. He chats about the national news, or reads in his chair, perhaps the Benton County Daily Democrat, another Walton property that keeps him off the front page. It buried the Forbes list at the bottom of page 2.
11 "He's just not a front-page person," a newspaper employee explains.
12 But one recent morning, The Richest Man in America did something that would have made headlines anywhere in the world: He forgot his money. "I said, 'Forget it, take care of it next time, '" says barber Mayhall. "But he said. 'No, I'll get it,' and he went home for his wallet."
13 Wasn't that, well, a little strange? "No sir," says Mayhall, "the only thing strange about Sam Walton is that he isn't strange."
14 But just how long Walton can hold firm to his folksy habits with celebrity hunters keeping following him wherever he goes is anyone's guess. Ever since Forbes magazine pronounced him America's richest man, with $2.8 billion in Wal-Mart stock, he's been a rich man on the run, steering clear of reporters, dreamers, and schemers.
15 "He may be the richest by Forbes rankings," says corporate affairs director Jim V on Gremp, "but he doesn't know whether he is or not -- and he doesn't care. He doesn't spend much. He owns stock, but he's always left it in the company so it could
grow. But the real story in his mind is the success achieved by the 100,000 people who make up the Wal-Mart team."
16 He's usually back home for Friday sales meetings, or the executive pep rally Saturday morning at 7 a.m., when Walton, as he does at new store openings, is liable to jump up on a chair and lead everyone in the Wal-Mart cheer: "Give me a W! Give me an A! Give me an L! Louder!"
17 And louder they yell. No one admits to feeling the least bit silly. It's all part of the Wal-Mart way of life as laid down by Sam: loyalty, hard work, long hours; get ideas into the system from the bottom up, Japanese-style; treat your people right; cut prices and margins to the bone and sleep well at night. Employees with one year on board qualify for stock options, and are urged to buy all they can.
18 After the pep rally, there's bird hunting, or tennis on his backyard court. But his stores are always on his mind. One tennis guest managed to put him off his game by asking why a can of balls cost more in one Wal-Mart than another. It turned out to be untrue, but the move worked. Walton lost four straight games.
19 Walton set up a college scholarship fund for employees' children, a disaster relief fund to rebuild employee homes damaged by fires, floods, tornadoes, and the like. He believed in cultivating ideas and rewarding success.
20 "He'd say, 'That fellow worked hard, let's give him a little extra,'" recalls retired president Ferold F. Arend, who was stunned at such generosity after the stingy employer he left to join Wal-Mart. "I had to change my way of thinking when I came
21 "The reason for our success," says Walton, in a company handout, "is our people and the way they're treated and the way they feel about their company. They believe things are different here, but they deserve the credit."
22 Adds company lawyer Jim Hendren: "I've never seen anyone yet who worked for him or was around him for any length of time who wasn't better off. And I don't mean just financially, although a lot of people are. It's just something about him -- coming into contact with Sam Walton just makes you a better person."
Making the journey from log cabin to White House is part of the American Dream. But when Jimmy Carter was defeated in his attempt to gain a second term as President of the United States he found himself suddenly thrown out of the White House and back in his log cabin. This is how he coped.
The Restoration of Jimmy Carter
Sara Pacher 1 Maybe it's because I, too, was born and raised in a small south Georgia town, but I found sitting down to talk to Rosalynn and Jimmy Carter as comfortable as lazing in a porch swing on a summer afternoon, sipping iced tea. Just such a swing overlooks a roaring mountain stream at the Carters' log cabin retreat in the Blue Ridge Mountains. Along with the cabin's other furniture, the swing was designed and built by the former president, a master woodworker who selects and cuts the trees for such projects from his 160-acre farm. He then strips off the bark and shapes the wood into furniture and other items.
2 "My daddy was a good man with tools," he recalls, "so learning how to use them was as natural as breathing for us. If something broke, we had to fix it ourselves. You didn't call somebody in to repair something or replace it with something new. We had these skills -- all farmers did during the Depression years."
3 Over the years, Carter has made some 50 household items, about half of which he has given away as gifts. But some pieces still sit around the family's Plains house and have been in use for over 30 years. His wife is quick to point out, however, that his skills improved as time went on. "When we came home from the Navy in 1953, he built a sofa for the back porch. He used nails then. Now he builds everything without nails. He's studied woodworking and worked at it, and he's made really beautiful furniture for our home -- including a pencil-post bed and tables by the side."
4 His woodworking talent served Carter well during his political campaigns, particularly when meeting factory workers. "You don't have to say but a few things to people who work in a factory before they realize that you, yourself, have been a laborer. It may be a different kind of skill from theirs, but there's a bond, sort of like a brotherhood, among people who work with their hands."
5 Once he campaigned his way to the presidency, Carter occasionally managed to slip in a few hours at the carpenter's shed at Camp David, because, in his opinion, "What we need in our lives is a stock of factors that never change. (1)I think that skill
with one's own hands -- whether it's tilling the soil, building a house, making a piece of furniture, playing a violin or painting a painting -- is something that doesn't change with the ups and downs of life. And for me, going back to the earth or going back to the woodshop have always been opportunities to reinforce my basic skills. (2)No matter if I was involved in writing a book, conducting a political campaign, teaching at Emory University or dealing with international affairs, I could always go back -- at least for a few hours at a time -- to the woodshop. That's meant an awful lot to me. It's a kind of therapy, but it's also a steadying force in my life -- a total rest for my mind. 卡特一路竞选当上总统之后，偶尔也设法悄悄溜到戴维营的木工场干上几个小时，因为在他看来，“我们在生活中需要一些永远不变的要素。我认为手艺——不管是耕地，造房子，做家具，拉小提琴，还是画图——这些东西不会因生活的起起落落而改变。至于我，回到农场种地或重返木工场一直是我增进基本技能的机会。无论我在写书，从事政治活动，在爱莫瑞大学教书，还是处理国际事务，我总会设法抽空回到木工场，每次至少呆上几个小时。这对我十分重要。这是一种理疗，同时也是我生活中的一种稳定力量——是身心的完全休息。”
6 "When I'm in the woodshop," he continues, "I don't ever think about the chapter I'm writing or the paragraph I can't complete or the ideas that don't come. I'm thinking about the design of a piece of furniture, how the wood's going to fit together, what joint I'm going to use and whether or not my hand tools are sharp."
7 (3)In Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter's recently published book, Everything to Gain, they explain frankly how they used back-to-basics skills to confront and resolve their painful political defeat, a sudden departure from Washington and their fears of an empty future.
8 "In the book," Jimmy says, "we try to relate our lives, not to the White House, but to Plains -- for a couple of reasons. One, to show the attraction of a small town, and, second, to make it clear that the book is not just about a couple who happened to have been the First Family of the nation; it's also written for the average person who loses a job, has an unexpected career change, has to move to a place not of his or her choice, has a last child leave home. Or for a married couple who suddenly find themselves at retirement age and living together for the first time all day long -- not just at night."
9 The Carters plunged with enthusiasm into such projects as laying a sidewalk and putting a hardwood floor in their unfinished loft. Rosalynn has picked up additional carpentry skills in working with one of their favorite organizations, Habitat for Humanity. This is a housing program for the homeless, helping them to build their own houses together with the help of volunteers.
10 "And we both spend a good bit of time on our farm," adds Carter. "We take care of the timberlands. Sometimes we go for long walks in the woods. I may see a particular tree that I think would be suitable for four or five -- perhaps, seven or eight -- chairs or for some other piece of furniture. I usually select a tree close to home, though, since I have to carry the pieces back to the woodshop area.
11 "One of my favorite kinds of woodworking involves green wood, but there's a tremendous amount of hard labor involved in that. You have to try to handle the different rates at which the wood dries, so the joints get tight and durable. It's the kind of technical problem that appeals to me," says the former nuclear engineer.
12 Obviously, most of today's young people don't grow up routinely learning to use their hands "as naturally as breathing," as Carter did. But he thinks they still have an advantage his parents' generation lacked.
13 "Back then, you'd start working at the age of 16 or 18 and work until you died or were physically incapable of working anymore. You began work at sunrise and worked until dark. But, nowadays, you work 40 hours a week, get a couple of weeks off for vacation and then retire at 55, 60 or 65. You have so much spare time to take on additional exciting things. Sometimes they can be quite useful things; sometimes
just enjoyable; sometimes devoted to serving others. In Everything to Gain we try to present a broad range of activities an average person can undertake. We try to point out that no matter what stage of life you may be in -- young, middle-aged or retired -- there's the possibility of a constantly expanding field of interest, excitement, challenge, fulfillment and adventure. (4)In this book we encourage people to take on new things that might look very difficult, but that become very rewarding once the person is involved." "If you have a crisis of any kind," Rosalynn adds, "one of the best things to do is to learn something new."
This comedy centers around a proud father's attempts to help his children, attempts which somehow or other always end up embarrassing them. For the sake of fun it carries things to extremes, but nearly everyone can recognize something of themselves and their parents in it.
Father Knows Better
Marsh Cassady 1
CHARACTERS: FATHER; MOTHER; HEIDI, 14; DIANE, 17; SEAN, 16; RESTAURANT MANAGER, 20s; MRS. HIGGINS.
SETTING: Various locations including a fast-food restaurant, the Thompson family dining room, and an office at a high school.
AT RISE: As the lights come up, HEIDI enters and crosses Down Right to the edge of the stage. SEAN and DIANE enter and cross Down Left to the edge of the stage. They listen as HEIDI addresses the audience.
HEIDI: My dad's a nice man. Nobody could possibly believe that he isn't. Yet he's...well, he's always doing these stupid things that end up really embarrassing one or more of us kids. One time, see, my brother wanted to buy this guitar. Been saving money for it for a long time. Then he got a job at this fast-food place, OK? Waiting tables. It was Sean's first actual job, and he was real happy about it. He figured in two or three months he'd have enough money to buy exactly the kind of guitar he wanted. Mom and Dad were proud of him, and well, OK, he's my big brother, and he's always pulling these dumb things on me. But, well, I was proud of him too. You know what happened? I hate to tell you because:
SEAN, DIANE and HEIDI: (In unison) Father knows better!
(The lights come Up Left on the fast-food restaurant where SEAN works. It consists of a counter and couple of small tables. The MANAGER stands behind the counter. SEAN is busily cleaning the tables when FATHER walks in. )
MANAGER: Good evening, sir. May I help you?
FATHER: Good evening.
SEAN: (To himself) Oh, no! (He squats behind one of the tables trying to hide from FATHER. )
FATHER: I'm looking for the manager.
MANAGER: That would be me, sir.
FATHER: I'm Sam Thompson. My son works here.
MANAGER: Oh, you're Sean's father.
FATHER: Yes. It's his first job, you know. I just wanted to check that he's doing OK. MANAGER: Oh, fine. No problem.
SEAN: (Spreading his hands, palms up, speaking to himself) What did I do to deserve this? Tell me what?
FATHER: Hiring him was a good thing then?
MANAGER: Well, yeah, I suppose so.
SEAN: (Still to himself) Go home, Dad. Go home. Go home.
FATHER: I'm sure he's a good worker but a typical teenager, if you know what I mean.
MANAGER: (Losing interest) I wouldn't know.
FATHER: He's a good boy. And I assure you that if there are any subjects that need to be addressed, Sean and I will have a man-to-man talk.
MANAGER: I don't think that will be necessary...
FATHER: Oh, no problem. I'm proud of my son. Very, very proud. And I just wanted you to know that I'll do anything I can to help him through life's dangerous sea.
SEAN: (Standing up and screaming) Aaaargh! Aaaargh! Aaaaaaargh!
FATHER: Son, I didn't know you were here.
SEAN: It's where I work, Dad.
FATHER: Of course. I mean, I didn't see you.
SEAN: I can't imagine why.
FATHER: Your manager and I were just having a nice chat.
(DIANE enters Down Left just as HEIDI enters Down Right. They look at SEAN and FATHER. )
SEAN, DIANE, HEIDI: (In unison) Father, you know better than that. 肖恩：（站起身，高声喊叫）唉！唉！唉！
(The lights quickly fade to black and then come up a second or two later. SEAN stands alone at the Down Right edge of the stage. HEIDI and DIANE cross to Down Left edge of the stage. )
SEAN: If that sort of thing happened only once in a while, it wouldn't be so bad. Overall, I wouldn't want to trade my dad for anyone else's. He loves us kids and Mom too. But I think that's sometimes the problem. He wants to do things for us, things he thinks are good. But he needs to give them more thought because:
SEAN, HEIDI and DIANE: (In unison) Father knows better!
(The lights fade to black and come up on the Center Stage area where FATHER and the three children are seated around the dining room table. MOTHER enters carrying a dish, which she sets on the table. FATHER quickly rises and pulls out her chair. She sits. The family starts eating dinner. )
FATHER: I have a surprise for you, Diane.
DIANE: (Knows it can't be good. ) You have... a surprise?
MOTHER: Well, whatever it is, dear, don't keep us in suspense.
FATHER: Well, you know, Dan Lucas and I work together?
DIANE: Kyle's father?
MOTHER: Don't interrupt, dear, your father is trying to tell you something.
HEIDI: (Stage whisper to SEAN) Something Diane won't want to know, I'll bet. SEAN: (Whispering to HEIDI) Whatever would make you think that?
MOTHER: Sean, dear. Heidi, sweetheart, don't distract your father.
SEAN and HEIDI: (Simultaneously) Sorry, Mom.
FATHER: Now then. As I was saying, I know how much you like young Kyle. DIANE: Father!
FATHER: It's true, isn't it? Didn't I hear you tell your mother that you wish Kyle would ask you to the senior prom?
MOTHER: Please, children, please. Your father is trying to speak.
DIANE: (Through clenched teeth, the words are in a monotone and evenly spaced. ) Yes-I-said-that-why-are-you-asking?
FATHER: Well then.
DIANE: (Becoming hysterical)"Well then" what?!
FATHER: What did I say? Did I say something wrong?
HEIDI: (To SEAN) Not yet, he didn't.
SEAN: (To HEIDI) But you know it's coming.
MOTHER: Children, please. Do give your father the respect he deserves.
HEIDI and SEAN: (Rolling their eyes) Yes, Mother.
Unit 1 Growing Up Ⅱ. Translation 1.那是个正规宴会，我照妈妈对我讲的那样穿着礼服去了。（formal） As it was a formal dinner party, I wore formal dress, as Mother told me to. 2.他的女朋友劝他趁抽烟的坏习惯尚未根深蒂固之前把它改掉。（take hold） His girlfriend advised him to get out of/get rid of his bad habit of smoking before it took hold. 3.他们预料到下几个月电的需求量很大，决定增加生产。（anticipate） Anticipating that the demand for electricity will be high during the next few months, they have decided to increase its production. 4.据说比尔因一再违反公司的安全规章而被解雇。（violate） It is said that Bill has been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. / Bill is said to have been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. 5.据报道地方政府已采取适当措施避免严重缺水（water shortage）的可能性。 （avoid, severe） It is reported that the government has taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. /The local government is reported to have taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. 苏珊（Susan）因车祸失去了双腿。有一段时间，她真不知如何面对自己再也不能行走的事实。 一天，苏珊在浏览杂志时，被一个真实故事吸引住了。那个故事生动地描写了一个残疾（disabled）姑娘是如何成为一位作家的。苏珊读后深受鼓舞，开始相信她最终会成为一个有用的人生活下去。 Inspire vivid scan face up with finally Susan lost her legs because of / in a car accident. For a time, she didn’t know how to face up to the fact that she would never (be able to) walk again. One day, while scanning (through) some magazines, a true story caught her eye /she was attracted by a true story. It gave a vivid description of how a disabled girl became a writer. Greatly inspired, Susan began to feel that she, too, would finally be bale to lead a useful life. Unit 2 Friendship II. Translation 1)半个小时过去了，但末班车还没来。我们只好走路回家。（go by） Half an hour had gone by, but the last bus hadn’t come yet. We had to walk home.
【一】全新版大学英语综合教程1课后题 Unit 1 Growing Up Part II Language Focus Vocabulary Ⅰ.1. …down back and on in 2. been assigned to the newspaper’s Paris office. so extraordinary that I didn’t know whether to believe him or not. clear image of how she would look in twenty years’ time. the command the soldiers opened fire. bikes we’ll keep turning them out. 3. , rigid, to inspire tedious, What’s more, out of date ideas , career, avoid showing, hardly hold back Ⅱ. violating Ⅲ. , in upon Comprehensive Exercises Ⅰ. Cloze 1. back
and on out/in 2. Ⅱ. Translation 1. 1.As it was a formal dinner party, I wore formal dress, as Mother told me to. 2.His girlfriend advised him to get out of/get rid of his bad habit of smoking before it took hold. 3.Anticipating that the demand for electricity will be high during the next few months, they have decided to increase its production. 4.It is said that Bill has been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. /Bill is said to have been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. 5.It is reported that the government has taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. /The local government is reported to have taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. 2. Susan lost her legs because of / in a car accident. For a time, she didn’t know how to face up to the fact that she would never (be able to) walk again. One day, while scanning (through) some magazines, a true story caught her eye /she was attracted by a true story. It gave a vivid description of how a disabled girl became a writer. Greatly inspired, Susan began to feel that she, too, would finally be bale to lead a useful life. Unit 2 Friendship I. Vocabulary 1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases given in the box. 1) absolutely 2) available
One way of summarizing the American position is to state that we value originality and independence more than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity. American educators fear that unless creativity has been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other hand, skills can be picked up later. However, I do not want to overstate my case. There is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific, technological and artistic innovations past and present. And there is a danger of exaggerating creative breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements is all too apparent (the "standing on the shoulders of giants" phenomenon). But assuming that the contrast I have developed is valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills?
一The rumor of the divorce was nothing but a means of hype for his new movie 离婚 他孤注一掷，用父母留给他的所有钱来开一家工厂。 He took a gamble on starting a factory with all the mone y his parents had left him. After winning the important game they hoisted their captain to their shoulders in shouting triumph.（赢得那场重要的比赛后） 4) 在全球化热潮中，我们要提防不同文化的冲突 In the rush to go for globalization, we should watch out for collision of cultures. 在这种情况下In the circumstances it was not surprising that there was trouble. 6) 这婴儿非常健康。The baby is the very picture of health. 7) 人们已经意识到儿童接触有关暴力和色情电视节目的危害。 People have realized the dangers of exposing children to vio lence and sex on TV. 8) 我们始终考虑到我们是在为谁制作这部影片。(have in mind) We always had in mind for whom we were making the film.三单元 2他在中学教书，但也兼职些翻译来取外快。 He teaches in a middle school, but he does some translation work o n the side to bring extra money 3自信是件好事，但自信与自员是有区别的 it's good to be confident (about yourself), but there is a differen ce between confidence and conceit 4．只有坚持到底的人才会成功。半运而度的人永远也无法实现梦想。 Only those who stick it out can achieve success Those who give up halfway will never realize their dreams 5一个真正的英雄有勇气，有高尚的目标，而且乐于奉献 A true hero possesses/has courage, a noble purpose and a willingness to make sacrifices 6任何人只要章起这本小说读了第一段，敦会发现很难把它放下。 Anyone who picked up this novel and reads the first paragraph will be hard pressed to put it down 7从某中意义上说，生活就像游冰。如果总是扶任池边，就也学不会。 In a sense, life is like swimming. if you keep holding on to the sides of the pool, you will never learn 3一个民族的前在很大程度上取决于其数育与培训的质量 The future of a nation depends in a large measure upon the quality of education and training 二 1只有那些有过类似经历的人，オ能够完全理解这一点。 Only those who have lived through a similar experience can fully ap preciate this. 3我更特别感谢每一个在这些年来以不同方式做出了贡献的人 i'd like to express my special thanks to everyone who has contribut ed over the years in one way or another
BOOK2课文译文 UNIT1 TextA 中国式的学习风格 1987年春，我和妻子埃伦带着我们18个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住了一个月，同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况。然而，我和埃伦获得的有关中美教育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂，而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店堂。 我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上。酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙，可以交给服务员，也可以从一个槽口塞入钥匙箱。由于口子狭小，你得留神将钥匙放准位置才塞得进去。 本杰明爱拿着钥匙走来走去，边走边用力摇晃着。他还喜欢试着把钥匙往槽口里塞。由于他还年幼，不太明白得把钥匙放准位置才成，因此总塞不进去。本杰明一点也不在意。他从钥匙声响中得到的乐趣大概跟他偶尔把钥匙成功地塞进槽口而获得的乐趣一样多。 我和埃伦都满不在乎，任由本杰明拿着钥匙在钥匙箱槽口鼓捣。他的探索行为似乎并无任何害处。但我很快就观察到一个有趣的现象。饭店里任何一个中国工作人员若在近旁，都会走过来看着本杰明，见他初试失败，便都会试图帮忙。他们会轻轻握牢本杰明的手，直接将它引向钥匙槽口，进行必要的重新定位，并帮他把钥匙插入槽口。然后那位“老师”会有所期待地对着我和埃伦微笑，似乎等着我们说声谢谢——偶尔他会微微皱眉，似乎觉得我俩没有尽到当父母的责任。 我很快意识到，这件小事与我们在中国要做的工作直接相关：考察儿童早期教育（尤其是艺术教育）的方式，揭示中国人对创造性活动的态度。因此，不久我就在与中国教育工作者讨论时谈起了钥匙槽口一事。 两种不同的学习方式
我的中国同行，除了少数几个人外，对此事的态度与金陵饭店工作人员一样。既然大人知道怎么把钥匙塞进槽口——这是走近槽口的最终目的，既然孩子还很年幼，还没有灵巧到可以独自完成要做的动作，让他自己瞎折腾会有什么好处呢？他很有可能会灰心丧气发脾气——这当然不是所希望的结果。为什么不教他怎么做呢？他会高兴，他还能早些学会做这件事，进而去学做更复杂的事，如开门，或索要钥匙——这两件事到时候同样可以（也应该）示范给他看。 我俩颇为同情地听着这一番道理，解释道，首先，我们并不在意本杰明能不能把钥匙塞进钥匙的槽口。他玩得开心，而且在探索，这两点才是我们真正看重的。但关键在于，在这个过程中，我们试图让本杰明懂得，一个人是能够很好地自行解决问题的。这种自力更生的精神是美国中产阶级最重要的一条育儿观。如果我们向孩子演示该如何做某件事——把钥匙塞进钥匙槽口也好，画只鸡或是弥补某种错误行为也好——那他就不太可能自行想方设法去完成这件事。从更广泛的意义上说，他就不太可能——如美国人那样——将人生视为一系列 的情境，在这些情境中，一个人必须学会独立思考，学会独立解决问题，进而学会发现需要创造性地加以解决的新问题。 把着手教 回想起来，当时我就清楚地意识到，这件事正是体现了问题的关键之所在——而且不仅仅是一种意义上的关键之所在。这件事表明了我们两国在教育和艺术实践上的重要差异。 那些善意的中国旁观者前来帮助本杰明时，他们不是简单地像我可能会做的那样笨拙地或是犹犹豫豫地把他的手往下推。相反，他们极其熟练地、轻轻地把他引向所要到达的确切方向。 我逐渐认识到，这些中国人不是简单地以一种陈旧的方式塑造、引导本杰明的行为：他们是在恪守中国传统，把着手教，教得本杰明自己会愉快地要求再来一次。
(1)这个婴儿还不会爬(crawl)，更不要说走了。(let alone) The baby can’t even crawl yet, let alone walk! (2)威尔声称谋杀案发生时他正在与一群朋友吃饭,但是我认为他在说谎。(claim, in one’s opinion） Will claimed he was dining with a group of friends at the time of the murder, but in my opinion he told a lie. (3)一定程度上阅读速度与阅读技巧密切相关；有了阅读技巧，你就可以更好地应对课外阅读了。(to a certain extent, relate …to …, cope with） To a certain extent the speed of reading is closely related to reading skills; and with reading skills you can cope with outside class reading better. (4)根据规则他俩都可以参加比赛。(according to） According to the regulation/rule, they both can play the game/participate in the game. (5)有些人想当然地认为日语(Japanese)中的每一个词在汉语中都有对应的词语。(assume, equivalent) Some people assume that there is a Chinese equivalent for every Japanese word. (6)我们已将所有的相关信息告知了警方。(relevant) We have passed all relevant information on to the police. (7)关于那件事你问我再多的问题也没用，因为我是不会回答你的。(it’s no use) There is no use asking me any more questions about that matter because I won't answer. (8)事先没有仔细阅读合同(contract)就签了名是吉姆的错误。(on one’s part) It was a mistake on Jim's part to sign the contract without reading it carefully. (9)他们拒绝向我们提供所需要的全部信息。(provide …with) They refused to provide us with all the information we need. (10) 这起事故与三年前发生的一起事故极为相似。(similar to) This accident is very similar to the one that happened three years ago. (11)这部影片是根据莎士比亚的戏剧改编的。(base on) The film is based on a play by Shakespeare (12)如果你的英语和电脑技能都掌握得好，那么你在谋职时就一定比别人更有优势。(have an advantage over) If you have a good command of English and computer skills, you will surely have an advantage over others in finding a job.
3.Many products for sale seem to scream at us, "Buy me! Buy me!" Advertising is a big busin ess in our world with many products competing for our attention. Think of the last time you boug ht clothes. You probably noticed the variety of colors, patterns, fabrics and brands you could choo se from. Which kind of soft drink would you like to have today or what kind of computer do you want? Advertisers are skilled in the art of making their products look the best to appeal to our se nses. But products aren't always what they seem. Sometimes advertising is deceptive and as cons umers ,we must be careful about what we choose to buy. It is important to learn to compare prod ucts and identify our purpose in purchasing the things we need. But the good thing about advertising is that it helps people to make decisions and refine thei r choices. In the United States, the Ad Council creates timely public service messages to the nation. Th eir purpose is to raise awareness of public problems that citizens can respond to. Inspiring ads ca use individuals to take action and even save lives. Pollution in America, for example has been red uced over the years because of the creative Public Service advertisements that the council provid es" Please, please don't be a litter bug, 'cause every 'litter bit' hurts." Many families have taught t heir children to place litter in the trash can in response to this catchy phrase, which has affected g enerations as each succeeding generation has taught their children not to litter. 4.Nature imposes difficult conditions upon the earth from time to time . The tornado and fo rest fire destroy natural resources ,homes and other structures ,and very often harm or kill peopl e . Technological tragedies happen with little or no warning as we see trains crash and airplanes f all from the sky shortly after take-off. As tragic as calamities are , they seem to bring out the best in human nature . people trained in em ergency care arrive at the scene and begin assisting the inj ured .Others come with equipment to remove debris. Men , women ,and young people willingly c ome to the scene of an accident , hoping to be of help in some way . These selfless acts of kindne ss make our world a better place . compassion eases the wounds of calamities. American Airlines flight number 587 crashed less than three minutes after taking off from JF K Airport in New York in November,2001. Witnesses s aw an engine fire develop on the plane’s nu mber one engine located under the left wing of the aircraft .seconds later ,the airliner crashed int o eight homes ,completely destroying four of them .All 260 people aboard the airplane were kille d along with six people at the crash site ,leaving many people to mourn the loss of their loved on es .the residents (people who live in the area of the crash ) rallied together to comfort those griev ing, while others removed bodies from the wreckage and did the necessary clean-up. 工程实施困难的条件下在地上的时候。龙卷风和森林火灾破坏自然资源,房屋和其他建筑物,和经常伤害或杀死人。技术的悲剧发生在很少或没有预警,因为我们看到火车事故,飞机起飞后不久就从天空坠落。一样悲惨的灾难,他们似乎显示出人性中最好的。在急诊受训的人到达现场并开始帮助受伤的人则跟设备清除残骸。男人,女人,和年轻人自愿来到事故现场,希望能有帮助。这些无私的善举让我们的世界变得更美好。同情减轻灾害的伤口。 美国航空公司587号航班坠毁不到三分钟后从纽约肯尼迪机场起飞,11月2001。目击者看到一个引擎火灾发展在飞机上的1号引擎位于下飞机的左翼,接着后,客机坠毁八家,完全摧毁了四个260名乘客的飞机遇难连同6人在事故现场,造成许多人悼念失去的亲人,居民(住在崩溃的面积)聚集在一起,安慰那些悲伤,而另一些人则从残骸,并把尸体移走必要的清理。 5.Success can be reached in different ways by people in different careers. Bill Gates began at age to program computers,His vision for personal computing has been central to the success of M icrosoft Corporation, the company he founded with his childhood friend in 1975 . The former CEO of General Electric, Jack Welch, is a business legend. A famous quote by Mr. Welch is,” Chang before you have to. ”He believes in leading by example and encourages his empl oyees to do their best every day. Michael Jordan s aid,”I accept failure, but I can’t accept not trying.” He is one of the best athl etes to ever play team sports. His great smile, athletic achievements, and pleasant personality ha ve made him one of the most famous athletes in the world. Michael Jordan spent a lot of time pla ying basketball as a child but in senior middle school he was taken off the team . Instead of giving up , he worked through adversity and became the greatest basketball player yet .
Globalization is sweeping aside national borders and changing relations between nations. What impact does this have on national identities and loyalties? Are they strengthened or weakened? The author investigates. 全球化正在扫除国界、改变国与国之间的关系。这对国家的认同和对国家的忠诚会带来什么影响呢？它们会得到加强还是削弱？作者对这些问题进行了探讨。 In Search of Davos ManPeter Gumbel 1. William Browder was born in Princeton, New Jersey, grew up in Chicago, and studied at Stanford University in California. But don't call him an American. For the past 16 of his 40 years he has lived outside the ., first in London and then, from 1996, in Moscow, where he runs his own investment firm. Browder now manages $ billion in assets. In 1998 he gave up his American passport to become a British citizen, since his life is now centered in Europe. "National identity makes no difference for me," he says. "I feel completely international. If you have four good friends and you like what you are doing, it doesn't matter where you are. That's globalization." 寻找达沃斯人 彼得·甘贝尔 威廉·布劳德出生于新泽西州的普林斯顿，在芝加哥长大，就读于加利福尼亚州的斯坦福大学。但别叫他美国人。他今年40岁，过去16年来一直生活在美国以外的地方，先是在伦敦，1996年后在莫斯科经营他自己的投资公司。布劳德如今掌管着价值16亿美元的资产。1998年，他放弃美国护照，成为英国公民，因为他现在的生活中心在欧洲。“国家认同对我来说不重要，”他说，“我觉得自己完全是个国际人。如果你有四个朋友，又喜欢你所做的事情，那么你在哪儿无关紧要。这就是全球化。” 2. Alex Mandl is also a fervent believer in globalization, but he views himself very differently. A former president of AT&T, Mandl, 61, was born in Austria and now runs a French technology company, which is doing more and more business in China. He reckons he spends about 90% of his time traveling on business. But despite all that globetrotting, Mandl who has been a . citizen for 45 years still identifies himself as an American. "I see myself as American without any hesitation. The fact that I spend a lot of time in other places doesn't change that," he says. 亚历克斯·曼德尔也是全球化的狂热信徒，但他对自己的看法与布劳德不同。61岁的曼德尔曾任美国电报电话公司总裁。他出生于奥地利，现在经营着一家法国技术公司，该公司在中国的业务与日俱增。他估计自己几乎90%的时间都花在出差上。然而，尽管曼德尔全球到处跑，已经做了45年美国公民的他还是认为自己是个美国人。“我毫不迟疑地把自己当作美国人。我在其他地方度过很多时间，但是这一事实不能改变我是美国人，”他说。 3. Although Browder and Mandl define their nationality differently, both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth. And not incidentally, both are Davos Men, members of the international business élite who trek each year to the Swiss Alpine town for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum, founded in 1971. This week, Browder and Mandl will join more than 2,200 executives, politicians, academics, journalists, writers and a handful of Hollywood stars for five days of networking, parties and endless earnest discussions about everything from post-election Iraq and HIV in Africa to the global supply of oil and the implications of nanotechnology. Yet this year, perhaps more than ever, a hot topic at Davos is Davos itself. Whatever their considerable differences, most Davos Men and
Teaching Planning College English Integrated Course Book Three Unit Two The Freedom Givers Zhong wen 1.Background Information Teacher: zhong wen Students: 56 sophomores Content of the textbook: unit-2 text A the Freedom Givers Textbook: foreign language teaching and research press Time duration：10 minutes 2.Textbook Analysis The author tells three stories about the Underground Railroad and early Black civil rights movement. The three stories are chosen because they are representative of all participants in this movement: John Parke r is a freed slave who later turned into a courageous “conductor”; Levi Coffin is a brave white “conductor”; Josiah Henson is a slave who struggled his way to freedom with the help of the Underground Railroad. We learn about the name of Josiah Henson at the beginning of the text, yet his full story is not told until the last part. In this way the author achieves coherence of text. 3.Students Analysis The class is made up of 56 students, with 30 girls and 26 boys ,who have a good knowledge of Basic English, but know very little about the American culture behind the language. So in this introduction part, It is necessary to introduce some background information to the students before reading 4.Teaching Objectives Students will be able to: 1.understand the main idea(early civil-rights struggles in the US, esp. the underground Railroad) 2.grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text, 3.conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit 4.Appreciate the various techniques employed by the writer (comparison and contrast, topic sentence followed by detail sentences, use of transitional devices,etc.); 5.Teaching Procedures: Greetings Step 1 Lead-in T: Today we are going to talk about the ethic heroes in American history, before the class, I’d like to introduce the slavery to all of you. T: Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States, during his term of office; he led the civil war and abolished the slavery. T: In the battle against slavery, not only did the president try his best to abolish this system, but also the people, especially the black people living in the South America try hard to fight for their own feat. Today, we will introduce some freedom givers in the American history. Before