3. A gallon ethanol have more engineer than a gallongasoline—NG
4. in future US 将会有充足的crop来制造氢气——FALSE
5. 乙醇producers 会尽量减少生产过程中使用的能量——NG
6-9 Flow Chat
Process of producing ethanol
题目：Coastal Archaeology ofBritain
CoastalArchaeology of Britain
A Therecognition of the wealth and diversity of England’s coastal archaeology hasbeen one of the most important developments of recent years. Some elements ofthis enormous resource have long been known. The so-called
‘submerged forests’off the coasts of England, sometimes with clear evidence of human activity, hadattracted the interest of antiquarians since at least the eighteenth centurybut serious and systematic attention has been given to the archaeologicalpotential of the coast only since the early 1980s.
B It ispossible to trace a variety of causes for this concentration of effort andinterest. In the 1980s and 1990s scientific research into climate change andits environmental impact spilled over into a much broader public debate asawareness of these issues grew; the prospect of rising sea levels over the nextcentury, and their impact on current coastal environments, has been aparticular focus for concern. At the same time archaeologists were beginning torecognize that the destruction caused by natural processes of coastal erosionand by human activity was having an increasing impact on the archaeologicalresource of the coast.
C Thedominant process affecting the physical form of England in the post- glacialperiod has been the rise in the altitude of sea level relative to the land, asthe glaciers melted and the landmass readjusted. The encroachment of the sea,the loss of huge areas of land now under the North Sea and the English Channel,and especially the loss of the land bridge between England and France, whichfinally made Britain an island, must have been immensely significant factors inthe lives of our prehistoric ancestors. Yet the way in which prehistoriccommunities adjusted to these environmental changes has seldom been a majortheme in discussions of the period. One factor contributing to this has beenthat, although the rise in relative sea level is comparatively well documented,we know little about the constant reconfiguration of the coastline. This wasaffected by many processes, mostly quite, which have not yet been adequatelyresearched. The detailed reconstruction of coastline histories and the changingenvironments available for human use will be an important theme for futureresearch.
D So great hasbeen the rise in sea level and the consequent regression of the coast that muchof the archaeological evidence now exposed in the coastal zone, whether beingeroded or exposed as a buried land surface, is derived from what was originallyterres-trial occupation. Its current location in the coastal zone is theproduct of later unrelated processes, and it can tell us little about pastadaptations to the sea. Estimates of its significance will need to be made inthe context of other related evidence from dry land sites. Nevertheless, itsphysical environment means that preservation is often excellent, for example inthe case of the Neolithic structure excavated at the Stumble in Essex.
E In somecases these buried land surfaces do contain evidence for human exploitation ofwhat was a coastal environment, and elsewhere along the modem coast there issimilar evidence. Where the evidence does relate to past human exploitation ofthe resources and the opportunities offered by the sea and the coast, it isboth diverse and as yet little understood. We are not yet in a
position to makeeven preliminary estimates of answers to such fundamental questions as theextent to which the sea and the coast affected human life in the past, what percentageof the population at any time lived within reach of the sea, or whether humansettlements in coastal environments showed a distinct character from thoseinland.
F The moststriking evidence for use of the sea is in the form of boats, yet we still havemuch to learn about their production and use. Most of the known wrecks aroundour coast are not unexpectedly of post-medieval date, and offer an unparalleledopportunity for research which has as yet been little used. The prehistoricsewn-plank boats such as those from the Humber estuary and Dover all seem tobelong to the second millennium BC; after this there is a gap in the record ofa millennium, which cannot yet be explained, before boats reappear, but builtusing a very different technology. Boatbuilding must have been an extremelyimportant activity around much of our coast, yet we know almost nothing aboutit, Boats were some of the most complex artefacts produced by pre-modemsocieties, and further research on their production and use make an importantcontribution to our understanding of past attitudes to technology andtechnological change.
G Boats neededlanding places, yet here again our knowledge is very patchy In many cases thenatural shores and beaches would have sufficed, leaving little or noarchaeological trace, but especially in later periods, many ports and harbors,as well as smaller facilities such as quays, wharves, and jetties, were built.Despite a growth of interest in the waterfront archaeology of some of our moreimportant Roman and medieval towns, very little attention has been paid to themultitude of smaller landing places. Redevelopment of harbor sites and otherdevelopment and natural pressures along the coast are subjecting theseimportant locations to unprecedented threats, yet few surveys of such siteshave been undertaken.
H One of themost important revelations of recent research has been the extent of industrialactivity along the coast. Fishing and salt production are among the betterdocumented activities, but even here our knowledge is patchy Many forms offishing will eave little archaeological trace, and one of the surprises ofrecent survey has been the extent of past investment in facilities forprocuring fish and shellfish. Elaborate wooden fish weirs, often ofconsiderable extent and responsive to aerial photography in shallow water, havebeen identified in areas such as Essex and the Severn estuary. The productionof salt, especially in the late Iron Age and early Roman periods, has beenrecognized for some time, especially in the Thames estuary and around theSolent and Poole Harbor, but
the reasons for the decline of that industry andthe nature of later coastal salt working are much less well understood. Otherindustries were also located along the coast, either because the raw materialsoutcropped there or for ease of working and transport: mineral resources suchas sand, gravel, stone, coal, ironstone, and alum were all exploited. Theseindustries are poorly documented, but their remains are sometimes extensive andstriking.
I Someappreciation of the variety and importance of the archaeological remainspreserved in the coastal zone, albeit only in preliminary form, can thus begained from recent work, but the complexity of the problem of managing thatresource is also being realised. The problem arises not only from the scale andvariety of the archaeological remains, but also from two other sources: thevery varied natural and human threats to the resource, and the complex web oforganisations with authority over, or interests in, the coastal zone. Humanthreats include the redevelopment of historic towns and old dockland areas, andthe increased importance of the coast for the leisure and tourism industries,resulting in pressure for the increased provision of facilities such asmarinas. The larger size of ferries has also caused an increase in the damagecaused by their wash to fragile deposits in the intertidal zone. The mostsignificant natural threat is the predicted rise in sea level over the nextcentury especially in the south and east of England. Its impact on archaeologyis not easy to predict, and though it is likely to be highly localised, it willbe at a scale much larger than that of most archaeological sites. Thusprotecting one site may simply result in transposing the threat to a pointfurther along the coast. The management of the archaeological remains will haveto be considered in a much longer time scale and a much wider geographicalscale than is common in the case of dry land sites, and this will pose aserious challenge for archaeologists.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.
14 What has caused public interest in coastal archaeologyin recent years?
A Golds and jewelleries in the ships that have submerged
B The rising awareness of climate change
C Forests under the sea
D Technological advance in the field of sea research
15 What does the passage say about the evidence of boats?
A We have a good knowledge of how boats were made andwhat boats were for prehistorically
B Most of the boats discovered were found in harbors
C The use of boats had not been recorded for a thousandyears
D The way to build boats has remained unchangedthroughout human history
16 What can be discovered from the air?
A Salt mines
Do the following statements agree with the informationgiven in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 17-23 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if thestatement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN ifthe information is not given in the passage
17 England lost much of its land after the ice-age due tothe rising sea level. —TRUE
18 The coastline of England has changed periodically. —FALSE
19 Coastal archaeological evidence may be well-protectedby sea water.—TRUE
20 The design of boats used by pre-modern people was verysimple. —FALSE
21 Similar boats were also discovered in many otherEuropean countries. —NOT GIVEN
22 There are few documents relating to mineralexploitation.—TRUE
23 Large passenger boats are causing increasing damage tothe seashore. —TRUE
Questions 24-26 Choose THREE letters A-G
Write your answer in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet
Which THREE of the following statements arementioned in the passage?
A Our prehistoric ancestors adjusted to the environmentalchange caused by the rising sea level by moving to higher lands
B It is difficult to understand how many people livedclose to the sea.
C Human settlements in coastal environment were differentfrom those inland
D Our knowledge of boat evidence is limited.
E The prehistoric boats were built mainly for collectingsand from the river.
F Human development threatens the archaeological remains.
G The reason for the decline of salt industry was the shortageof laborers.
题目：The Origin of Language