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现代农林英语课后翻译完整版全文排版

现代农林英语课后翻译完整版全文排版
现代农林英语课后翻译完整版全文排版

现代农林英语课后翻译(完整版+全文排版)

A.汉译英

城市林业是把林业由野外、农村引进人口稠密的经济文化与工商业集中的城市的林业活动。目前大多数城市繁华、喧闹、生态环境恶化,生活在拥挤狭小的城市空间里的人们身体素质下降。发展城市林业可以美化环境、净化空气、减少噪音和调节小气候,改善城市人的生活质量。城市林业为解决城市的环境问题提供了一种新的途径。

Urban forestry involves (refers to / is concerned with) forestry activities introduced from wildness and countryside to populous cities where economy, culture, industry and business (commerce) are aggregated (clustered). Most metropolitan cities are currently prosperous but noisy (clamorous) with deteriorating ecological environment. People living in such a crowded and narrow space suffer from a worsening physical quality. To develop urban forestry can beautify living places, purify air, reduce noise and adjust local climate (microclimate), so that the living quality of urban people can be improved. Generally, urban forestry has provided a new approach to the urban environmental problems.

B.英译汉

B. 社区的物质框架结构被称为它的基础设施。这些在城市里发挥作用的庞然大物可以被分为绿色和灰色两种。绿色结构是为乔木、灌木、草地所覆盖的区域,而灰色结构指建筑、道路、公用事业设备、停车场的所在。绿色结构是渗水的,土壤让水渗进去,自然地过滤掉污染物,然后水进入河流。灰色结构却不能穿透,它迫使水走向地面,入河之前一定要经过处理和清洁。

作为城市绿色结构的树木,它们的作用和灰色结构不同,但尚无充分文字记载。由于树木没有量化的价值指标,因此没有把它们考虑进预算程序之中。城市绿色结构的大小、形态、方位可以被度量,它们在公用事业中发挥的作用可以进行准确计算。

尽管灰绿结构对一个城市都很重要,但利用土地尽力营造绿色结构的社区就能避免更多污染物,使运营成本效力更高,因此更宜居住。不过对于地方政府管理者来说,平衡灰色和绿色结构就成为一个很严重的挑战。

A.汉译英

随着人类社会的经济发展与文明进步,人们对森林的认识有了重大转变,社会对林业的需求也发生了很大的变化,森林维护与改善生态环境的功能在世界范围内得到了广泛的重视和关注。1992年联合国召开的环境与发展大会上以赋予林业以首要地位为最高级别的政治承诺,并特别强调在世界最高级会议要解决的问题中,没有任何问题比林业更重要了,将林业问题提到前所未有的高度,这是世界文明发展史上的一个重要的里程碑。

With the development of both economy and civilization in human society, people have greatly improved their knowledge and understanding about forests. They therefore

have also dramatically changed their social demands for forestry. As a result, more world attention has been widely paid to the function that forests play to maintain and improve environment. In 1992, UN Conference on Environment and Development bestowed priority on forestry and it became a political promise of the highest rank. In addition, it was particularly emphasized in the meeting that nothing has been more important than forestry among the problems that the world summit conferences will deal with. It is a distinct milestone in world civilization history to place forestry issues at such a high position.

B.英译汉

有关全球热带森林遭到乱砍滥伐、令人痛心的报道层出不穷,但是痛陈现存林木状况的报道却少之又少。事实上,联合国分支机构——国际热带木材组织(ITTO )新近开展的一项研究,首次对热带森林管理现状进行深入调查。其发现虽然令人沮丧,但从中我们还是看到了一线希望。

ITTO 调查的对象是“永久性森林地产”,也就是被ITTO 所属33 个成员国政府正式划作森林地域,从而受到某种形式的管理或保护的土地。它涉及国家森林公园和木材的特许经营,包括国营和私营。地产总面积达8.14 亿公顷,约占全球热带森林面积的三分之二。

此项研究报告的作者之一邓肯· 玻尔解释说,这一概念意义重大,因为我们不可能,也不值得对每一片濒临消失的小树林都一直进行保护以避免其被农田或住宅侵占。相反,政府应当集中精力养护好那些最具有商业和科学价值的森林。可是ITTO 的研究人员却发现,在“永久性森林地产”中,仅15% 有着相应的管理方案,而能坚持贯彻执行这一方案的不到5%。报告中提到,自1988 年以来,森林管理取得了显着的进展,因为这不足5% 的面积总共仍相当于一个德国的大小。当年一项粗略的早期调查发现,热带地区国家中只有特立尼达和多巴哥对森林管理较为完善。但是,相对于同期已然消亡的森林而言,这片管理得当的森林显得无足轻重。

A.汉译英

中国是世界上生物多样性最为丰富的国家之一,也是最早加入《生物多样性公约》的国家。中国政府高度重视生物多样性保护工作,制定并实施了一系列与生物多样性保护有关的法律法规,基本形成了保护生物多样性的法律体系;建立完善了《生物多样性公约》履约协调机制和生物物种资源保护部际联席会议制度;制定发布了《中国生物多样性保护行动计划》和各种与生物多样性保护有关的规划;

各有关部门还以此为依据,制定和实施了各相应领域的专项保护计划。

China is one of the countries boasting the richest biodiversity and also one of the earliest adopting the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Chinese Government has highly valued the work of biodiversity conservation by formulating and enforcing a series of related laws and regulations, so that a legal system on the conservation and biodiversity has fundamentally formed. In addition, it has established and consolidated the coordination mechanism on the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as the scheme of Inter-ministerial Joint Meeting on biological species resources, laid down and issued the National Action Plan on the Conservation of Biodiversity of China and other related plans in this regard, based on which various

relevant sectors have mapped out and executed their own action plans.

B.英译汉

在今年举办生物多样性国际日纪念活动,适逢今年是2011 国际森林年。联合国大会宣布今年为2011 国际森林年,是为了让全球社会了解森林的价值以及失去森林将产生的极端社会、经济和环境成本。

森林的益处久远绵长。森林聚水蓄水,稳定土壤,涵养多种生物,并对调节气候以及造成气候变化的温室气体做出重要贡献。森林为国际生意创造利润,为全世界数以亿计最贫穷的人民提供必不可少的收入和资源。我们取之于森林者可谓多矣。然而,尽管我们对这一点的理解和重视日益增加,森林仍然在以惊人的速度消失。今年的生物多样性国际日则专门强调采取紧急行动的必要性。

A.汉译英

中国有很多湿地,并且其中很多还是世界上非常重要的湿地资源,中国的黄海湿地就是其中之一。它位于江苏盐城,是很多种鸟类和动物的家园。其中有世界最大的麋鹿保护区,超过700只麋鹿自由地生活在那里。世界上仅存很少的丹顶鹤,是每年冬天你在黄海湿地的丹顶鹤自然保护区都能看见它们的一些身影。湿地的温度不是太高也不是太低,并且雨量充足,日照充裕,的确是野生动物的天堂。There are many wetlands in China and some of them have become the world’s important wetlands. The Chinese Yellow Sea Wetlands are among them. They are in Yancheng, Jiangsu

Province. They are home for many different kinds of birds and animals. The world’s largest milu deer nature reserve is located in them. More than 700 milu deer live freely there. There are not many red-crowned cranes in the world, but every winter you can see some in the Red-Crowned Cranes Nature Reserve in the Yellow Sea Wetlands. The temperature in the wetlands is usually neither too high nor too low. There is a lot of rain and sunshine, too. They are really good places for wildlife.

B.英译汉

湿地并非荒芜之地

湿地曾被当作荒芜之地。在过去的大约一百年中,人们把湿地的水抽干填平,然后在上面建筑房屋,兴建城市,修建道路。几千亩的湿地被抽干,改造成了农田。湿地的另一威胁来自化学、农药等的污染。科学家推测,自1900 年以来,大约丧失了50% 的湿地,而仅存的湿地也将或正在恶化。

A.汉译英

尽管面临着气候变化的严峻挑战,农业仍然肩负着养活全世界的责任。农业需要生产更多的粮食,减少粮食浪费,能让农民将他们生产的粮食轻松地送到消费者手中。此外,农业还必须通过温室气体排放、统筹粮食安全与农村发展等途径来减少环境变化给农业带来的负面影响。这一切只有通过农业高新科技的发展才有可能实现。

Agriculture still has the responsibility to feed the world in spite of the serious challenge

of climate change. Agriculture needs to produce more food, waste less, and make it easier for farmers to get their produce to consumers. Besides, agriculture has to find ways/approaches/methods to reduce negative impacts resulted from environmental change - including lowering greenhouse gas emissions, planning/managing food security and rural development as a whole, etc. Only through the development of agricultural high technology can the above be realized/All these are only possible through the development of agricultural high technology.

B.英译汉

无土栽培或水培法是一种在营养液(含有营养物质的水)中栽培植物的技术,它可以使用或不使用人工基质(如沙、砾石、蛭石、岩棉、珍珠岩或锯末)为植物提供支持。水培法一词源于希腊词汇hydro (水)和ponos (劳作)的结合。

水培园艺如日常园艺一样容易操作。两者都需要有充足的光照、水分供应和适宜的温湿度。但是水培法不使用土壤。自然条件下,土壤充当着储存矿物营养的角色,但土壤本身对植物生长来说并不是必不可少的。当土壤中的矿物营养物溶解于水时,植物根茎才得以吸收。若植物所需的矿物营养物由人工添加入其水分供应中,土壤就不再是植物茁壮生长所必需的条件了。几乎所有的陆生植物都能用水培法来栽种。这种技术还具有产量高、节水省地、保护环境的特点。

A.汉译英

中国农业必须走资源节约型、生产清洁型、环境友好型、质量效益型的低碳农业发展道路。因此,在技术上,要大力开展一系列关键技术体系的研发及其推广应用。比如:资源节约型技术,包括节能技术、节地技术、节水技术、节肥技术、节药技术、节种技术、节料技术、省工技术等,以及农用化学品的减量化使用及其代替技术、高光效和高碳汇的植物新品种培育技术、土壤碳汇技术、清洁能源技术、环境友好型清洁生产技术和废弃物无害化处理与资源化利用技术等。

Chinese agriculture has to undergo a low-carbon development with characteristics of being resources-saving, production-clean, environment-friendly and quality-efficiency-oriented. Therefore, in terms of technology, great efforts must be made to develop a series of key technologies and promote/polarize/generalize/spread their practical application. For example, resources-saving technology including energy-saving, soil-saving, water-saving, fertilizer-saving, insecticides-saving, seeds-saving, materials-saving and labor-saving techniques, and so on, technology of reducing the use of agricultural chemicals and developing their substitutes, technology of cultivating new plant species with a high light absorption and carbon sequestration, technology of sequestratrating soil carbon, technology of developing clean energies, clean environment-friendly production technology, technology of nuisance-free proposal and reclamation of wastes, and so on.

B.英译汉

农业在食物生产、能源生产、自然资源管理及土地使用各环节中的重要作用使得它在向低碳经济转型的过程中占据了中心位置,因此,测量不同农产品和各种农业活动中产生的温室气体是非常重要的。通过一种从“摇篮到坟墓”的生命周期分析可计算出环

境(生态)脚印。在这一分析系统中,通过量化和评估某一产品生命周期各个阶段(从资源的开发、原材料的使用和生产到该产品的生产、使用、重复使用直至其最终处理)所消耗的资源和在环境中的碳排放量可以评估该产品所有的潜在环境影响。农业生态脚印也是以这种方式计算得出的。

A.汉译英

1989年城市规划法的颁布实施,是中国在城市规划体系重构和正规化的一个里程碑。但是,在处理日益变化的社会经济环境时,城市规划系统仍然存在着很多缺漏。其中的一些缺漏可以追溯到过去计划经济时代,而另一些是城市规划法本身存在的问题。中国的一些城市正在尝试新的做法,以便为从计划经济转向过渡经济的城市规划和发展控制提供更好的指导和监管。

The enactment of the 1989 City Planning Act is a major milestone that tries to re-establish and formalize the urban planning system in China. But, there are still many deficiencies of the urban planning system in dealing with the rapidly changing socio-economic environment. Some of these deficiencies can be traced to the legacies of past planning practice and some are deficiencies of the City Planning Act. Experiments are taking place in Chinese cities which aim to provide better guidance to urban planning and development control from a centrally-planned to transitional economy.

B.英译汉

自然是一个无处不在且环拥城市的整体。这一理念对城市的建造和维护以及每个居民的健康、安全和福利都有相当大的意义。不幸的是传统一直将城市和自然对立起来。城市是脱离自然的实体,甚至与自然格格不入,这样的观念主导着人们对城市的认识并继续影响城市的建设,由此恶化甚至带来许多城市环境问题,例如:空气和水受到污染;资源枯竭无法挽回;破坏力大的洪水频发;能源需求和建设维护成本都高于城市化之前;此外,许多城市遍布着丑陋景象。除了污染程度、新污染物的毒性和持久性以及地球城市化范围等方面,那些困扰着古代城市的问题与现代都市的问题从本质上讲没什么不同。随着城市增长,这些问题变得更加紧迫,然而,它们仍被当作是独立的现象而与人类活动无关,对自然过程的忽视更加剧了城市问题。

A.汉译英

近来,我们每天都能看到明星在电视,网络或其他媒介上代言,推销某个产品,宣传某个社会活动。

毋庸置疑,明星代言能带动产品的销售。然而,一些明星却沦为某些销售公司的赚钱工具,甚至包括销售伪劣产品的公司。这种行径给消费者以及整个社会带来了负面影响,应该受到谴责和惩罚。当然,任何事物总有两面性。明星的社会活动和公共事业的代言,也提高了公众的意识,改变了公众的行为。这从这个意义上来说,他们在社会公众面前发挥着“示范榜样”的功能。仅举一例:濮存昕。他是一个家喻户晓的人物,是中国艾滋病基金会的代言人,他为中国艾滋病的预防和治疗做出了很大的贡献。

Currently, we could hardly live a single day without seeing a celebrity spokesperson promoting a product or a social campaign on TV, net or other media. There is no doubt that the celebrity spokespeople could boost the sale of a product. A host of

celebrity spokespersons , however, have emerged as the a marketing tool of some companies, even companies producing and selling fake and inferior items. This kind of behavior has produced negative impacts on consumers and whole society which should be severely criticized and penalized. Of course, as is known to all, everything has both bright and dark sides. Some stars' endorsement of social activities and public campaigns raises public awareness, giving rise to changes in public behavior. In this case, they serve as positive role models of the general public. To name only one case: Pu CX, a household figure, acting as the celebrity spokesman of the China AIDS Foundation, contributes greatly to the cause of AIDS prevention and cure in China.

B.英译汉

在任何行业用以获取信息知识和帮助决策的系统,都应及时或准时地提供准确、完整、简洁的信息。系统提供的信息必须具有如下特性:形式对用户友好、易于查询、经济适用,而且必须防止未经授权的访问。

信息与通信技术(ICT )包含三种主要技术:计算机技术、通信技术、信息管理技术。因此能在支持信息的上述特性上发挥重要作用。这些技术用于处理、交换、管理数据、信息和知识。ICT 提供的工具能够:

- 以数据格式记录文本、图画、照片、音频、视频、过程描写以及其他信息;

- 以显着低廉的成本制作上述信息的精确副本;

- 通过通信网络快速远程传送信息和知识;

- 相对快速地开发针对大量信息的标准化计算法;

- 在沟通、评价、制造、分享有用信息和知识方面达到更高的互动性。

A.汉译英

苏州以东方威尼斯着称,它的园林在数量和园林艺术性方面都是出类拔萃的。最早的苏州园林可以追溯到春秋时期,它们的主人是吴国的国王。平江园是有记载的最早的私家园林,它的历史可以回溯到公元四世纪的东晋。从那以后,苏州园林艺术历经了1500年的历史。希望能在欣赏山川,树木和河流的同时,不必远离喧闹的城市,苏州园林造就了自然和建筑上的和谐统一。在苏州园林繁盛的明清时期,新增了很多园林,总数达到了200多个。其中的数十个保存到了今天,保护的也很好。幸存下来的园林,最有名的分别是代表了宋元明清4朝不同建筑风格的沧浪亭,狮子林,拙政园和留园。Famed for Oriental Venice, Suzhou tops all other cities in both the number and the artistry of gardens. Tracing back to the Spring and Autumn period, the earliest gardens in Suzhou belongs to the king of Wu. Recorded as the earliest private garden, Pingjiang house dates from.the 4th century Eastern Jin Dynasties. Following that, Suzhou's art of gardening has undergone a history of 1500 years. Originated from the desire to feel the charm of mountains, forest and springs without going out of the noisy surrounding of the town, Suzhou gardens are the harmonious combination of nature and constructions. During the prosperous Ming and Qing Dynasties, the number of gardens in city increases a great deal, mounting to 200 odd. Dozens of them have survived to the present and are in a good state of preservation. Among them, the most famous ones are the Surging Waves Pavilion, the Lion Grove Garden, the Humble Administrator Garden and the Lingering Garden, representing the different styles of Song, Yuan, Ming

and Qing Dynasties respectively.

B.英译汉

尽管中国的园林艺术是精细的,但植物通常都没有人工加工的痕迹。你找不到裁减得笔直的树篱,也找不到几何图案的花丛。欧洲景观建筑师对植物的滥用,中国建筑师都给了园林里的房子。自然不经修饰,最突出的特点就是没有草坪。宏伟的柏树的林荫大道,黄杨的裁减成形,喷泉,所有这些都太折腾自然了。尽管这样,西方园林都没有摆脱荒凉的景象。中国造园的目的是陶醉与欣喜,基本上是智慧的艺术。

A.汉译英

北冥有鱼,其名为鲲。鲲之大,不知其几千里也。化而为鸟,其名为鹏。鹏之背,不知其几千里也;

怒而飞,其翼若垂天之云。是鸟也,海运则将徙于南冥。南冥者,天池也。《齐谐》者,志怪者也。

《谐》之言曰:“鹏之徙于南冥也,水击三千里,抟扶摇而上者九万里,去以六月息者也。”野马也,尘埃也,生物之以息相吹也。天之苍苍,其正色邪其远而无所至极邪其视下也,亦若是则已矣。且夫水之积也不厚,则其负大舟也无力。覆杯水于坳堂之上,则芥为之舟,置杯焉则胶,水浅而舟大也。风之积也不厚,则其负大翼也无力。故九万里,则风斯在下矣,而后乃今培风;背负青天,而莫之夭阏者,而后乃今将图南。

In the northern ocean there is a fish, called the kun, I do not know how many thousand li in size. This kun changes into a bird, called the peng. Its back is I do not know how many thousand li in breadth. When it is moved, it flies, its wings obscuring the sky like clouds.When on a voyage, this bird prepares to start for the Southern Ocean, the Celestial Lake.

And in the Records of Marvels we read that when the peng flies southwards, the water is smitten for a space of three thousand li around, while the bird itself mounts upon a great wind to a height of ninety thousand li, for a flight of six months’ duration.

There mounting aloft, the bird saw the moving white mists of spring, the dust-clouds, and the living things blowing their breaths among them. It wondered whether the blue of the sky was its real color, or only the result of distance without end, and saw that the things on earth appeared thesame to it.

If there is not sufficient depth, water will not float large ships. Upset a cupful into a hole in the yard, and a mustard-seed will be your boat. Try to float the cup, and it will be grounded, due to the disproportion between water and vessel. So with air. If there is not sufficient a depth, it cannot support large wings. And for this bird, a depth of ninety thousand li is necessary to bear it up. Then, gliding upon the wind, with nothing save the clear sky above, and no obstacles in the way, it starts upon its journey to the south.

B.英译汉

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