英译汉：T oday, a gap year refers mostly to a year taken before starting university or college. During their gap year, American students either engage in advanced academic courses or do some volunteer work to improve their knowledge, maturity, decision-making, leadership, independence, self-sufficiency and more, thus improving their résumés before going to college. British and European students, however, take a much more holiday-style approach to the gap year by generally working for 3–6 months and then travelling around the world before college begins. This is intended to expand their minds, personal confidence, experiences and interests prior to college. It is a much less structured approach than taken in the United States, and is generally viewed by parents as a formative year for young adults to become independent and learn a great deal of responsibility prior to engaging in university life.
参考译文：Today, many Chinese universities attach great importance to cultivating innovation awareness and entrepreneurship. Many prestigious universities establish long-term relationships with a lot of companies. These companies recruit qualified graduates from the universities on a regular basis. What’s more, some alumni even create start-up funds to support students in starting their own business. The presidents of some universities say that doing business and studying are not in conflict and that encouraging students to set up businesses can help them put their specialized knowledge into practice and raise their competitiveness.
比如，把冰糖和梨放在一起蒸是很好的药膳，可以起到润肺（moisten lung）、化痰（dissolve phlegm）、止咳（arrest cough）的作用。
For example, pear steamed with rock sugar is a medicated diet, good for moistening the lung, dissolving phlegm and arresting cough.
Chinese medicated diets have not only the efficiency of medicine, but also the delicacy of food.
药膳是中国人日常饮食的重要组成部分，现在就连外国人也开始喜爱、接受中国药膳。They are an important part of Chinese people’s daily meals. Even people from other countries have come to love and consume Chinese medicated diets.
英译汉：Table manners are the rules of etiquette that should be observed by diners. In the UK, the host or hostess takes the first bite after all food is served and everyone is seated. Food should always be tasted before salt and pepper are added. It is acceptable to take some butter from the butter dish with a butter knife and put it onto a side plate. This prevents the butter in the dish from gathering bread crumbs as it is passed around. It is impolite to reach over someone to pick up food or other items. Diners should always ask for items to be passed along the table to them. Food should always be chewed with the mouth closed. It is rude to eat noisily. Talking with food in one’s mouth is also seen as very impolite. When someone has finished eating, they should place the knife and fork together on the plate and place the napkin unfolded on the table.
汉译英：中国药膳（Chinese medicated diet）源远流长，是中国宝贵的文化遗产，也是中医养生学的重要内容。药膳对预防疾病和强身健体有着显著的功效。比如，把冰糖和梨放在一起蒸是很好的药膳，可以起到润肺（moisten lung）、化痰（dissolve phlegm）、止咳（arrest cough）的作用。药膳不仅具有药物的疗效，还具有食物的美味。药膳是中国人日常饮食的重要组成部分，现在就连外国人也开始喜爱、接受中国药膳。
参考译文：Chinese medicated diets have a long history. They are part of the valuable cultural heritage of China and an important part of Chinese health study. Medicated diets have a notable effect on the prevention of diseases and improvement of physical fitness. For example, pear steamed with rock sugar is a medicated diet, good for moistening the lung, dissolving phlegm and arresting cough. Chinese medicated diets have not only the efficiency of medicine, but also the delicacy of food. They are an important part of Chinese people’s daily meals. Even people from other countries have come to love and consume Chinese medicated diets.
Chinese parents pay a lot of attention to their children’s education.
They hold that
children are more willing to accomplish complicated tasks if adults can give them proper guidance.
Therefore, “teaching by giving step-by-s tep directions” is taken as the best way to educate children.
In recent years, under the influence of Western ideas of education, Chinese parents are beginning to give more priority to fostering independence and creativity in children.
They encourage their children to attend interest classes to learn painting or music. They hope that their children will become all-round individuals by constantly learning and exploring.
英译汉：In the United States, the vast majority of Americans live with people to whom they are related by blood or marriage. Most American couples have two or three children, though larger families are not unusual. Typically, the family consists of parents and their minor children. Middle-aged and elderly people generally do not live with their married children. However, parents usually keep in close contact with their grown children. On holidays, members of the larger family group — grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins — often dine together. In the past, very few people would have liked living with their parents beyond childhood. But recently, more and more young American people have been returning home after graduating from college. Some of them decide to stay home and save money while working hard toward the day they can establish a home of their own. This is a practical decision, as so much work —academic and professional — is needed today in order to become
参考译文：在美国，绝大多数美国人都与有血缘关系或婚姻关系的人一起生活。大部分美国夫妻有两三个孩子，虽然更大的家庭也并不少见。一个美国家庭通常包括父母及未成年子女。中老年人一般不跟已婚子女住在一起。不过，父母常常与成年子女保持密切的联系。假期的时候，大家庭的成员（包括祖父母、姨妈/ 姑姑、舅舅/ 叔叔及堂/ 表兄弟姐妹们等）经常一起聚餐。过去，孩子长大后很少有人愿意跟父母住在一起。但是近年来，越来越多的美国年轻人大学毕业后回家与父母同住。有些人决定住在家里，一边努力工作一边攒钱，直到有一天他们有能力自立门户。这是一个现实的决定，因为现在一个人要想实现自给自足就需要在学业和职业上付出大量的努力。
参考译文：Chinese parents pay a lot of attention to their children’s educat ion. They hold that children are more willing to accomplish complicated tasks if adults can give them proper guidance. Therefore, “teaching by giving step-by-step directions” is taken as the best way to educate children. In recent years, under the influence of Western ideas of education, Chinese parents are beginning to give more priority to fostering independence and creativity in children. They encourage their children to attend interest classes to learn painting or music. They hope that their children will become all-round individuals by constantly learning and exploring.
英译汉：Social networking sites are an important part of life in the US. About two-thirds of American adults online use social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace or LinkedIn. Connecting with family members and friends is a primary consideration in their adoption of social media tools. Some media users go to these sites in order to stay in touch with current friends and family members, while others try to connect wit h old friends they’ve lost touch with. Sharing hobbies or interests, making new friends, reading comments by public figures and finding potential romantic partners are also among the reasons for using social networking sites. Social networking sites can also serve as information networks where people share information with other users. Instead of searching through a news source such as the website of The New York Times or ESPN that caters to all people, a person can check their Twitter account and find out about their favourite team’s scores and news.
参考译文：A recent survey indicated that the number of people accessing the Internet by mobile phone has overtaken the number of Internet users on computers. Online access on mobile phones has risen to 85.8%. The mobile phone has become the fifth
mass medium after the traditional four media: television, radio, newspapers and magazines. With online access by mobile phone, Chinese people are enjoying the convenience and benefits of all kinds of new media like MicroBlog, WeChat, and podcasts. The vividness, real-timeness and interactivity of such media have attracted many young people. While WeChat’s circle of friends enables people to communicate and interact frequently with friends, podcasts meet people’s need for self- expression and displaying individuality.
英译汉：Yoga is a physical, mental and spiritual practice or discipline originated in India. But B. K. S. Iyengar ( 艾扬格) is believed to be the person who helped make yoga popular in the West. Iyengar was born into a poor family. His childhood was plagued by malaria, influenza and tuberculosis. Doctors predicted he would not live past 20. After being introduced to yoga at the age of 16, it took the young man six years to fully regain his health. In 1952 the violinist Yehudi Menuhin ( 耶胡迪? 梅纽因) met Iyengar in India and then brought him to London. Iyengar taught yoga there, and showed people that yoga is for everyone and that, for modern people who suffer from physical pains and mental stress, yoga is the way to help integrate the mental and the physical plane, bringing about a sense of inner and outer balance.
参考译文：瑜伽源于印度，是身体、心理、精神方面的修行或训练。真正使瑜伽在西方得到普及的人是B.K.S.艾杨格。艾杨格出生在一个穷苦的家庭。在童年时代，他受到过疟疾、流行性感冒和肺结核的折磨。医生预言他活不过20 岁。16 岁那年他接触到了瑜伽。在此后的六年里，这个年轻人靠练瑜伽完全康复了。1952 年，小提琴家耶胡迪·梅纽因在印度遇见艾杨格，并把他带到了伦敦。艾杨格在伦敦教瑜伽。他向人们表明瑜伽适合每一个人。对于遭受身体病痛和精神压力双重折磨的现代人而言，瑜伽是帮助他们协调身心，达到内外平衡的途径。
汉译英：养生气功（health qigong）在中国很流行。每天早晨在公园里，我们都可以看到练气功的人们。作为一种传统的保健运动，气功要求耐心和专注。经过长期的静心修炼之后，那些承受巨大压力的人就能逐渐恢复健康，体健心静（mental serenity）。随着现代科学的发展，传统的养生气功已经发展出新的形式以适应现代社会的需求。
参考译文：Health qigong is popular in China. Every morning in the parks, we can see people performing this exercise. It’s a traditional health-maintaining exercise, which requires patience and focus. After long-term practice in a peaceful state of mind, those under high pressure can achieve both physical fitness and mental serenity. With the development of modern science, traditional health qigong has evolved into new forms to meet the needs of modern society.