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be to do用法小结

be to do 的用法

“be to do”这个结构有两种语法意义,○1连系动词be+动词不定式做表语,○2be to是一个独立词汇单位,具有情态含义,可以把它叫做情态习语(modal idiom)。

一、be +动词不定式,不定式做表语,表示主语和表语在概念上是等同的。如:

The problem is to find a solution.

问题是要找到一个解决方案。

His plan is to clean the room.

他的计划是打扫房间。

My wish is to be a doctor.

我的愿望是成为一名医生。

二、be to +动词不定式中的be to用作情态习语,这时的be to do表示: “计划”、“安排”、“义务”、“应该”、“可能”、“命运”等。(have to, ought to)。如: He is to have a holiday. (表示将来)

他要去度假。

The committee is to meet today. (表示计划、安排)

委员会计划今天开会。

You are to go to the hotel where rooms have already been booked for you.

你要去的酒店已经为你安排好了房间。

1.表示“将”、“计划”、“安排”。(意思接近于be going to)如:

Their daughter is to get married soon.

他们的女儿要结婚了。

Who is to question him?

要询问他的是谁?

It was the last film at the cinema,which was to close next day.

这是在电影院的最后一场电影了,电影院明天就要关闭了。

After dinner they were to go to a movie.

晚饭过后,他们要去看电影。

was/ were to do表示过去曾经计划要做的事,或者过去应当做的事,而且从现在的角度来看已经实现了。如:

I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time.

我感觉有点紧张,因为这是我第一次要离开家了。

I was to play Juliet.

The expedition was to start in a week’s time.

探险将在下周开始。

was/ were to have done,表示“本打算”、“本计划”或“本应当”做的事而没有做成或没有发生。如:

I was to have seen him last Wednesday, but he didn’t come.

我本打算上周三去看他的,但他没有回来。

We were to have been married last year.

我们本打算去年结婚。

2.表示“义务”、“应该” 。(意思接近于should,must,ought to,have to)如:

No one is to leave the building.

谁也不得离开这楼房。

You are not to smoke in this room.=You are not supposed to smoke in this room.

你最好不要在房间里吸烟。

You are to be back by 10 o’clock.

你必须十点以前回来。

3.表示可能性,相当于can, may如:

Such books are to be found in the library.

这样的书在图书馆里就能找到。

Not a single sound was to be heard.

一点儿声音也听不到。

Not a soul was to be seen.

看不到一个人影。

She was nowhere to be found.

哪儿也找不到她。

She was never to see his wife and family again.

她再也没见过他的妻子和家庭。

5.表示“命运”,将来必然要发生的事,译作“注定……”。如:

He came to power, but he was to play dearly for it: soon he was assassinated.

The worst is still to come.

他得到了权利,但注定要为此付出昂贵的代价。不久他就被暗杀了。

They said goodbye, little knowing they were never to meet again.

一声道别,然而他们似乎并不知道他们已不可能再相见。

6.用于“if…were to do”,表示虚拟语气。如:

If it were to rain tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off.

如果明天下雨,运动会就会延期。

Exercises:

1.This film ___A__ this Sunday.

A. is going to show

B. is showing

C. is to be show

D. will have been show

2.The students were told that they __C__ at the school gate at 2:00 the following afternoon.

A. met

B. will meet

C. were to meet

D. were met

3. The house ___D___ ready today but as there has been a builders’ strike it is still only half finished.

A. is

B. was to be

C. was

D. was to have been

4.In such dry weather, the flowers will have to be watered if they ___B______.

A. have survived

B. are to survive

C. would survive

D. will survive

5.How ____A___ I ______ what has become of him?

A. am; to know

B. am; knowing

C. was; to know

D. will; know

6. ___A___ he ________ tomorrow, I would go to meet him at the station.

A. Were; to come

B. Was; coming

C. Did; come

D. Would; come

该句相当于If he were to come …虚拟语气