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Unit 1

Time-Conscious Americans

Americans believe no one stands still. If you are not moving ahead, you are falling behind. This attitude results in a nation of people committed to researching, experimenting and exploring. Time is one of the two elements that Americans save carefully, the other being labor.

"We are slaves to nothing but the clock," it has been said. Time is treated as if it were something almost real. We budget it, save it, waste it, steal it, kill it, cut it, account for it; we also charge for it. It is a precious resource. Many people have a rather acute sense of the shortness of each lifetime. Once the sands have run out of a person's hourglass, they cannot be replaced. We want every minute to count.

A foreigner's first impression of the US is likely to be that everyone is in a rush—often under pressure. City people always appear to be hurrying to get where they are going, restlessly seeking attention in a store, or elbowing others as they try to complete their shopping. Racing through daytime meals is part of the pace of

life in this country. Working time is considered precious. Others in public eating-places are waiting for you to finish so they, too, can be served and get back to work within the time allowed. You also find drivers will be abrupt and people will push past you. You will miss smiles, brief conversations, and small exchanges with strangers. Don't take it personally. This is because people value time highly, and they resent someone else "wasting" it beyond a certain appropriate point.

Unit 1注重时间的美国人

Para. 1 美国人认为没有人能停止不前。如果你不求进取,你就会落伍。这种态度造就了一个投身于研究、实验和探索的民族。时间是美国人注意节约的两个要素之一,另一要素是劳力。

Para. 2 人们一直说:“只有时间才能支配我们。”人们似乎是把时间当作一个差不多是实实在在的东西来对待。我们安排时间、节约时间、浪费时间、挤抢时间、消磨时间、缩减时间、对时间的利用作出解释;我们还要因付出时间而收取费用。时间是一种宝贵的资源,许多人都深感人生的短暂。时光一去不复返。我们应当让每一分钟都过得有意义。

Para. 3a 外国人对美国的第一印象很可能是:每个人都匆匆忙忙——常常处于压力之下。城里人看上去总是在匆匆地赶往他们要去的地方,在商店里他们焦躁不安地指望店员能马上来为他们服务,或者为了赶快买完东西,用肘来推搡他人。白天吃饭时人们也都匆匆忙忙,这部分反映出这个国家的生活节奏。人们认为工作时间是宝贵的。

Para. 3b 在公共用餐场所,人们都等着别人尽快吃完,以便他们也能及时用餐,按时赶回去工作。你还会发现司机开车很鲁莽,人们推搡着在你身边过去。你会怀念微笑、简短的交谈以及与陌生人的随意闲聊。不要觉得这是针对你个人的,这是因为人们都非常珍惜时间,而且也不喜欢他人“浪费”时间到不恰当的地步。

Para. 4a 许多刚到美国的人会怀念诸如商务拜访等场合开始时的寒暄。他们也会怀念那种一边喝茶或喝咖啡一边进行的礼节性交流,这也许是他们自己国家的一种习俗。他们也许还会怀念在饭店或咖啡馆里谈生意时的那种轻松悠闲的交谈。

Para. 4b 一般说来,美国人是不

Many new arrivals in the States will miss the opening exchanges of a business call, for example. They will miss the ritual interaction that goes with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee that may be a convention in their own country. They may miss leisurely business chats in a restaurant or coffee house. Normally, Americans do not assess their visitors in such relaxed surroundings over extended small talk; much less do they take them out for dinner, or around on the golf course while they develop a sense of trust. Since we generally assess and probe professionally rather than socially, we start talking business very quickly. Time is, therefore, always ticking in our inner ear.

Consequently, we work hard at the task of saving time. We produce a steady flow of labor-saving devices; we communicate rapidly through faxes, phone calls or emails rather than through personal contacts, which though pleasant, take longer—especially given our

traffic-filled streets. We, therefore, save most personal visiting for

after-work hours or for social weekend gatherings.

To us the impersonality of electronic communication has little or no relation to the significance of the matter at hand. In some countries no major business is conducted without eye contact, requiring face-to-face conversation. In America, too, a final agreement will normally be signed in person. However, people are meeting increasingly on television screens, conducting "teleconferences" to settle problems not only in this country but also—by satellite—internationally. 会在如此轻松的环境里通过长时间的闲聊来评价他们的客人的,更不用说会在增进相互间信任的过程中带他们出去吃饭,或带他们去打高尔夫球。既然我们通常是通过工作而不是社交来评估和了解他人,我们就开门见山地谈正事。因此,时间老是在我们心中滴滴答答地响着。

Para. 5 因此,我们千方百计地节约时间。我们发明了一系列节省劳力的装置;我们通过发传真、打电话或发电子邮件与他人迅速地进行交流,而不是通过直接接触。虽然面对面接触令人愉快,但却要花更多的时间, 尤其是在马路上交通拥挤的时候。因此,我们把大多数个人拜访安排在下班以后的时间里或周末的社交聚会上。

Para. 6a 就我们而言,电子交流的缺乏人情味与我们手头上事情的重要性之间很少有或完全没有关系。在有些国家, 如果没有目光接触,就做不成大生意,这需要面对面的交谈。Para. 6b 在美国,最后协议通常也需要本人签字。然而现在人们越来越多地在电视屏幕上见面,开远程会议不仅能解决本国的问题,而且还能通过卫星解决国际问题

Para. 7 美国无疑是一个电话王国。几乎每个人都在用电话做生意、与朋友聊天、安排或取消社交约会、表达谢意、购物和获得各种信息。电话不但能免去走路之劳,而且还能节约大量时间。其部分原因在于这样一个事实:美国的电话服务是一流的,而邮政服务的效率则差一些。

Para. 8a 有些初来美国的人来自文化背景不同的其他国家,在他们的国家,人们认为工作太快是一种失礼。在他们看来,如果不花一定时间来处理某件事的话,那么这件事就好像是无足轻重的,不值得给予适当的重视。因此, 人们觉得用的时间长会增加所做事情的重要性。

The US is definitely a telephone country. Almost everyone uses the telephone to conduct business, to chat with friends, to make or break social appointments, to say "Thank you", to shop and to obtain all kinds of information. Telephones save the feet and endless amounts of time. This is due partly to the fact that the telephone service is superb here, whereas the postal service is less efficient.

Some new arrivals will come from cultures where it is considered impolite to work too quickly. Unless a certain amount of time is allowed to elapse, it seems in their eyes as if the task being considered were insignificant, not worthy of proper respect. Assignments are, consequently, given added weight by the passage of time. In the US, however, it is taken as a sign of skillfulness or being competent to solve a problem, or fulfill a job successfully, with speed. Usually, the more important a task is, the more capital, energy, and attention will be poured into it in order to "get it moving".

Unit 5

As His Name Is, So Is He!

For her first twenty-four years, she'd been known as Debbie—a name that didn't suit her good looks and elegant manner. "My name has always made me think I should be a cook," she complained. "I just don't feel like a Debbie."

One day, while filling out an

application form for a publishing job, the young woman impulsively substituted her middle name, Lynne, for her first name Debbie. "That was the smartest thing I ever did," she says now. "As soon as I stopped calling myself Debbie, I felt more Para. 8b 但在美国,能迅速而又成功地解决问题或完成工作则被视为是有水平、有能力的标志。通常情况下,工作越重要,投入的资金、精力和注意力就越多,其目的是“使工作开展起来”。

Unit 5 人如其名

Para. 1 在她人生最初的24 年里,人们一直叫她黛比——一个和她的漂亮容貌和优雅举止不相配的名字。“我的名字总是使我觉得自己应该是一个厨子,” 她抱怨道,“我真的不想要黛比这个名字。”

Para. 2a 一天,在填写一份出版工作职位的申请表时,这位小姐一时冲动,用她的中名琳替换了她的名字黛比。

Para. 2b “这是我一生中干得最漂亮的一件事,”现在她对人这样说,“一旦我不再称自己为黛比,我就感到好多了······而且其他人也开始更认真

comfortable with myself... and other people started to take me more seriously." Two years after her successful job interview, the former waitress is now a successful magazine editor. Friends and associates call her Lynne.

Naturally, the name change didn't cause Debbie/Lynne's professional achievement—but it surely helped if only by adding a bit of self-confidence to her talents. Social scientists say that what you're called can affect your life. Throughout history, names have not merely identified people but also described them. "As his name is, so is he." says the Bible, and Webster's Dictionary includes the following definition of name: "a word or words expressing some quality considered characteristic or descriptive of a person or a thing, often expressing approval or disapproval". Note well "approval or disapproval". For better or worse, qualities such as friendlines

s or reserve, plainness or charm may be suggested by your name and conveyed to other people before they even meet you.

Names become attached to specific images, as anyone who's been called "a plain Jane" or "just an average Joe" can show. The latter name particularly bothers me since my name is Joe, which some think makes me more qualified to be a baseball player than, say, an art critic. Yet, despite this disadvantage, I did manage to become an art critic for a time. Even so, one prominent magazine consistently refused to print "Joe" in my by-line, using my first initials, J. S., instead. I suspect that if I were a more refined Arthur or Adrian, the name would have appeared complete.

Of course, names with a positive sense can work for you and even encourage new acquaintances. A recent survey showed that American men thought Susan to be the most attractive female name, while women 地对待我了。”顺利地通过那次工作面试两年后,这位昔日的女服务员现在成了一位成功的杂志编辑。朋友和同事们都叫她琳。

Para. 3a 当然,黛比(或琳)的职业成就并不是改名带来的,但是这肯定给她带来了好处,虽说改名仅使她对自己的才能增加了一点点自信。社会科学家认为你叫什么名字会影响你的生活。从古至今,名字不仅被用来识别人,而且也被用来描述人。Para. 3b《圣经》上说:人如其名。此外,《韦伯斯特大词典》也对名字作了如下的定义:表达某种特点的一个或几个字,这种特点被认为反映了某人或某事的本质,或描述了某人某事,常表示嘉许或不赞成的意思。请好好注意这几个词:“嘉许或不赞成”。不管是好是坏,诸如友好或拘谨、相貌平平或漂亮妩媚等特征已经在你的名字中有所暗示,甚至他人在见到你本人之前就已经知道你的这些特征了

Para. 4a 名字是与特定形象相关联的,任何一个被称为“相貌平常的简”或“普普通通的乔”的人都能证明这一点。后面的那个名字特别使我烦恼,因为我也叫乔。有些人认为这个名字使我更适合于做一名棒球运动员而不是别的什么职业,比如说艺术评论家。然而,尽管有此局限,我确实曾一度设法成为了一名艺术评论家。

Para. 4b 即便如此,一家著名杂志一直拒绝把“乔” 作为我的文章署名,而是用我名字的首字母J. S. 来代替。我怀疑,假如我的名字是比较文雅的阿瑟或艾德里安的话,我的名字早已完整地出现在杂志上了。Para. 5a 当然,有积极含义的名字对你是有好处的,甚至能促进你结交新朋友。最新调查表明:美国男士认为苏珊是最有吸引力的女性名字,而女士则认为理查德和戴维是最有吸引

believed Richard and David were the most attractive for men. One woman I know turned down a blind date with a man named Harry because "he sounded dull". Several evenings later, she came up to me

at a party, pressing for an introduction to a very impressive man; they'd been exchanging glances all evening. "Oh," I said. "You mean Harry." She was ill at ease.

Though most of us would like to think ourselves free from such prejudiced notions, we're all guilty of name stereotyping to some extent. Confess: Wouldn't you be surprised to meet a carpenter named Nigel? A physicist named Bertha? A Pope Mel? Often, we project name-based stereotypes on people, as one woman friend discovered while taking charge of a nursery school's group of four-year-olds. "There I was, trying to get a little active boy named Julian to sit quietly and read a book—and pushing a thoughtful creature named Rory to play ball.

I had their personalities confused because of their names!"

Apparently, such prejudices can affect classroom achievement as well. In a study conducted by Herbert Harari of San Diego State University, and John McDavid of Georgia State University, teachers gave consistently lower grades on essays apparently written by boys named Elmer and Hubert than they awarded to the same papers when the writers' names were given as Michael and David. However, teacher prejudice isn't the only source of classroom difference. Dr. Thomas V. Busse and Louisa Seraydarian of Temple University found those girls with names such as Linda, Diane, Barbara, Carol, and Cindy performed better on objectively graded IQ and achievement tests than did girls with less appealing names.

(A companion study showed girls' popularity with their peers was also related to the popularity of their names―although the 力的男性名字。我认识一位女士,她就拒绝了一次与一位叫哈里的男人见面,因为“这人的名字听上去没劲”。

Para. 5b 可就在几天后的一个晚间聚会上,她走到我身边,催我把她介绍给一位气度不凡的男人;他们俩人整个晚上都在互送秋波。“哦,”我说:“你指的是哈里呀。”她听了后感到很尴尬。

Para. 6a 虽然我们中大多数人会认为自己没有这样的偏见,但在某种程度上,我们都多多少少对名字产生过成见。说实话,你碰到一个名叫奈杰尔的木匠会不会感到惊讶呢?或是一个叫伯莎的物理学家?抑或是一个叫梅尔的教皇?

Para. 6b 正如我的一位女性朋友在照看托儿所里四岁的儿童时所发现的那样,我们常常把由名字引起的固有想法加到他人身上。“在托儿所里,有一次我想让一个很活跃的名叫朱利安的小男孩静静地坐下来看书,而把一个喜欢沉思、名叫罗里的孩子推出去打球。因为他们的名字,我把他们的性格给搞混了!”

Para. 7a 很明显,这样的偏见也会影响课堂成绩。在一项由圣迭戈州立大学的赫伯特·哈拉里及乔治亚州立大学的约翰·麦克戴维主持的研究中发现,教师总是给署名为埃尔默和休伯特的作文打较低的分数,但当把这两篇作文的署名改为迈克尔和戴维时,老师给的分数就要高些。但是教师的偏见不是造成课堂成绩差别的唯一原因。

Para. 7b 坦普尔大学的托马斯·V. 布塞博士和路易莎·瑟拉里达里安发现:那些名叫琳达、黛安、芭芭拉、卡罗尔及辛迪之类的女孩们在评分较客观的智力测验和学业成绩测验中的表现比那些名字不太有吸引力的女孩要好。(一个与之相关的研究表明:女孩受同伴欢迎的程度也与她

connection was less clear for boys.)

Though your parents probably meant your name to last a lifetime, remember that when they picked it they'd hardly met you, and the hopes and dreams they valued when they chose it may not match yours. If your name no longer seems to fit you, don't despair; you aren't stuck with the label. Movie stars regularly change their names, and with some determination, you can, too.

Unit 6

Lighten Your Load and Save Y our Life If you often feel angry and overwhelmed, like the stress in your life is spinning out of control, then you may be hurting your heart.

If you don't want to break your own heart, you need to learn to take charge of your life where you can—and recognize there are many things beyond your control.

So says Dr. Robert S. Eliot, author of a new book titled From Stress to Strength: How to Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life. He's a clinical professor of medicine at the University of Nebraska.

Eliot says there are people in this world that he calls "hot reactors". For these people, being tense may cause tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure.

Eliot says researchers have found that stressed people have higher cholesterol levels, among other things. "We've done years of work in showing that excess alarm or stress chemicals can literally burst heart muscle fibers. When that happens it happens very quickly, within five minutes. It creates many short circuits, and that causes crazy heart rhythms. The heart beats like a bag of worms instead of a pump. And when that happens, we can't live." 们的名字受欢迎的程度有关系,虽然对男孩来说这种关系不太明显。)Para. 8 虽然你父母很可能想让你的名字伴随你一辈子,但记住,他们选这个名字的时候几乎还没有见到你呢。而且,他们在选名字时所看重的希望和梦想也许并不符合你的希望和梦想。如果你的名字看上去已不再适合你,不要苦恼;你不必一辈子用这个名字。影星们就经常改名,下点决心,你也可以这样做

Unit 6减轻负担, 拯救生命Para. 1 如果你常常生气、身心疲乏,好像你生活中的压力正在快速地失去控制,那么你可能是在损害你的心脏了。Para. 2 假如你不想损害自己的心脏,你就需要努力学会在力所能及的范围内控制自己的生活——并且承认有许多东西你是无法控制的。

Para. 3 这是罗伯特·S·埃利奥特博士的观点。他是内布拉斯加大学的临床医学教授,新书《从压力到力量:怎样减轻你的负担,拯救你的生命》的作者。Para. 4 埃利奥特说在这个世界上有一类他称之为“热核反应堆式的人”(即易怒的人)。对这些人来说,紧张会导致他们血压大幅度迅速上升。

Para. 5a 埃利奥特说,研究人员已经发现,有压力的人除了其他症状外,胆固醇的含量也较高。“我们已经做了多年研究,证明过分忧虑或紧张所产生的化学物质的确会损伤心肌纤维。。

Para. 5b 这种情况发生时往往很快,不到5分钟。它会造成许多短路,而且这种短路会引起严重的心律不齐。心脏跳起来不像一个泵,而像一只装着蠕虫的袋子(杂乱而又绵软无力)。当这种情况发生时, 我们就活不成了。”

Para. 6 现年64岁的埃利奥特,在44岁时曾有过一次心脏病发作,他把那次心脏病发作的部分原因归于压力。多年

Eliot, 64, suffered a heart attack at age 44. He attributes some of the cause to stress. For years he was a "hot reactor". On the exterior, he was cool, calm and collected,

but on the interior, stress was killing him. He's now doing very well.

The main predictors of destructive levels of stress are the FUD factors—fear, uncertainty and doubt—together with perceived lack of control, he says.

For many people, the root of their stress is anger, and the trick is to find out where the anger is coming from. "Does the anger come from a feeling that everything must be perfect?" Eliot asks.

"That's very common in professional women. They feel they have to be all things to all people and do it all perfectly. They think, 'I should, I must, I have to.' Good enough is never good enough. Perfectionists cannot delegate. They get angry that they have to carry it all, and they blow their tops. Then they feel guilty and they start the whole cycle over again."

"Others are angry because they have no compass in life. And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give a family argument," he says. "If you are angry for more than five minutes—if you stir the anger within you and let it build with no safety outlet—you have to find out where it's coming from."

"What happens is that the hotter people get, physiologically, with mental stress, the more likely they are to blow apart with some heart problem."

One step to calming down is to recognize you have this tendency. Learn to be less hostile by changing some of your attitudes and negative thinking. Eliot recommends taking charge of your life. "If there is one word that should be substituted for stress, it's control. Instead of the FUD 来,他一直是一个“热核反应堆式的人”。表面上,他显得沉着、冷静、泰然自若,但他内心深处的压力使他筋疲力尽。他现在身体状况很好。

Para. 7 他说,压力破坏性程度的主要预测指标是FUD因素?? FUD 指的是恐惧、犹豫和怀疑??再加上可察觉到的缺乏控制力。

Para. 8 对许多人来说,压力的根源是愤怒,而对付愤怒的诀窍是找出怒从何来。埃利奥特问道:“这种愤怒是否来自这么一种感觉:希望一切事物都必须完美无缺?”

Para. 9 “这在职业女性中是很常见的原因。她们觉得要让人人感到她们无所不能,而且要把样样事情都做得完美无缺。她们认为,…我应该这样,我必须这样,我不得不这样。?追求完美永无止境。完美主义者事必躬亲。他们生气是因为他们不得不把什么事情都扛在自己肩上,还为之发脾气。随后他们就感到内疚,接着他们就再把整个过程重复一遍。”

Para. 10 “还有的人生气是因为他们的生活没有方向。他们把交通阻塞看得和家庭纠纷一样重,” 他说:“如果你生气超过5分钟??如果你生闷气,没有安全的发泄渠道的话??你就必须弄清你为何生气。”

Para. 11 “此时就会发生这种情况??人们由于心理压力在生理上变得越发激动,他们的身体就越可能因为某种心脏病而崩溃。”

Para. 12 让自己平静下来的做法就是承认你存在这种倾向。通过改变你的某些看法和消极思想,学会对事物不再抱有那么强烈的敌视态度。

Para. 13 埃利奥特建议人们控制自己的生活。“如果有什么能取代压力,那就是控制。你所需要的不是FUD因素而是NICE因素?? NICE 是指新的、使人感兴趣的、有挑战性的经历。”

Para. 14 “你必须确定你能控制自己生活中的哪些部分,”他说:“停下你的脚

factors, what you want is the NICE factors—new, interesting, challenging experiences."

"You have to decide what parts of your life you can control," he says. "Stop where you are on your trail and say, 'I'm going to get my compass out and find out what I need to do.' "

He suggests that people write down the six things in their lives that they feel are the most important things they'd like to achieve. Ben Franklin did it at age 32. "He wrote down things like being a better father, being a better husband, being financially independent, being stimulated intellectually and remaining even-tempered—he wasn't good at that."

Eliot says you can first make a list of 12 things, then cut it down to 6 and set your priorities. "Don't give yourself impossible things, but things that will affect your identity, control and self-worth."

"Put them on a note card and take it with you and look at it when you need to. Since we can't create a 26-hour day we have to decide what things we're going to do."

Keep in mind that over time these priorities are going to change. "The kids grow up, the dog dies and you change your priorities."

From Eliot's viewpoint, the other key to controlling stress is to "realize that there are other troublesome parts of your life over which you can have little or no control—like the economy and politicians".

You have to realize that sometimes with things like traffic jams, deadlines and unpleasant bosses, "You can't fight. You can't flee. You have to learn how to flow." 步,对自己说,…我要把指南针拿出来,弄明白自己需要什么。?”

Para. 15 他建议人们写下他们觉得自己生活中最重要的、最想做成的6件事。本·富兰克林在32岁时就是这样做的。“他写下了他想要做的事情,诸如要做一个更慈爱的父亲、更体贴的丈夫、经济上独立、思维上活跃,而且还要保持性情平和——这一点他也做得不好。”Para. 16 埃利奥特说,你可以先列出12件事,然后压缩到6件,要确定轻重缓急。“别让自己去做不可能做到的事。要做那些会影响你的个性、控制能力和自我价值的事情。”

Para. 17 “把它们记在一张可以随身携带的卡片上,需要的时候看看。既然我们无法让一天有26个小时,我们就得确定先做哪些事情。”

Para. 18 请记住:随着时间的推移,优先要做的事会有所改变。“孩子会长大,狗会死去,你所优先考虑做的事也会改变。”Para. 19 根据埃利奥特的观点,控制压力的另一关键因素是“要承认你生活中还有一些棘手的、你几乎无法或完全无法控制的东西——比如经济以及政客们。”

Para. 20 你必须认识到,有时候像交通阻塞、最后期限及讨厌的老板这类事情,“你无法抗争,也无法逃避。你必须学会如何与之相容。”

Unit 7

There's a Lot More to Life than a Job

It has often been remarked that the saddest thing about youth is that it is wasted on the young.

Reading a survey report on first-year college students, I recalled the regret, "If only I knew then what I know now."

The survey revealed what I had already suspected from informal polls of students both in Macon and at the Robins Resident Center: If it (whatever it may be) won't compute and you can't drink it, smoke it or spend it, then "it" holds little value.

According to the survey based on responses from over 188,000 students, today's college beginners are "more consumeristic and less idealistic" than at any time in the 17 years of the poll.

Not surprising in these hard times, the students' major objective "is to be financially well off". Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life. Accordingly, today the most popular course is not literature or history but accounting.

Interest in teaching, social service and the humanities is at a low, along with ethnic and women's studies. On the other hand, enrollment in business programs, engineering and computer science is way up.

That's no surprise either. A friend of mine (a sales representative for a chemical company) was making twice the salary of college instructors during her first year on the job—even before she completed her two-year associate degree.

"I'll tell them what they can do with their music, history, literature, etc.," she was fond of saying. And that was four years ago; I tremble to think what she's earning now.

Unit 7人生的意义不只是工作Para. 1 人们常常说:对于青春来说,最令人悲伤的事情莫过于青春在年轻时被浪费掉了。

Para. 2 在读一份对大学一年级新生作的调查报告时,我又想起了这种惋惜之情:“要是当初我就懂得了现在我领悟到的东西该有多好!”

Para. 3 这份调查报告印证了我以前根据在梅肯和罗宾斯住宿中心对学生进行的非正式民意调查所作的推断:学生们认为如果某种东西(不管它是何物)没有实际意义,不能把它当酒喝、当烟抽、当钱花,那么“它” 就基本毫无价值。Para. 4 基于对188, 000 多名学生答卷的调查表明,当今的大学新生比这项民意测验开始17 年以来的任何时候的大学新生都“更主张消费主义,同时也少了些理想主义” 。

Para. 5 在这个经济不景气的时代,学生们的主要目标是追求“经济上的富裕” 。与过去任何时候相比,树立有意义的人生哲学已不那么重要了。这一情况并不让人感到惊奇。因此,如今最受欢迎的课程不是文学或历史,而是会计学。

Para. 6 如今人们对当教师、社会服务和人文学科、还有种族和妇女研究的兴趣都处于低潮。而另一方面,攻读商科、工程学及计算机科学的学生人数却在迅速增加。

Para. 7 还有一件事也不令人意外。我的一个朋友(一个化工公司的销售代理)在干这份工作的第一年所挣的钱就已是大学教师薪水的两倍了——这甚至还是在她修完两年制的准学士学位课程之前的事。

Para. 8 她喜欢说这样一句话:“我会对他们讲,他们学习音乐、历史、文学等等有什么用!”那还是四年以前呢,我都不敢想象她现在赚多少钱。

Para. 9 坦率地说,我为这位小姐感到骄傲(不是为她的态度,而是为她的成功)。但是我们为什么不能两全其美

Frankly, I'm proud of the young lady (not her attitude but her success). But why can't we have it both ways? Can't we educate people for life as well as for a career? I believe we can.

If we cannot, then that is a conviction against our educational system—kindergarten, elementary, secondary and higher. In a time of increasing specialization, more than ever, we need to know what is truly important in life.

This is where age and maturity enter. Most people, somewhere between the ages of 30 and 50, finally arrive at the inevitable conclusion that they were meant to do more than serve a corporation, a government agency, or whatever.

Most of us finally have the insight that quality of life is not entirely determined by a balance sheet. Sure, everyone wants to be financially comfortable, but we also want to feel we have a perspective on the world beyond the confines of our occupation; we want to be able to render service to our fellow men and to our God.

If it is a fact that the meaning of life does not dawn until middle age, is it then not the duty of educational institutions to prepare the way for that revelation? Most people, in their youth, resent the Social Security deductions from their pay, yet a seemingly few short years later find themselves standing anxiously by the mailbox.

While it's true all of us need a career, preferably a prosperous one, it is equally true that our civilization has collected an incredible amount of knowledge in fields far removed from our own. And we are better for our understanding of these other contributions—be they scientific or artistic. It is equally true that, in studying the diverse wisdom of others, we learn how to 呢?我们就不能教会人们既懂得谋生,又懂得人生么?我相信我们能够做到Para. 10 如果我们做不到这一点,那就是对我们从幼儿园、小学、中学直到大学的整个教育制度的否定。在一个日益专业化的时代,我们比过去任何时候都更需要了解什么是生活中真正重要的东西。

Para. 11 这就是年龄和成熟所能带给人们的启示。大多数年龄约在30 至50 岁之间的人都会最终得出一个必然的结论,即他们不应该仅仅是为某个公司、某个政府机构或任何其他单位服务。Para. 12 我们大多数人最终会认识到,生活质量并不完全是由资产负债表来决定的。诚然,每个人都想在经济上富裕点。但是我们还希望对自己职业范围以外的世界有所了解;我们希望能为我们的同胞和上帝效劳。

Para. 13 如果说人要到步入中年才能对人生的含义有所领悟的话,那么为这种领悟扫清障碍不正是教育机构的责任吗?大多数人在年轻的时候怨恨从他们工资中扣钱交社会保险金,然而好像只是短短几年后,他们就发现自己正焦急地站在信箱旁边(等待养老金支票)了。Para. 14a 虽然我们所有人都确实需要一份工作,最好是一份薪水丰厚的工作。但同样不容争议的事实是,我们的文明已经在我们各自的领域之外积累了巨大的知识财富。而且正因为我们理解了这些在其他领域的献——不管是科学方面的,还是艺术方面的——我们的人生才更完善。

Para. 14b 同样地,我们在了解他人的智慧的同时,自己也学会了如何去思考。也许更重要的是,教育使我们的视野超越了眼前的需求,并使我们看到了事物间的联系。

Para. 15 我们每周都在报纸上读到这样的消息:工会在为要求更高的工资而罢工,结果却只是使他们的老板破了产。没有了公司,也就没有了工作岗位。从长远来看,他们的目光是何等的短浅!

think. More importantly, perhaps, education teaches us to see the connections between things, as well as to see beyond our immediate needs.

Weekly we read of unions that went on strike for higher wages, only to drive their employer out of business. No company, no job. How short-sighted in the long run.

But the most important argument for a broad education is that in studying the accumulated wisdom of the ages, we improve our moral sense. I saw a cartoon recently which depicts a group of businessmen looking puzzled as they sit around a conference table; one of them is talking on the intercom: "Miss Baxter," he says, "could you please send in someone who can distinguish right from wrong?"

In the long run that's what education really ought to be about. I think it can be. My college roommate, now head of a large shipping company in New York, not surprisingly was a business major. But he also hosted a classical music show on the college's FM station and listened to Wagner as he studied his accounting.

That's the way it should be. Oscar Wilde had it right when he said we ought to give our ability to our work but our genius to our lives.

Let's hope our educators answer students' cries for career education, but at the same time let's ensure that students are prepared for the day when they realize their short-sightedness. There's a lot more to life than a job. Para. 16 但是赞成全面教育的最重要的理由是,在学习世世代代积累起来的知识的同时,我们也提高了自己的道德感。最近我看了一幅漫画,描述了几个商人坐在会议桌周围,看上去困惑不解的样子。其中的一个正通过内部通话设备讲话:“巴克斯特小姐,” 他说,“是否可以请您叫一个能明辨是非的人来?”Para. 17 从长远观点来看,这确确实实是教育应该做的事。我认为教育完全能够做到这一点。我的一位大学室友——现在是纽约一家大型航运公司的总裁——过去曾主修过商科,这一点并不出人意料。但是他也曾在大学调频电台上主持过一档古典音乐节目,并且在学习会计学的时候还在欣赏瓦格纳的音乐作品。

Para. 18 这就是教育之道。奥斯卡? 王尔德说得好:我们应该把我们的才能用于工作,而把我们的天赋投入到生活中去。

Para. 19 我们希望我们的教育工作者能满足学生对职业教育的渴求,但与此同时,我们也要确保学生能为他们认识到自己目光短浅的那一天做好准备。人生的意义远远不止是工作。

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