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Part I: Translate the Chinese in the brackets into English. (15%) 1. ____________________(爱因斯坦相对论)is the only one which can explain such phenomena. 2. Rate of penetration was found to ____________________ (与……成正比) the net pressure applied by the tool. 3. Being a ______________(非良导体/绝缘体), rubber is often used in cables. 4. Properly speaking, ___________(并非所有的物质) exist in three states. 5. An electric current produces ______________(磁场) around it. 6. With the result of automation, productivity has ___ ___________ (增加了5倍) in that factory. 7. Copper and aluminum are the best conductors of electric current ______________(仅次于银). 8. The neutron has __________________(既不带正电荷,也不带负电荷). 9. When the water temperature is increased, it vaporized more quickly until it reaches ________(沸点). 10. A __________(变压器) is a very useful device, even though it can be sued only with alternating current. Part Ⅱ: Choose the better rendition for each of the following sentences.(20%) 1.由于我在会上发表论文,如蒙介绍有关会议的详细情况,不胜感激。 A) Because I will deliver a thesis at the conference, I shall appreciate it very much if you could introduce to me the detailed condition of the meeting. B) As I will present a paper at the conference, I will be grateful if you could supply me with detailed information about the meeting. 2. 西安附上我提供会议的论文,题目是“动物克隆在中国”,一式三份,如果要发电子邮件以转录软盘,我可以立即发出。 A) I am enclosing herewith my paper of the topic of “Animal Cloning in China” one form in three B) I am enclosing, in three copies, my paper entitled “Animal Closing in China” for the conference. If req uired, I can send an e-mail for the disk right away. 3.核能发电,是在20世纪才发展起来的新事物。不幸的是,建立和维持核发电厂的成本很高,使得建设速度要比原先预料的慢许多。---中国的第一座核发电厂,是于20世纪后期建立在深圳,靠近香港。 A) Using nuclear energy to generate electricity is a new thing developed in the 20th century. What is unfortunate is that the costs of building and maintaining a nuclear power plant are very high, making the speed of construction much slower than previously predicted. ----China’s first nuclear power plant was built in the late 20th century at Shenzhen near Hongkong. B) The production of nuclear power is a new development of the 20th century. Unfortunately, the high costs of building and maintaining a nuclear power plant have led to a much slower rate of growth than was predicted. -----China’s first nuclear power plant was built in the late 20th century at Shenzhen near Hongkong. 4. 不少科学家论证说,三国演义里所说的“木牛流马”,可能是一些有相当复杂性的机器,其工作原理可说类似于今天的某些器械装置。 A) Quite a few scientists say by reasoning that the “wooden cows, running horses” described in the Romance of the Three Kingdo ms could be rather complex machines whose working principles can be said to be like certain mechanical devices of today. B) Quite a few scientists argue that the “wooden cows, running horses” described in the Romance of Three Kingdoms could be machines of sufficient complexity working on principles supposedly similar to certain present-day mechanical devices. 5. 摘要:本文简单叙述和分析了本实验室最近对猪流感病毒所作的两次实验的成果。 A) Abstract: The results of two experiments on swine flu virus are briefly described and analyzed. B) Abstract: this article simply states and analyzes the results of two experimental tests this laboratory recently performed in the research on swine flu virus. 6. 珠江三角洲在中国的南部,气候良好,交通系统效率高,一向工农业都在快速发展。 A) The Pearl River Delta is to the south of China. It has a nice weather and a highly efficient communication system. Both of its industry and agriculture


学校综合介绍 西南交通大学招生基本信息解读 西南交通大学坐落于中国历史文化名城、国家中心城市——成都,是教育部直属全国重点大学,国家首批“双一流”“211工程”“特色985工程”“2011计划”重点建设并设有研究生院的研究型大学。 截至2018年10月,学校拥有2个一级学科国家重点学科、10个二级学科国家重点学科,有19个一级学科博士学位授权点、专业学位博士点1个、39个一级学科硕士学位授权点,无一级学科覆盖的二级学科博士点2个、硕士点7个,拥有11个博士后科研流动站,入选1个世界一流学科建设学科;交通运输工程学科位居全国第一(A+)、土木工程学科位居全国第七(A-),材料科学、工程学、计算机科学进入ESI世界排名前1%。 西南交通大学本年度录取分数线与国家线对比图


考研一共13大学科门类,总体走向参差不齐,但依旧有规律可循。2020考研的国家线走势分为三种: 1.本学科分数线与去年相比持平。 2.本学科分数线与去年相比上升。

3.本学科分数线与去年相比下降。 除此之外,我们还要计算出国家线的两个极限值,也就是上涨分数最多的学科和下降分数最多的学科。 本学科分数线与去年相比持平有3个:文学、管理学、享受少数民族照顾的考生. 本学科分数线与去年相比上升的有5个:哲学(+5分)、法学(+5分)、教育学(+6分)、艺术学(+7分)、体育学(+7分)。 本学科分数线与去年相比下降的有9个:经济学(-2)、历史学(-1)、理学(-2)、工学(-6)、农学(-2)、医学(-5)、军事学(-5)、工学照顾专业(-6)、中医照顾专业(-5)。 国家线的两个极限值出现在如下两个专业:1.上涨极限值(+7分),艺术学和体育学。2.下降极限值工学(-6)和工学照顾专业(-6)。 一般而言,本学科国家线和去年相比持平,意味着去年和今年的报名人数和考试难度总体无大变化。 本学科国家线和去年相比上涨,意味着去年和今年的报名人数和考试难度有所增长(具体原因要视本学科特点而言,请关注high研网发布的2020年分类学科报告综述。) 本学科国家线和去年相比下降,意味着去年和今年的报名人数和考试难度同样有所下降。 另外还有一个现象值得注意,即今年分数上涨的学科全都是文科专业(不考数学的专业),这反映出几个信号: 1.文科专业报考人数增多。


2009-2010学年第2学期 《实用科技英语翻译》期末考试题型和复习题 I Answer the following questions related to EST Translation (30’)(2个题) 1. What’s the definition of EST (English of Science & Technology)? EST (English for Science & Technology or Technical English or Scientific English) is a special language variety widely used in the fields of science and technology. It’s believed that it first came to being in the 1950s along with the rapid development of science and technology, and it many researchers and scholars began to conduct investigation of this common feature of this special genre including reading comprehension, writing and even translation. 2. What are stylistic features of EST? Completely different from other genres such as everyday English, literature English, EST has its own stylistic features due to the specialty in content, field and discourse functions, and partly due to the unique habits of EST writers, which are mostly represented in lexical level and syntactical level. 3. What are the general features of Compound Technical Terms? A. accuracy(确切性): accurately reflect the nature of the concept B. monosemy(单义性): one sense for one word C .systematization(系统性):the individual technical terms in a given field should be in a specific level so as to constitute a common system D. linguistically correct(语言的正确性): in accordance with the word-formation in the same language E. conciseness(简明性): concise and easy to remember F. motivation(理据性): just as the name implies, one can know the meaning of the word.


小议科技英语翻译技巧 科技文体崇尚严谨周密,概念准确,逻辑性强,行文简练,重点突出,句式严整,少有变化,常用前置性陈述,即在句中将主要信息尽量前置,通过主语传递主要信息。科技文章文体的特点是:清晰、准确、精练、严密。那末,科技文章的语言结构特色在翻译过程中如何处理,这是进行英汉科技翻译时需要探讨的问题。现分述如下: 一、大量使用名词化结构 大量使用名词化结构(Nominalization)是科技英语的特点之一。因为科技文体要求行文简洁、表达客观、内容确切、信息量大、强调存在的事实。而非某一行为。 Archimedes first discovered the principle of displacement of water by solid bodies. 阿基米德最先发展固体排水的原理。 句中of displacement of water by solid bodies 系名词化结构,一方面简化了同位语从句,另一方强调displacement 这一事实。 The rotation of the earth on its own axis causes the change from day to night. 地球绕轴自转,引起昼夜的变化。 名词化结构the rotation of the earth on its own axis 使复合句简化成简单句,而且使表达的概念更加确切严密。 If you use firebricks round the walls of the boiler, the heat loss, can be considerably reduced. 炉壁采用耐火砖可大大降低热耗。 科技英语所表述的是客观规律,因之要尽量避免使用第一、二人称;此外,要使主要的信息置于句首。 Television is the transmission and reception of images of moving objects by radio waves. 电视通过无线电波发射和接受活动物体的图象。 名词化结构the transmission and reception of images of moving objects by radio waves 强调客观事实,而"谓语动词则着重其发射和接受的能力。 二、广泛使用被动语句 根据英国利兹大学John Swales 的统计,科技英语中的谓语至少三分之一是被动态。这是因为科技文章侧重叙事推理,强调客观准确。第一、二人称使用过多,会造成主观臆断的印象。因此尽量使用第三人称叙述,采用被动语态,例如:Attention must be paid to the working temperature of the machine.应当注意机器的工作温度。而很少说:You must pay attention to the working temperature of the machine .你们必须注意机器的工作温度。此外,如前所述,科技文章将主要信息前置,放在主语部份。这也是广泛使用被动态的主要原因。试观察并比较下列两段短文的主语。 We can store electrical energy in two metal plates separated by an insulating medium. We call such a device a capacitor, or a condenser, and its ability to store electrical energy capacitance .It is measured in farads. 电能可储存在由一绝缘介质隔开的两块金属极板内。这样的装置称之为电容器,


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A. some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom. B. the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe. C. some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely. D. Most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable. 5.What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage? A. To review the impact of women becoming high earners. B. To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism. C. To examine the trend of young people living alone. D. To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships. Passage Two American dramas and sitcoms would have been candidates for prime time several years ago. But those programs -though some remain popular -increasingly occupy fringe times slots on foreign networks. Instead, a growing number of shows produced by local broadcasters are on the air at the best times. The shift counters longstanding assumptions that TV shows produced in the United States would continue to overshadow locally produced shows from Singapore to Sicily. The changes are coming at a time when the influence of the United States on international affairs has annoyed friends and foes alike, and some people are expressing relief that at least on television American culture is no longer quite the force it once was. “There has always been a concern that the image of the world would be shaped too much by American culture,” said Dr. Jo Groebek, director general of the European Institu te for the Media, a non-profit group. Given the choice, he adds, foreign viewers often prefer homegrown shows that better reflect local tastes, cultures and historical events. Unlike in the United States, commercial broadcasting in most regions of the world -including Asia, Europe, and a lesser extent Latin America, which has a long history of commercial TV -is a relatively recent development. A majority of broadcasters in many countries were either state-owned or state-subsidized for much of the last century. Governments began to relax their control in the 1980’s by privatizing national broadcasters and granting licenses to dozens of new commercial networks. The rise of cable and satellite pay-television increased the spectrum of channels. Relatively inexperienced and often financed on a shoestring, these new commercial stations needed hours of programming fast. The cheapest and easiest way to fill airtime was to buy shows from American studios, and the bidding wars for popular shows were fierce. The big American studios took advantage of that demand by raising prices and forcing foreign broadcasters to buy less popular programs if they wanted access to the best-selling shows and movies. “The studio priced themselves out of prime time,” said Harry Evans Sloan, chairman of SBS Broadcasting, a Pan-European broadcaster. Mr. Sloan estimates that over the last decade, the price of American programs has increased fivefold even as the international ratings for these shows have declined. American broadcasters are still the biggest buyers of American-made television shows, accounting for 90% of the $25 billion in 2001 sales. But international sales which totaled $2.5 billion last year often make the difference between a profit and a loss on show. As the pace of foreign sales slows -the market is now growing at 5% a year, down from the double-digit growth of the 1990’s -studio executives are rethinking production costs. 6. Which of the following best characterizes the image embodied in American shows? A. Self-contradictory B. Prejudice-free C. Culture-loaded D. Audience-targeted 7. The intervention of governments in the 1980’s resulted in __________ . A. the patenting of domination shows and movies B. the emergence of new commercial networks C. the promotion of cable and satellite pay-television D. the intense competition coming from the outside 8. The phrase “on a shoestring” (Para. 6) most probably means __________. A. in need of capital B. after a fashion C. on second thoughts D. in the interests of themselves 9. The main reason why American dramas and sitcoms are driven out of prime time is that ____. A. they lose competitiveness B. they are not market-oriented C. they are too much priced D. they fall short of audience expectations 10. American studio producers will give thought to production costs __________. A. if they have no access to popular shows B. because their endeavors come to no avail C. since bidding wars are no longer fierce D. as international sales pace slows down Passage Three How shops can exploit people's herd mentality to increase sales 1. A TRIP to the supermarket may not seem like an exercise in psychological warfare—but it is. Shopkeepers know that filling a store with the aroma of freshly baked bread makes people feel hungry and persuades them to buy more food than they had intended. Stocking the most expensive products at eye level makes them sell faster than cheaper but less visible competitors. Now researchers are investigating how “swarm intelligence” (th at is,how ants,bees or any social animal,including humans,behave in a crowd) can be used to influence what people buy. 2. At a recent conference on the simulation of adaptive behaviour in Rome,Zeeshan-ul-hassan Usmani,a computer scientist from the Florida Institute of Technology,described a new way to increase impulse buying using this phenomenon. Supermarkets already encourage shoppers to buy things they did not realise they wanted: for instance,by placing everyday items such as milk and eggs at the back of the store,forcing shoppers to walk past other tempting goods to reach them. Mr Usmani and Ronaldo Menezes,also of the Florida Institute of Technology, set out to enhance this tendency to buy more by playing on the herd instinct. The idea is that, if a certain product is seen to be popular, shoppers are likely to choose it too. The challenge is to keep customers informed about what others are buying. 3. Enter smart-cart technology. In Mr Usmani's supermarket every product has a radio frequency identification tag, a sort of barcode that uses radio waves to transmit information,and every trolley has a scanner that reads this information and relays it to a central computer. As a customer walks past a shelf of goods, a screen on the shelf tells him how many people currently in the shop have chosen that particular product. If the number is high, he is more likely to select it too.


(一)报考条件: 根据文件规定,西南交通大学硕士研究生,本次选拔对象,应符合以下条件: 1.在校期间政治思想表现优秀,遵守校纪校规,文明礼貌,未受到任何处分。 2.学历要求:具有本科学位,在相应的科研领域做出突出成绩,身心健康。 3.以综合考试成绩为录取依据,首先按各专业实考人数划定分数资格线,再按成绩从高到低择优录取。 4.综合考试成绩将在录取前公示7天,录取过程中,如果有排名在录取名额内的考生自愿放弃,在名额外的学生按顺序递补。 5.我校采取笔试、口试或两者相兼的方式进行,以进一步考察学生的专业基础、综合分析能力、解决实际问题的能力。具体比例由学校根据学科、专业特点安排。(二)报考事项: 历年真题QQ在线咨询:363、916、816张老师。各相关专业成立考试小组,确定工作中的相关原则政策和办法研究重大事项;负责本学院考试工作的组织宣传事项和实施工作;完成报考成绩统计及综合排名汇总材料并上报填表。 1.各学院要先完成报考专业的成绩进行排名,根据名单确定考生的具体范围。 2.符合上述条件的参加综合考试,根据报考专业并提交书面申请材料审核。 3.工作领导小组审核汇总名单后,将公示7天,期满后不再提示。 4.各相关专业按照考试科目的顺序依次进行。

5.考试成绩以书面通知形式发到学生本人。 (三)考试流程: 1.参加初试并获得复试资格的考生,应在复试前填写相关表格,按规定时间提供自身研究潜能的材料,攻读大学阶段的研究计划、科研成果等。 2.报考考生的资格审查由领导小组进行审查,对考生料进行审阅符合报考条件的统计填表。 3.我校采取笔试、口试或两者相兼的方式进行差额复试,以进一步安排加强进行考察学生的专业基础、综合分析能力、解决实际问题的能力和各种应用能力等。具体比例由学校根据本学科、专业特点及生源状况安排。 (四)复习方略: 1.注重课本很多考生会安排各种各样的资料,其实关键要能保证你进行的系统性。每个要点段落安排以真题为主,精细化方法对教材重点章节相关要点,对课本有一个纲领性的认识。对课后题必须要掌握,大部分知识点题目都出自课后。专业基础知识、该专业关注的研究方向。较为系统的了解都要为基础一定要做到对教材大纲范围的大体框架有全面的把握,把整个原理的前后概念贯穿起来。2、在复习充分的情况下做完后对照答案进行对比,看看自己的差距在哪。接下来才是最重要的,要根据专业课的真题都会出什么题型,针对考试内容重点是什么是哪一章节。在熟悉这些之后呢,一定要必须的题目都整理出来加强背诵。根据科目的先后顺序,因为通常前几年出现的题目会出现,细化专业特点分析对照问题的深度和广度,结合自己的知识结构知识存量,正确的安排答题技巧针对有限的知识来最好地回答。专业课的难度绝不亚于英语,对掌握的侧重点范围解题


1.Here great disturbances at the heart of the earth caused mountains and volcanoes to rise above the water. 这里,由于地心的剧烈活动,使山脉和火山升出水面。 2.After the Australian Taxation Office made its taxation forms simpler, it actually received praise from taxpayers who could finally understand it. 澳大利亚税务局将其表格文字简化后,受到了纳税人的广泛称赞,因为他们终于能看懂这些表格了 3.Although people are born to win, they are also born helpless and totally dependent on their environment. Winners successfully make the transition from total helplessness to independence, and then to interdependence. Losers do not. 虽然人们生来要成功,然而,他们同样生来就是无助的,完全依靠环境。成功者成功地从完全不能自立过渡到了独立,然后过渡到相互依靠。失败者则不然。 4.Darwin was convinced that the loss of the tastes in music and drawing was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character. 达尔文认为,失去对音乐和绘画方面的兴趣,不仅失去了幸福,而且还可能损伤智力,甚至可能会伤害道德。 5.No eating tools on the Chinese dinner table are more magical and distinctive than the chopsticks. 中餐桌上最神奇,最有特色的用餐工具莫过于筷子. 6.It is not on the shores of continents, nor in the coastal islands, however, that the soul of the great Pacific is found. It lies far out where the fabled South Sea Islands are scattered over the huge ocean like stars in the sky. 然而,浩瀚的太平洋最精美之处不在其大陆海岸,也不在沿海诸岛,而是在远离陆地的海域。在那里,富有神奇色彩的南太平洋诸岛像天上的繁星一样散布在广阔的海面上。 7.Circumstances and people are constantly changing. Some friendship last “forever”; others do not. 环境与人都在不断地改变。有些友谊地久天长,有些则如昙花一现。


(一)复试条件: 根据文件规定,西南交通大学研究生,本次考试选拔对象,应符合以下条件: 1.总分和单科成绩达到分数线以及专业研究方向的要求。 2.达到分数线的考生,必须在规定的时间参加复试。未参加者,视为放弃。 3.凭准考证进行体检,按照考生序位号的先后顺序安排。体检不合者,不予录取。 4.复试采取专业笔试加面试的方式,考生最后成绩采取初试成绩与复试成绩进行加权的记分办法。 5.以综合考试成绩为录取依据,首先按各专业实考人数划定分数资格线,再按成绩从高到低进行排名。 (二)报考事项: 历年真题QQ在线咨询:363、916、816张老师。学校各相关学院成立工作小组,确定工作中的相关政策和办法研究重大事项;负责本学院考试工作的组织宣传事项和实施工作;完成报考成绩的统计及综合排名汇总材料并上报填表。 1.各学院要先完成报考专业的成绩进行排名,根据名单确定考生的具体范围。 2.符合上述条件的参加综合考试,根据报考专业并提交书面申请材料审核。 3.工作领导小组审核汇总名单后,将公示7天,期满后不再提示。 4.各相关专业按照考试科目的顺序依次进行。

5.考试成绩以书面通知形式发到学生本人。 (三)考试流程: 1.参加初试并获得复试资格的考生,应在复试前填写相关表格,按规定时间提供自身研究潜能的材料,攻读大学阶段的研究计划、科研成果等。 2.报考考生的资格审查由领导小组进行审查,对考生料进行审阅符合报考条件的考生统计填表。 3.我校采取笔试、口试或两者相兼的方式进行差额复试,以进一步安排加强进行考察学生的专业基础、综合分析能力、解决实际问题的能力和各种应用能力等。具体比例由学校根据本学科、专业特点及生源状况安排。 (四)复习方略: 1.要点内容考生贯彻各种各样的资料,其实关键要能保证你进行的系统性。前期整个阶段应该以真题为主,以精读的方式对考试的章节相关要点,对教程有一个纲领性的认识。对课后题必须要掌握,很多知识点题都出自课后。完成基础知识、该专业关注的研究方向。较为系统的了解都要以记忆为基础一定要做到对书的大体框架有全面的把握,把整个原理的前后概念贯穿起来。 2.在复习充分的情况下做完后对照答案进行对比,看看自己的差距在哪。接下来才是最重要的,要根据专业课的真题都会出什么题型,总结其考察重点是什么是哪一章节。在熟悉这些之后安排,一定要必须的题目都整理出来行理解背诵。根据科目的先后顺序,因为通常前几年出现的题目会出现,根据政策方向考核对照问题的深度和广度,结合自己的知识结构知识存量,正确的安排答题技巧针对有限的知识来最好地回答。专业课的难度绝不亚于英语,对掌握的侧重点范围解题


1 答案请写在答题纸上。 Part one: Sentence Translation(30%) 1.为此,必须对电路(circuit)的基本内容有一个很好的了解。 2.这个系数(coefficient)有待确定。 3.现有的教科书均没有提这一点。 4.由于反馈(feedback)在电子线路(electronic circuit)中起着重要作用,所以对它的研 究极为重要。 5.有迹象表明,计算机的价格将进一步下跌。 6.这个方法的确管用,不过到底该在什么情况下使用它尚不清楚。 7.十年前该厂的产量比现在高五倍。 8.激光(laser)是二十世纪六十年代引入的一项新技术,它能穿透(pierce)特别硬的物质。 9.为使晶体管(transistor)正常工作,必须给其电极(electrode)加(apply)上合适的电压 (voltage)。 10.代表磁场(magnetic field)的磁力线(magnetic line of force)是一些围绕该导线的同 心圆(concentric circle)。 11.我们所谓的机器人(robot)实际上是能为人类做工的一种工具。 12.这类天线(antenna)和那类天线相比的优点是结构简单,效率高。 13.半导体(semiconductor)对光和热都很敏感(sensitive),这两者都对导电率 (conductivity)影响很大。 14.只有通过对系统性能进行研究我们才能了解其优缺点。 15.本书既讲了实际的设计方法,同时也讲述了理论问题,而重点放在一般概念上。 Part two: Mistakes Correction(30%)(Write down the corrected sentence on the answer sheet. ) 1. We are easy to determine the effect of new drug to patient. 2. The direction of an electric current was decided before electrons were not discovered. 3. Sound travel much less faster than light is. 4. The price for this instrument is expensive. 5. There are a few exceptions for this rule. 6. The hotter the body will be, the more it radiates energy. 7. The feature of this device is small in size and light in weight. 8. That professor is very interesting in this topic. 9. Our semiconductor industry comes into being at the end of 1950s. 10. The both engineers are busy to design a type of new computer. 11. Work equals to force multiplying distance. 12. The new design instrument is in good quality. 13. The ability for some elements to give off radiations is referred as the