Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist.
His writings cover many subjects, including physics, biology, zoology,
logic, ethics, poetry, theater, music, linguistics, politics and government, and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy.
Aristotle was the first to classify areas of human knowledge into distinct disciplines such as mathematics, biology, and ethics.
He believed all people's concepts and all their knowledge were ultimately based on perception.
His views on natural sciences laid the groundwork for many of his works.
He contributed to almost every field of human knowledge in his era.
His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, and even today
all aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the important subject of academic study. His philosophy had a long-lasting influence on the
development of all Western philosophical theories.
More than 2,300 years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential philosophers and scientists.
中庸思想（Doctrine of the Mean ）是儒家思想的核心内容。孔子所谓的"中"不是指"折中"，而是指在认识和处理客观事物时的一种"适度"和"恰如其分"的方法。
The Doctrine of the Mean is the core of Confucianism. The so-called "mean"
by Confucius doesn't mean "compromise" but a "moderate" and "just-right"
way when understanding and handling objective things. Confucius advocated
that this thought should not only be treated as a way to understand and deal
with things but also be integrated into one's daily conduct to make it a virtue through self-cultivation and training. The Doctrine of the Mean is not only the
core of Confucianism but also an important component of traditional Chinese culture. From the time it came into being to the present, it has played an invaluable role in the construction of national spirit, the transmission of national wisdom, and the development of national culture.
William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent ( 杰出的) dramatist. His plays have been translated into a vast number of languages and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare's early works were mostly
comedies and histories, which have the reputation of being among the finest masterpieces produced in these genres ( 体裁) even today. Later on, Shakespeare wrote mainly tragedies, some of which, like Hamlet and King Lear , earned him fame in the entire Western literature. The most striking
features of Shakespeare are his brilliant use of language and his universal themes. He contributed thousands of words to English, many of which have become embedded in the language. His themes are so universal that they transcend generations to stir the imaginations of readers and audiences worldwide. Shakespeare has influenced and inspired many writers over the centuries. His writings remain highly popular today, and they are constantly studied, performed, and reinterpreted in diverse cultures throughout the world. Shakespeare will continue to have an enormous impact on future playwrights, novelists, poets, actors, and scholars.
中国的四大名著是指《三国演义》（Romance of the Three Kingdoms ）、《水浒传》（Outlaws of the Marsh ）、《西游记》（Journey to the West ）和《红楼梦》（A Dream of Red Mansions ）四部著名小说。它们的创作时间均处于元
The four great classic Chinese novels are Romance of the Three Kingdoms , Outlaws of the Marsh , Journey to the West and A Dream of Red Mansions . All the four novels were written during the period from the late Yuan and early
Ming dynasties to the Qing Dynasty. They all reflect various aspects of ancient China, including political and military strife, social conflicts and cultural beliefs.
The four novels are of supreme artistic standards, representing the peak of
China's classic novels. Lots of the characters and scenes in the books are
well-known in China and have exerted profound influences on the ideology and values of the entire nation. Highly valuable for the research of China's ancient customs, feudal system, and social life, the four classic novels are precious cultural relics of China as well as the human society as a whole.
With the development of computer science and the Internet technology, social networking services (SNS) have come to be a widely popular platform to build social networks or social relations among people in recent years. SNS are
web-based services that allow individuals to create a public profile, create a list
of users with whom to share connection, and view and cross the connections
within the system. Social networking sites are varied and they incorporate new information and communication tools, allowing users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, interests with people in their network. SNS have
affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. With its
availability on many mobile devices, a social networking service allows the
users to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and other acquaintances wherever they are in the world, as long as there is access to the Internet. A social networking service can also unite people with common
interests and beliefs through groups and other pages, and has been known to reunite lost family members and friends because of the widespread reach of its network.
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet technology, the Internet economy has become a hot issue. As represented by the promising
E-commerce, the Internet economy has become a strong driving force for the economic development. Our government attaches great importance to developing the Internet economy and proposes the concept of "Internet Plus", aiming to integrate Internet with other industries, such as health care, transportation, education, finance, and public service. This will create great potential and broad prospects for the development of the Internet economy.
With the implementation of the "Internet Plus" strategy, the Internet is certain
to be integrated with more traditional industries and help build "the upgraded version of the Chinese economy".
Baroque architecture is a building style that flourished in Europe between the
late 16th and mid-18th century. It evolved out of Renaissance architecture in Italy, when the Renaissance architects began to get bored of the symmetry ( 对称) and same old forms they had been using for the past 200 years, and
started to make bold, curving and not at all symmetrical buildings called the Baroque buildings. Baroque-style buildings share some common characteristics. Marble, gilt ( 镀金) and bronze were the materials the Baroque architects used in abundance. Oval was the most distinct and a very common shape incorporated into Baroque architecture. Dramatic use of light is important, and is achieved either through strong light-and-shade contrasts or uniform lighting by means of windows. Opulent use of color and ornaments is prevalent, as can be seen in the large-scale frescoes ( 湿壁画) painted on the ceilings. There is usually a central projection that is quite large and juts
outward, and domes erected in a pear shape are often seen. The most
well-known Baroque buildings include the St. Paul's Cathedral in the UK and
the Palace of Versailles in France. Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini were the two main architects of the Baroque era.
巴洛克建筑是一种建筑风格，兴盛于16 世纪晚期至18 世纪中期的欧洲。它由
苏州园林是中国古典园林最杰出的代表，大部分为私家所有。苏州园林始于春秋，兴于宋元，盛于明清。清末苏州已有各色园林170 余处，为其赢得了"园林之城" 的称号。现保存完好的园林有60 多处，对外开放的有十余处。其中沧浪亭、狮
国古代江南民间的生活方式和礼仪习俗。苏州园林不仅是历史文化的产物，同时也是中国传统思想文化的载体。1997 年，苏州园林被联合国教科文组织列入" 世界遗产名录"。
Suzhou gardens are the most outstanding representatives of classical Chinese gardens. Most of them were privately-owned. The gardens first appeared in
the Spring and Autumn Period, developed in the Song and Yuan dynasties,
and flourished in the Ming and Qing dynasties. By the late Qing Dynasty,
Suzhou had got as many as over 170 gardens of diverse styles, winning it the
name "The City of Gardens". Now, over 60 gardens are kept in good condition, of which more than 10 are open to the public. The Surging Wave Pavilion, the Lion Grove Garden, the Humble Administrator's Garden and the Lingering Garden are called the four most famous gardens in Suzhou, representing the artistic styles of the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties respectively. Suzhou gardens are assemblies of residences and gardens, which makes them suitable places for living, visiting and appreciating. The architectural principles of the gardens are a demonstration of the lifestyles and social customs of the ancient Chinese people in the south of the Lower Yangtze River. Suzhou gardens are not only a product of Chinese history and culture, but also a carrier of traditional Chinese ideology and culture. In 1997, Suzhou gardens were inscribed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO.
The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation at the dawn of modern European history. It began in Italy and later spread to the rest of Europe, immediately following the Middle Ages and spanning roughly from the 14th to the 17th century. The Renaissance was characterized by a revival of interest in classical learning, wisdom and values from the Ancient Greek and Roman eras. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study and searched for realism and human emotion in art. Scientists no longer accepted the teachings of the Church at face value. Instead, they studied the natural world through their own observation and experimentation. Likewise, artists developed new techniques and achieved more advanced effects by applying mathematics and optics ( 光学) to paintings, sculpture and other art forms. The Renaissance profoundly changed the European intellectual life in the early modern period. Through the rediscovery of ancient texts, it triggered both a
rebirth of classical learning and a rebirth of European culture in general. Its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, and many
学革命和艺术变革时代。它始于意大利，之后蔓延到欧洲其他国家。它紧接在中世纪之后，贯穿14 至17 世纪。文艺复兴时期的特点是，人们对古希腊和古罗
Chinese civilization once had a significant influence on world civilization. With
the development of our country's economy and the rise of her international
status in recent years, Chinese culture, which has a long history, is once again attracting global attention. More and more Chinese cultural elements provide inspiration for and become popular subjects of fashions, literature and movies around the world. This shows that the world needs Chinese culture. It was in
this context that China decided to implement the "Culture Exporting" strategy so as to enhance her cultural exchanges with the rest of the world. After several years' efforts, great achievements have been made in this respect. "Culture Exporting" has greatly promoted the development of our cultural industries. It is becoming an effective approach through which China enhances her national image and comprehensive strength.