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Unit 1

Outlines are essential to effective speeches.By outlining, you make sure that related ideas are together, that your thoughts flow from one to another, and that the structure of your speech is coherent. You will probably use two kinds of outlines for your speeches--the detailed preparation outline and the brief speaking outline.

In a preparation outline, you should state your specific purpose and central idea, and identify main points and sub--points using a consistent pattern. The speaking outline should consist of brief notes to help you while you deliver the speech. It should contain key words or phrases to bolster your memory. In making up your speaking outline, follow the same visual framework used in your preparation outline. Keep the speaking outline as brief as possible and be sure it is plainly legible.




Before you deliver an academic speech, you should, first of al, get well prepared for it. Then, you should make your major points clear in your speech, and your speech should be well organized. When speaking, you should not speak too fast, and your language should be explicit. Don’t always read the notes you prepared beforehand. From time to time, you should look at your audience. On one hand, you can show your respect to your audience, and on the other hand, you will be able to go on with your speech more smoothly.


Energy has a dual relationship with human well-being.For most of human history,man has been concerned mainly about the benefit side of the energy -well-being equation thank to the low costs involved in energy use.However,with the staggering scale of energy demand brought forth by 100 years of unprecedented population growth, coupled with an equally remarkable growth in per capita demand of industrial energy forms,energy entails increasingly higher costs,both external and internalized.On the one

hand,energy resources are reducing at an accelerating speed and energy supply requires higher input.On the other hand,the external costs seem more worrisome

because energy use poses serious threats to public health and safety,keeps disrupting the global ecosystem,and may trigger large-scale military conflict.



It is difficult to quantify the total contribution of all these factors to the monetary costs of energy supply, in part because factors not related to the environment are often entwined with environmental ones. For example, construction delays have been caused not just by regulatory constraints but also by problems of engineering, management and quality control. Nevertheless, in the US, environmental impacts have increased the monetary costs of supplying petroleum products by at least 25 percent during the past 20 years, and the costs of generating electricity from coal and nuclear power by 40 percent or more.

Unit 3

Two fatal wrecks in less than a 24-hour period over the Thanksgiving weekend kolled three people, bringing to six the numbei of death in the past two weeks on Springfield city streets.

With one month left in the year, at least 17 people have been killed in fatality accidents in Springfield, including the three members of a Chicago family who died the weekend before on interstate 44.

On Sunday, springfield husband and wife Jon Bauer, 58, and Juanita Bauer, 59, died in the 2400 block of South Glenstone Avenue.

According to police ,Jon Bauer’s southbound 2001 Hyundai Santa Fe sideswiped a 1995 Chrysler Cirrus ,also heading southbound , driven by Chadd Rohde,27 ,of Mountain Home , Ark, at around 10:30a.m .

Jon Bauer’s vehicle continued south and struck a brick wall and utility pole at Springfield Nationgal Cemetry.

The Springfield Fire Department extracted the couple from the vehicle .Juanita Bauer was pronounced dead at the scene. Jon Bauer,who wan unconscious, was transported to St.John’s Regional Medical Center, where he was later pronounced dead.

Traffic was shut down for four hours as police investigated the crash.









Using a driving simulator, some US researchers studied the driving of 40 people. Some of them drove while talking on a cell phone, others navigated while drunk, and others drove with no such distractions or impairments. The results showed that there were three accidents in which the drivers were talking on cell phones--all of them involving a rear-ending. The research has found that those talking on the phone while driving are more sluggish. In addition, talking on the cell phone can reduce reaction time by 9 percent in terms of braking and 19 percent in terms of picking up speed after braking.

Unit 4

Perhaps it is our social concept of what is feminine and what is masculine that reinforces the stereotype that women talk more than men, and even causes these different patterns of communication. Maybe a woman is labeled talkative or is criticized for interrupting if she does it at all, because our culture--as well as many other cultures--teaches that women should be quiet if they want to be “feminine.” Perhaps masculine culture encourages boys and men to dominate talk and to interrupt more often, and males who talk a lot and interrupt often are not criticized for doing so. These differences in the patterns of communication and styles of communicating are studied by experts who study the effects of gender on communication. They study these effects in order to understand why misunderstandings occur between men and women in conversation. Often, it’s because their styles and patterns of conersation are so different. It is important that we learn to recognize these differences so that we can learn to communicate better with people of the other gender.



Deborah Tannen在她的畅销书《你就是不明白》中指出:虽然美国男孩和女孩经常在一起玩,但大多数时间他们都是在各自的同性别小组里玩耍。她还指出:虽然男孩和女孩确实在一起玩某些游戏,但他们最喜欢的游戏常常是不一样的。Tanen和其他这方面的研究人员发现,男孩(比如8至12岁的男孩)喜欢在室外而不是室内玩耍,而且他们是在有等级结构的大组中玩耍。这帮男孩中通常会有一个孩子头,他告诉别的男孩做什么、怎么做。正是通过发号施令和让其他男孩按规则游戏,男孩子们在他们的玩伴那里获得更高度更重要的地位。

In her best-selling book You Just Don’t Understand,Deborah Tannen points out that, although American boys and girls often play together, they spend most of their time playing in same-sex groups. She also points out that boys and girls do play some games together, but their favorite games are very often quite different. Tannen and other researchers on this topic have found that young boys, say ages 8 through 12, tend to play outside the house rather than in the house, and they play in large groups that are hiererchically srtuctured. A group of boys generally has a leader who tells the other boys what to do and how to do it. It is by giving orders and making the other boys play by the rules that boys achieve higher or more dominant status in their play group.

Unit 5

In this age of instantaneous communications, it has become harder to hide wrongdoings:corrupt officials and business people are now exposed by private whistleblowers, government leaks, aggrieved competitors, and investigative reporters. Publicity is an important deterrent because corruption can terminate careers. During the past year alone, scandals have brought down the prime minister of the Ukraine, the deputy president of South Africa, the leader of Brazil’s ruling party, key Kenyan government ministers, and the majority leader of the U.S. House of Representatives. But systematic changes are necessary to ensure that corruption scandals stop repeating themselves like prurient TV show reruns.

Leadership changes have occurred or are about to occur in key entities: the World Bank, the OECD, the UN, Transparency International, and the International Chamber of Commerce. The resulting set of new leaders should get together with NGOs and leaders from other key organizations, such as export-credit entities and internationgal law-enforcement agencies, to map out a broad anticorruption strategy and develop a consensus for near-term and middle-term action.




  • 学术综合英语课后答案

  • 学术综合英语课后翻译

  • 学术英语课后翻译答案

  • 综合英语课后翻译答案

  • 大一综合英语课后翻译

  • 学术综合英语课后