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of all human creations, language may be the most remarkable. through


language we share experience, formulate values, exchange ideas, transmit 来分享经验,表达(传递?)价值观,交换想法,传播知识,

knowledge, and sustain culture. indeed, language is vital to think itself.

传承文化。事实上,对语言本身的思考也是至关重要的。[contrary to popular belief], language | does not simply mirror reality but

also helps to create our sense of reality [by giving meaning to events].



good speakers have respect for language and know how it works. words are the tools of a speaker’s craft. they have special uses, just like the tools of any other profession. as a speaker, you should be aware of the meaning of words and know how to use language accurately, clearly,vividly,and appropriately.


using language accurately is as vital to a speaker as using numbers accurately to a accountant. never use a word unless you are sure of its meaning. if you are not sure, look up the word in the dictionary. as you prepare your speeches, ask yourself

constantly, “what do i really wa nt to say? what do i really mean?” choose words that are precise and accurate.





using language clearly allows listeners to grasp your

meaning immediately. you can ensure this [by using familiar words (that are known to the average person and require no specialized background); by choosing concrete words in preference to more abstract ones, and by eliminating verbal clutter].



using language vividly helps bring your speech to life. one

way (to make your

speech vivid)|is through imagery,or the creation of word pictures. you can develop imagery by using concrete language, simile, and metaphor. simile is an explicit comparison between things (that are essentially different yet have something in common); it always contains the words “like”or “as”. metaphor is an implicit

comparison between things that are different yet have something i n common; it does not contain the words “like” or “as”.




会出现like 和 as 这些连接词。

another way to make your speeches vivid is by exploiting the rhythm of language. four devices for creating rhythm are parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and antithesis. parallelism

is the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences. repetition is the use of the same word

or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses

or sentences. alliteration comes from repeating the initial

constant sounds of close or adjoining words. antithesis is the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.







using language appropriately means adapting to the

particular occasion, audience, and topic at hand. it also means developing your own language style instead of trying to copy someone else’s. if your language is appropriate in all respects, your speech is much more likely to succeed.



如果使用的语言与各方面都很契合,那么演讲就更有可能取得成功。 good speeches are not composed of hot air and unfounded assertions. they need strong supporting materials to bolster

the speaker’s point of view.in fact, the skillfu l use of

supporting materials often makes the difference between a

good speech and a poor one.the three basic types of

supporting materials are examples,statistics and testimony.





in the course of a speech you may use brief examples—specific instances referred to in passing—and sometimes you may want to give several brief examples in a row to create a stronger impression. extended examples—often called illustrations, narrations, or anecdotes—are longer and more detailed.hypothetical examples describe imagery situations

and can be quite effective for relating ideas to the

audience. all three kinds of examples help to clarify ideas, to reinforce ideas, or to personalize ideas. to be more effective, though, they should be vivid and richly







statistics can be extremely helpful in conveying your message, [as long as you use them sparingly and explain them so they are meaningful to your audience.] above all, you

should understand your statistics and use them fairly.

numbers can easily be manipulated and distorted. make sure {that your figures are representative of {what they claim to measure},that you use statistical measures correctly, and that you take statistics only from reliable sources.}





testimony is especially helpful for student speakers, because they are seldom

recognized as expects on their speech topics. citing the views of people( who are experts) is a good way to make your

ideas more credible. when you include testimony in a speech, you can either quote someone verbatim or paraphrase their words. as with statistics, there are guidelines for using testimony.be sure to quote or paraphrase accurately and to

cite qualified unbiased sources. if the source is not generally known to your audience, be certain to establish his or her credentials.







the impact of a speech is strongly affected by how the speech is delivered. you

cannot make a speech without having something to say. but having something to say is not enough.you must also know

how to say it.good delivery does not call attention to itself.it conveys the speaker’s ideas clearly, interestingly, and [without distracting the audience].






there are four basic methods of delivering a speech: reading verbatim from a manuscript, reciting a memorized text, speaking with powerpoint, and speaking

extemporaneously, or impromptu. the last of these—speaking extemporaneously—is the method (you probably will use for classroom speeches and for most speeches

outside the classroom). when speaking extemporaneously,

you will have only a brief set of notes or a speaking outline. speaking with powerpoint is widely used now and very

effective indeed.





certainly there are other factors you should consider, such as personal appearance, bodily action, gestures, eye contact, volume, pauses and so on. by paying enough attention to what is mentioned above, you may present an effective speech.


神交流,声音的抑扬顿挫等等。尽量注意上述问题,演讲就会成功! unit 2 energy in transition


the era of cheap and convenient sources of energy is coming

to an end. a transition to more expensive but less polluting sources must now be managed.



john p. holdren

understanding this transition requires a look at the two-sided connection between energy and human well-being. energy contributes positively to well-being by providing such consumer services as heating and lighting as well as serving

as a necessary input to economic production. 1.要了解这一






for most of human history, the dominant concerns about energy have centered on the benefit side of the energy - well-being equation. inadequacy of energy resources or (more often) of the technologies and organizations for harvesting, converting, and distributing those resources has meant insufficient energy benefits and hence

inconvenience, deprivation and constraints on growth. the 1970’s, then, represented a turning point. after decades of constancy or decline in monetary costs - and of relegation of environmental and sociopolitical costs to secondary status -energy was seen to be getting costlier in all respects. also became possible to think that expanding some forms of energy supply could create costs exceeding the benefits.











the crucial question at the beginning of the 1990’s is whether the trend that began in the 1970’s will prove to be temporary or permanent. is the era of cheap energy really over, or will a combination of new resources, new technology and changing

geopolitics bring it back? one key determinant of the answer

is the staggering scale of

【篇二:学术综合英语unit1-unit5课后翻译及答案】tlines are essential to effective speeches.by outlining, you make sure that related ideas are together, that your thoughts flow from one to another, and that the structure of your speech is coherent. you will probably use two kinds of outlines for

your speeches--the detailed preparation outline and the brief speaking outline.

in a preparation outline, you should state your specific

purpose and central idea, and identify main points and sub--points using a consistent pattern. the speaking outline should consist of brief notes to help you while you deliver the speech. it should contain key words or phrases to bolster your memory. in making up your speaking outline, follow the same visual framework used in your preparation outline. keep the speaking outline as brief as possible and be sure it is plainly legible.











before you deliver an academic speech, you should, first of al, get well prepared for it. then, you should make your major points clear in your speech, and your speech should be well organized. when speaking, you should not speak too fast, and your language should be explicit. don’t always read the notes you prepared beforehand. from time to time, you should look at your audience. on one hand, you can show your respect to your audience, and on the other hand, you will be able to go on with your speech more smoothly.


energy has a dual relationship with human well-being.for most of human history,man has been concerned mainly about the benefit side of the energy - well-being equation thank to the low costs involved in energy use.however,with the staggering scale of energy demand brought forth by 100 years of unprecedented population growth, coupled with an equally remarkable growth in per capita demand of industrial energy forms,energy entails increasingly higher costs,both external and internalized.on the one

hand,energy resources are reducing at an accelerating speed and energy supply requires higher input.on the other hand,the external costs seem more worrisome

because energy use poses serious threats to public health and safety,keeps disrupting the global ecosystem,and may trigger large-scale military conflict.










it is difficult to quantify the total contribution of all these factors to the monetary costs of energy supply, in part because factors not related to the environment are often entwined with environmental ones. for example, construction delays have been caused not just by regulatory constraints but also by problems of engineering, management and quality control. nevertheless, in the us, environmental impacts have increased the monetary costs of supplying petroleum products by at least 25 percent during the past 20 years, and the costs of generating electricity from coal and nuclear power by 40 percent or more.

unit 3

two fatal wrecks in less than a 24-hour period over the thanksgiving weekend kolled three people, bringing to six the numbei of death in the past two weeks on springfield city streets.

with one month left in the year, at least 17 people have been killed in fatality accidents in springfield, including the three members of a chicago family who died the weekend before on interstate 44.

on sunday, springfield husband and wife jon bauer, 58, and juanita bauer, 59, died in the 2400 block of south glenstone avenue.

according to police ,jon bauer’s southbound 2001 hyundai santa fe sideswiped a 1995 chrysler cirrus ,also heading southbound , driven by chadd rohde,27 ,of mountain home , ark, at around 10:30a.m .

jon bauer’s vehicle continued south and struck a brick wall and utility pole at springfield nationgal cemetry.

the springfield fire department extracted the couple from the vehicle .juanita bauer was pronounced dead at the scene. jon bauer,who wan unconscious, was transported to st.john’s regional medical center, where he was later pronounced dead. traffic was shut down for four hours as police investigated the crash.

















using a driving simulator, some us researchers studied the driving of 40 people. some of them drove while talking on a cell phone, others navigated while drunk, and others drove with no such distractions or impairments. the results showed that

there were three accidents in which the drivers were talking on cell phones--all of them involving a rear-ending. the research has found that those talking on the phone while driving are more sluggish. in addition, talking on the cell phone can

reduce reaction time by 9 percent in terms of braking and 19 percent in terms of picking up speed after braking.

unit 4

perhaps it is our social concept of what is feminine and what

is masculine that reinforces the stereotype that women talk more than men, and even causes these different patterns of communication. maybe a woman is labeled talkative or is criticized for interrupting if she does it at all, because our culture--as well as many other cultures--teaches that women should be quiet if they want to be “feminine.” perhaps masculine culture encourages boys and men to dominate talk

and to interrupt more often, and males who talk a lot and interrupt often are not criticized for doing so. these differences in the patterns of communication and styles of communicating are studied by experts who study the effects of gender on communication. they study these effects in order to

understand why misunderstandings occur between men and women in conversation. often, it’s because their styles and patterns of conersation are so different. it is important that we learn to recognize these differences so that we can learn to communicate better with people of the other gender.









deborah tannen在她的畅销书《你就是不明白》中指出:虽然美






in her best-selling book you just don’t understand,deborah tannen points out that, although american boys and girls often play together, they spend most of their time playing in same-

sex groups. she also points out that boys and girls do play some games together, but their favorite games are very often quite different. tannen and other researchers on this topic have found that young boys, say ages 8 through 12, tend to play

outside the house rather than in the house, and they play in large groups that are hiererchically srtuctured. a group of boys generally has a leader who tells the other boys what to do and how to do it. it is by giving orders and making the other boys play by the rules that boys achieve higher or more dominant status in their play group.

unit 5

in this age of instantaneous communications, it has become harder to hide wrongdoings:corrupt officials and business people are now exposed by private whistleblowers, government leaks, aggrieved competitors, and investigative reporters. publicity is an important deterrent because corruption can terminate careers. during the past year alone, scandals have brought down the prime minister of the ukraine, the deputy president of south africa, the leader of brazil’s ruling party, key kenyan government ministers, and the majority leader of the u.s. house of representatives. but systematic changes are necessary to ensure that corruption scandals stop repeating themselves like prurient tv show reruns.

leadership changes have occurred or are about to occur in key entities: the world bank, the oecd, the un, transparency international, and the international chamber of commerce. the resulting set of new leaders should get together with ngos and leaders from other key organizations, such as export-credit entities and internationgal law-enforcement agencies, to map out a broad anticorruption strategy and develop a consensus for near-term and middle-term action. 当前是一个信息即时交流的时代,要想掩盖恶行越来越难,因为眼下私人密探、走漏政府内部消息的人、愤愤不平的竞争对手以及那些刨根问底的记者们都会把那些贪污腐败的官员和奸商暴露出来,由于腐化堕落会断送事业前程,所以曝光是一种重要的威慑力量。仅去年一年,被丑闻拉下台的就有乌克兰总理、南非副总统、巴西执政党领袖、肯尼亚政府的几名地位显赫的部长以及美国众议院多数党领袖。但是确保腐败丑闻不会像色情电视剧那样重复上演,就必须进行系统的变革。






txt>unit 1

2. vocabulary

(1) eage (2) nebulous (3) defer (4) tempers

(5) squint (6) squeal (7) lenient(8)propelled

(9) cadets (10) squad

4. cloze

(1) comically (2) experience (3) entertains (4) conveying

(5) bemusement (6) anecdote (7) eyesight (8) professor

(9) adjusted (10) pass (11) economics (12) tackle

(13) football (14) studies (15) outstanding (16) keep

(17)simplest (18) hints(19) right(20) persona

5. translation

a. translate the following paragraphs into chinese







b. translate the following sentences into english

(1) when he went to borrow money from his friend and was refused again, he flew into fury.

(2) mike was cut off from all but occasional radio communications with his armies in the campaign.

(3) as we walked along, we saw a rabbit pop up from its

burrow and scurry across the field.

(5) some people think if people marry, it ought to be for life;

the laws are altogether too lenient with divorcees.

(6) over the first four laps, benjamin stayed abreast of the german driver.

(7) speed, endurance and tactics are important factors in gaining the victory.

(8) a soccer team that retains championship year after year must have kept up its extraordinary performance with close coordination among its high-morale


text b

i. key to the exercises

1. f.








9.t 10.t.

unit 2

1. vocabulary

(1) ubiquitous (2) shed (3) embellished (4) pervasive

(5) optical (6) state-of-the-art (7) sleek (8) gregarious

(9) rigorous (10) intimidating

(1) ed to rest their eyes after staring a long time at the equipments.


(1) access (2) tremendous (3) has released (4) currently

(5) allowing (6) furthermore (7) without (8) suitable

(9) extending (10) shown (11) throughout (12) over

(13) adding (14) keeping (15) about (16) learning

(17) found (18) commonplace (19) however (20) addressed


a. translate the following paragraph into chinese.


b. translate the following sentences into english.

(1) to relieve the heavy traffic, the new plan takes advantage of existing bus routes and encourages more walking and biking by residents and other tourists.

(2) the impact of the web on education is likely to be profound. it is already being used in novel ways to allow students access to the latest breakthroughs in scientific discovery years before they are likely to appear in textbooks.

(3) great progress of the human society requires a complete rethinking of education, both in terms of the curriculum, and in the development of pedagogies that insure that every student acquires the high level of skills needed to thrive in the dynamic world of the 21st century.

(4) in 2006, beijing municipal government started to adopt all kinds of measures to purify the air and planned to actively control the weather to manifest a sun-drenched city to all the visitors during the 2008 beijing olympic games.

(5) a plug-in is a computer program that interacts with a host application to provide a certain, usually very specific, function “on demand”.

(6) the objective of off-site supervision is to quickly identify negative trends and emerging problems and resolve the issues before they become so serious that they could negatively affect the whole condition.

(7) one of the most important tasks confronting enterprises administrators is how they will integrate market-oriented thinking into planning theory and procedures.

(8) the joint chiefs of staff told defense minister that military needed an improved ability to respond to such an attack, including state-of-the-art weapons capable of destroying a nuclear missile.

text b the information revolution will transform education

ii. key to exercises

1. f

2. t

3. f

4. f

5. f

6. f

7. t

8. f

9. f10. t

unit 3

text a for students seeking edge, one major just isn’t enough 2. vocabulary

(1) hone (2) amass (3) faltering (4) marketable (5) internship

(6) extracurricular (7) savvy (8) far-flung (9) credential (10) intriguing

4. cloze

(1) potential (2) advantage (3) achieve (4) communicate (5) derives

(6) maintain(7) organization (8) special (9) related(10) chart

(11) position (12) knowledge (13) of (14) inherent(15) by

(16) than (17) whose (18) high (19) source(20) another

5. translation

a. translate the following paragraph into chinese.




b. translate the following sentences into english.

(1) in current economy, knowledge becomes the basic factor of production.

intangible assets count for much of a company’s assets. (2) “you’re right, of course, there are lots of young people around nowadays, all with

de grees, but a university degree doesn’t automatically confer talent on you.”

(3) students who have too many part-time jobs often do not have enough time or

energy for homework and miss out on social and intellectual development gained





(8) from school activities. after long intense work, we have finally accomplished the overwhelming task, and are slacking

off now. the executive board of the ioc will narrow down the candidate cities again before a final decision is made. when they make some small contribution, they swell with pride and brag about it for fear that others will not know. today international cultural exchange goes directly and indirectly, its scope, content, form and method unheard of before the present time. to readjust the objective of the economic management undergraduate education

to fit in with the development of the social economy is the most urgent task of the economic management specialty reform.

text b your career matters: no longer just eggheads, linguists leap to the net—vocabulary resource managers’ and knowledge engineers’ are suddenly in demand

ii. key to the exercises

1. f

2. f

3. t

4. t

5. t

6. f

7. t

8. t

9. f 10. f

unit 4

text a the syncranization of the world economies

2. vocabulary

(1) downturn (2) synchronize (3) wring (4) diversification (5) globalization

(6) discourage (7) unison (8) stagnant (9) align (10) exacerbate

4. cloze

(1) globalization (2) breakthroughs (3) drastically (4) invention

(5) investments

(6) transportation (7) suddenly(8) attracted (9) populated (10) imported

(11) economies (12) fluctuations (13) extremely (14) participated (15) surplus

(16) bargain(17) beneficial (18) enormously (19) wages (20) standards

5. translation

a. translate the following paragraph into chinese.











b. translate the following sentences into english.

(1) some competitors drag you down to their level and beat

you with experience.

(2) for a while she went, as sams representative, to help

smooth out initial working problems.

(3) most people thought this machine would never be anything but a toy.

(4) it is the first time for china to undertake such a gigantic project. many people once suspected whether the project

would be completed on schedule?

(5) chinas telecom industry still maintains rapid growth in

spite of global recession.

(6) the consumer price level rose by 0.4 percent, reversing the trend of decline for two consecutive years starting from 1998.

(7) this company gives us a seductive offer on engineering the merger with us.

(8) economics must still contend with scarcity as a basic fact

of life.

text b just say no: jose bove has made a career as a professional agitator; his latest target: globalization

ii. key to the exercises

1. f

2. f

3. t

4. f

5. t

6. t

7. t 8, f 9. f 10. t

unit 5

text a men are from mars, women are from venus

1. vocabulary

(1) perceive (2) odds (3) fantasize (4) autonomy

(5) unsolicited (6) touchy (7) empathy (8) anticipate

2. cloze

(1) duty (2) real (3) position (4) pressure

(5) attractive (6) suspicion (7) authoritative (8) damned

(9) hardly (10) dangers (11) between (12) than

(13) oppression (14) defining (15) then (16) trap

(17) requires (18) privilege (19) prop (20) saving

3. translation

a. translate the following paragraph into chinese.