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Finding fossil man 发现化?石?人

Why are legends handed down by storytellers useful?

We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write. But there are some parts of the world where even now people cannot write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas -- legends handed down from one generation of storytellers to another. These legends are useful because they can tell us something about migrations of people who lived long ago, but none could write down what they did. Anthropologists wondered where the remote ancestors of the Polynesian peoples now living in the Pacific Islands came from. The sagas of these people explain that some of them came from Indonesia about 2,000 years ago.

But the first people who were like ourselves lived so long ago that even their sagas, if they had any, are forgotten. So archaeologists have neither history nor legends to help them to find out where the first 'modern men' came from. Fortunately, however, ancient men made tools of stone, especially

flint, because this is easier to shape

than other kinds.

They may also have used wood and skins, but these have rotted

away. Stone does not decay, and so the

tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared

without trace. 读到flint 打?火?石anthropomorphic ?人格

化拟1anthropo ?人类

的让步?一?一trace back

date back read of read about

a trace of ?一些


resound u叙述




n. 印度尼?西亚

我们从书籍中可读到5,000 年年前近东发?生的事情,那?里里的?人最早学会了了写字。但直到现在,世界上有些地?方,?人们还不不会书写。他们保存历史的唯?一办法是将历史当作传说讲述,由讲述?人?一代接?一代地将史实描述为传奇故事?口传下来。?人类学家过去不不清楚如今?生活在太平洋诸岛上的波利利尼?西亚?人的祖先来?自何?方,当地?人的传说却告诉?人们:其中?一部分是约在2,000年年前从印度尼?西亚迁来的。



Spare that spider 不不要伤害蜘蛛


 How much of each year do spiders spend killing insects?

Why, you may wonder, should spiders be our friends? Because they destroy so many insects, and insects include some of the greatest enemies of the human race. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.

We owe a lot to the birds and beasts who eat insects but all of them put together kill only a fraction of the number destroyed by spiders.

Moreover, unlike some of the other insect eaters, spiders never do the least harm to us or our belongings. Spiders are not insects, as many people think, nor even nearly related to them. One can tell the difference almost at a glance, for a spider always has eight legs and insect never more than six.


 How many spiders are engaged in this work on our behalf? One authority on spiders made a census of the spiders in grass field in the south of England, and he estimated that there were more than 2,250,000 in one acre; that is something like 6,000,000 spiders of different kinds on a football pitch. Spiders are busy for at least half the year in killing insects. It is impossible to make more than the wildest guess at how many they kill, but they are hungry creatures, not content with only three meals a day. It has been estimated that the weight of all the insects destroyed by spiders in Britain in one year would be greater than the total weight of all the human beings in the country.




Matterhorn man ?马特霍恩?山区?人


What was the main objective of early mountain climbers?

 Modern alpinists try to climb mountains by a route which will give them good sport, and the more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded.

In the pioneering days, however, this was not the case at all. The early climbers were looking for the easiest way to the top, because the summit was the prize they sought, especially if it had never been attained before.

It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner with would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. They had a single aim, a solitary goal -- the top!

It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers. Except for one or two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpine village tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the high mountains.

Such inns as there were generally dirty and flea-ridden; the food simply local cheese accompanied by bread often twelve months old, all washed down with coarse wine.

Often a valley boasted no inn at all, and climbers found shelter wherever they could -- sometimes with the local priest (who was usually as poor as his parishioners), sometimes with shepherds or cheese-makers. Invariably the background was the same: dirt and poverty, and very uncomfortable.

For men accustomed to eating seven-course dinners and sleeping between fine linen sheets at home, the change to the Alps must have very hard indeed. shudder v. 不不寒?而栗栗

Alpine adj. 阿尔卑?斯?山的

现代登?山运动员总想找?一条能够给他们带来运动乐趣的路路线来攀登?山峰。他们认为,道路路愈艰险愈带劲?儿。然?而,在登?山运动的初期,全然不不是这种情况。早期登?山者所寻找的是通往?山顶的最?方便便的途径,因为顶峰特别是前?人未曾到过的顶峰 -- 才是他们寻求的?目标。确实,在探险中他们经常遇到惊?心动魄的困难和危险,?而他们装备之简陋陋?足以使现代登?山者?一想起来就胆战?心惊。但是,他们并?非故意寻求这种刺刺激,他们只有?一个?目标,唯?一的?目标 -- 顶峰!

我们今天很难想像昔?日的登?山先驱们是多么艰苦。除了了泽曼特和夏蒙尼等?一两个很快出了了名的地?方外,阿尔卑?斯?山?山区的?小村?几乎全是?高?山环抱、与世隔绝的穷乡僻壤。那?里里的?小客栈?一般都很肮脏,?而且跳蚤猖獗。??食物是当地的?干酪酪和通常存放了了?一年年之久的?面包,?人们就着劣酒吞下这种??食物。?山?谷?里里常常没有?小客栈,登?山者只好随遇?而安。有时同当地牧师 (他通常和他的教?民?一样穷)住在?一起,有时同牧?羊?人或制乳酪酪的?人住在?一起。?无论住在哪?儿,情况都?一样:肮脏、贫穷,极其不不舒适。对于过惯了了?一顿饭吃7道菜、睡亚麻细布床单的?人来说,变换?一下?生活环境来到阿尔卑?斯?山?山区,那?一定是很艰难的。

Seeing hands

Several cases have been reported in Russia recently of people who can read and detect colors with their fingers, and even see through solid doors and walls. One case concerns an eleven-year-old schoolgirl, Vera Petrova, who has normal vision but who can also perceive things with different parts of her skin, and through solid walls.

This ability was first noticed by her father. One day she came into his office and happened to put her hands on the door of a locked safe. Suddenly she asked her father why he kept so many old newspapers locked away there, and even described the way they were done up in bundles.

 Vera's curious talent was brought to the notice of a scientific research institute in the town of Ulyanovsk, near where she lives, and in April she was given a series of tests by a special commission of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federal Republic.

During these tests she was able to read a newspaper through an opaque screen and, stranger still, by moving her elbow over a child's game of Lotto she was able to describe the figures and colors printed on it; and, in another instance, wearing stockings and slippers, to make out with her foot the outlines and colors of a picture hidden under a carpet.

Other experiments showed that her knees and shoulders had a similar sensitivity.

During all these tests Vera was blindfold; and, indeed, except when blindfold she lacked the ability to perceive things with her skin.

It was also found that although she could perceive things with her fingers this ability ceased the moment her hands were wet.

Youth ?青年年

 People are always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one -- which I take leave to doubt -- then it is older people who create it, not the young themselves. Let us get down to fundamentals and agree that the young are after all human beings -- people just like their elders. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and the old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is where the rub is.

When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young and uncertain -- that I was a new boy in a huge school, and I would have been very pleased to be regarded as something so interesting as a problem. For one thing, being a problem gives you a certain identity, and that is one of the things the young are busily engaged in seeking.

I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. All this seems to me to link them with life, and the origins of things. It's as if they were, in some sense, cosmic beings in violent and lovely

contrast with us suburban creatures. All that is in my mind when I meet a young person. He may be

conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous,

but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect of elders -- as if mere age were a reason for respect. I accept that we are ?一?一允许擅?自做某事take leave to do 奾




equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I think he is wrong. ?人们总是在谈论“?青年年问题”。如果这个问题存在的话 -- 请允许我对此持怀疑态度 -- 那么,这个问题是由?老老年年?人?而不不是?青年年?人造成的。让我们来认真研究?一些基本事实:承认?青年年?人和他们的?长辈?一样也是?人。?老老年年?人和?青年年?人只有?一个区别:?青年年?人有光辉灿烂的前景,?而?老老年年?人的辉煌已成为过去。 问题的症结恐怕就在这?里里。 我?十?几岁时,总感到?自?己年年轻,有些事拿不不准 -- 我是?一所?大学?里里的?一名新?生,如果我当时真的被看成像?一个问题那样有趣,我会感到很得意的。因为这?至少使我得到了了某种承认,这正是年年轻?人所热衷追求的。


The sporting spirit

体育的精神 I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. Even if one didn't know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance) that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it from general principles. Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive. You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and

turn to for 为?而求助于


板球意愿礪礪-?一?无节制放荡deduce from 从推断



exercise: but as soon as a the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that

you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused. Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this. At the international level, sport is frankly mimic warfare. But the significant thing is not the behavior of the players but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators, of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriously believe -- at any rate for short periods -- that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of national virtue.


现在开展的体育运动?几乎都是竞争性的。参加?比赛就是为了了取胜。如果不不拚命去赢,?比赛就没有什什么意义了了。 在乡间的草坪上,当你随意组成两个队,并且不不涉及任何地?方情绪时,那才可能是单纯的为了了娱乐和锻炼?而进?行行?比赛。可是?一量量涉及到荣誉问题,?一旦你想到你和某?一团体会因为你输?而丢脸时,那么最野蛮的争?斗天性便便会激发起来。即使是仅仅参加过学校?足球赛的?人也有种体会。在国际?比赛中,体育简直是?一场模拟战争。但是,要紧的还不不是运动员的?行行为,?而是观众的态度,以及观众身后各个国家的态度。?面对着这些荒唐的?比赛,参赛的各个国家会如痴如狂,甚?至煞有介事地相信 -- ?至少在短期内如此 -- 跑跑、跳跳、踢踢球是对?一个?民族品德素质的检验。

动物发出的声?音不不都是?用作语?言交际。我们只要看?一看蝙蝠回声定位这?一极不不寻常的发现,就可以探究?一下声?音在什什么情况下有绝对的实?用价值。 要透彻理理解这句句话的意义,我们应先回顾?一下?人类最近的?几项发明。?大家都知道,在墙壁或?山腰附近发出的喊声,就会听到回声。固体障碍物越远。回声返回所?用时间就越?长。敲打船体所发了了的声?音会从海?底传回来,测出回声间隔的时间,便便可算出该处海?洋的深度。这样就产?生了了?目前各种船舶上普遍应?用的回声探测仪。任何固体者反射声?音,反射的声?音因物体的?大?小和性质的不不同?而不不同。?鱼群也反射声?音。从测定海?深到测定?鱼群,这?一进展?比较容易易。根据经验和改进了了的仪器?,不不仅能够确定?鱼群的位置,?而且可以根据?鱼群回声的特点分辨出是鲱?鱼、鳕?鱼,这是?人们所熟悉的其他?鱼。 ?人们发现,某些蝙蝠能发出尖叫声,并能通过回声来确定并躲开障碍物,或找到它们赖以为?生的


__a 野性的a 好?斗的

i 观众?一模拟战争


Not all sounds made by animals serve as language, and we have only to turn to that extraordinary discovery of echo-location in bats to see a case in which the voice plays a strictly utilitarian role. 

 To get a full appreciation of what this means we must turn first to some recent human inventions. Everyone knows that if he shouts in the vicinity of a wall or a mountainside, an echo will come back. The further off this solid obstruction, the longer time will elapse for the return of the echo. A sound made by tapping on the hull of a ship will be reflected from the sea bottom, and by measuring the time interval between the taps and the receipt of the echoes, the depth of the sea at that point can be calculated. So was born the echo-sounding apparatus, now in general use in ships. Every solid object will reflect a sound, varying according to the size and nature of the object . A shoal of fish will do this. So it is a comparatively simple step from locating the sea bottom to locating a shoal of fish. With experience, and with improved apparatus, it is now possible not only to locate a shoal but to tell if it is herring, cod, or other well-known fish, by the pattern of its echo. 

 It has been found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes, they can locate and steer clear of obstacles -- or locate flying insects on which they feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar.

?用的?面功利利的理理解n 功利利主义者从附近障碍物





雪n 尖叫声steer clear of 避开

Lesson 8 Trading standards 贸易易标准

Chickens slaughtered in the United States, claim officials in Brussels, are not fit to grace European tables. No, say the American: our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way. These days, it is differences in national regulations, far more than tariffs that put sand in the wheels of trade between rich countries.

It is not just farmers who are complaining. An electric razor that meets the European Union's safety standards must be approved by American testers before it can be sold in the United States, and an American-made dialysis machine needs the EU's okay before is hits the market in Europe. 

 As it happens, a razor that is safe in Europe is unlikely to electrocute Americans. So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do? Politicians agree, in principle, so America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal which would eliminate the need to double-test many products. They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28TH. Although negotiators are optimistic, the details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all. Why? One difficulty is to construct the agreements. The Americans would happily reach one accord on standards for medical devices and then hammer out different pacts covering, say, electronic goods and drug manufacturing. The EU -- following fine continental traditions -- wants agreement on general principles, which could be applied to many types of products and

装点--阻碍IT 分离分解透析渗析i

触电身亡-ntnnn flsk -0


perhaps extended to other countries.



?人员的认可,?方可在美国市场上销售;?而美国制造的透析仪也要得到欧盟的?首肯才能进?入欧洲市场。 碰巧在欧洲使?用安全的剃须?刀不不?大可能使美国?人触电身亡,因此,?大?西洋两岸的企业都在问,当?一套测试可以解决问题时,为什什么需要两套呢?政治家在原则上同意了了,因此,美国和欧洲?一直在寻求达成协议,以便便为许多产品取消双重检查。他们希望尽早达成协议,为5?月28?日举?行行的美国和欧洲贸易易的最?高通级会议作准备。然谈判代表持乐观态度,但协议细节如此复杂,他们所?面临的困难很可能使他们?无法取得?一致。

为什什么呢?困难之?一是起草这些协议。美国?人很愿意就医疗器?械的标准达成?一个协议,然后推敲出不不同的合同,?用以涵盖 -- ?比如说 -- 电?子产品和药品的?生产。欧洲?人遵循优良的?大陆传统,则希望就普遍的原则取得?一致,?而这些原则适?用于许多不不同产品,同时可能延伸到其它国家。







  • 新概念英语第一册笔记

  • 新概念英语第四册笔记

  • 新概念英语第四册翻译

  • 新概念英语第四册课文

  • 新概念英语第三册笔记

  • 新概念英语第4册课文