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Unit 1

An impressive English lesson

1 If I am the only parent who still corrects his child's English, then perhaps my son is right. To him, I am a tedious oddity: a father he is obliged to listen to and a man absorbed in the rules of grammar, which my son seems allergic to.

2 I think I got serious about this only recently when I ran into one of my former students, fresh from an excursion to Europe. "How was it?" I asked, full of earnest anticipation.

3 She nodded three or four times, searched the heavens for the right words, and then exclaimed, "It was, like, whoa!"

4 And that was it. The civilization of Greece and the glory of

Roman architecture were captured in a condensed non-statement. My student's "whoa!"

was exceeded only by my head-shaking distress.

5 There are many different stories about the downturn in the proper use of English. Surely students should be able to distinguish between their /there /they're or the distinctive difference between complimentary and complementary . They unfairly bear the bulk of the criticism for these knowledge deficits because there is a sense that they

should know better.

6 Students are not dumb, but they are being misled everywhere they look and listen. For example, signs in grocery stores point them to the stationary , even though the actual stationery items —pads, albums and notebooks —are not nailed down. Friends and loved ones often proclaim they've just ate when, in fact, they've just eaten . Therefore,

it doesn't make any sense to criticize our students.

7 Blame for the scandal of this language deficit should be thrust upon our schools, which should be setting high standards of English language proficiency. Instead, they only teach a little grammar and even less advanced vocabulary. Moreover, the younger teachers

themselves evidently have little knowledge of these vital structures of language because they also went without exposure to them. Schools fail to adequately teach the essential framework of language, accurate grammar and proper vocabulary, while they should take the responsibility of pushing the young onto the path of competent communication.

8 Since grammar is boring to most of the young students, I think that it must be handled delicately, step by step. The chance came when one day I was driving with my son. As we

set out on our trip, he noticed a bird in jerky flight and said, "It's flying so unsteady." I carefully asked, "My son, how is the bird flying?" "What's wrong? Did I say anything incorrectly?" He got lost. "Great! You said incorrectly instead of incorrect . We use adverbs

to describe verbs. Therefore, it's flying so unsteadily but not so unsteady ."

9 Curious about my correction, he asked me what an adverb was. Slowly, I said, "It's a word that tells you something about a verb." It led to his asking me what a verb was. I

explained, "Verbs are action words; for example, Dad drives the truck. Drive is the verb because it's the thing Dad is doing."

10 He became attracted to the idea of action words, so we listed a few more: fly, swim, dive, run . Then, out of his own curiosity, he asked me if other words had names for their use and functions. This led to a discussion of nouns, adjectives, and articles. Within the span of a 10-minute drive, he had learned from scratch to the major parts of speech in a senten ce. It was painl ess lear ning and great fun!

11 Perhaps, la nguage should be looked upon as a road map and a valuable possessi on:

ofte n study the road map (check grammar) and tune up the car engine (adjust vocabulary). Lear ning grammar and a good vocabulary is just like drivi ng with a road map in a well-c on diti oned car.

12 The road map provides the framework and guida nee you n eed for your trip, but it won't tell you exactly what trees or flowers you will see, what kind of people you will encounter, or what types of feelings you will be experiencing on your journey. Here, the vocabulary

makes the journey's true colors come alive! A good vocabulary enables you to enjoy whatever you see as you drive along. Equipped with grammar and a good vocabulary, you have flexibility and excellent control. While the road map guides your journey to your destination, an excellent vehicle helps you to fully enjoy all of the sights, sounds and experie nces along the way.

13 Effective, precise, and ben eficial com muni cati on depe nds upon grammar and a good vocabulary, the two esse ntial assets for stude nts, but they are not being taught in schools.

14 Just this morning, my son and I were eating breakfast when I attempted to add milk to my tea. "Dad," he said, "If I were you, I would n't do that. It's sour."

15 "Oh my!" I said, swelling with pride toward my son, "That's a grammatically perfect sentence. You used were in stead of was ."

16 "I kno w, I kno w," he said with a long agreeable sigh. "It's the subj unctive mood."

17 I was, like, whoa!

Tran slati on











their/there/they're 之间的不同,或区别complimentary 跟complementary 之间显而易见的差异。由于这些知识缺陷,他们承受着大部分不该承受的批评和指责,因为舆论认为他们应该学得更好。


会把他们引向stationary (静止处),虽然便笺本、相册、和笔记本等真正的stationery (文

具用品)并没有被钉在那儿。朋友和亲人常宣称They've just ate。实际上,他们应该说

They've just eate n 。因此,批评学生不合乎情理。






8 因为语法对大多数年轻学生而言枯燥且乏味,所以我觉得讲授语法得一步一步、注重技 巧地进行。有一天机会来了。我跟儿子开车外出。 我们出发时,他看到一只小鸟飞得很不 稳,就说:“它飞的不稳。 ”(It's flying so unsteady. )我小心翼翼地问: “儿子,鸟怎么飞 ?”“有 问题吗?我说得不对吗?( Did I say anything incorrectly? )”他一头雾水。 “太好了, 你 说的是 incorrectly 而不是 incorrect 。我们用副词来描述动词。所以,要用 unsteadily 来描 述鸟飞,而不是 unsteady 。”

9 他对我的纠正很好奇,就问我什么是副词。 我慢慢解释道: “副词是用来修饰动词的词。 ”这 又导致了他询问我什么是动词。 我解释说: “动词是表示行为的词,例如:爸爸开卡车。 ‘开' 是动词,因为它是爸爸在做的事。 ”

10 他开始对表示行为的词产生兴趣, 所以我们又罗列了几个动词: “飞行”、“游泳”、“跳水”、 “跑步”。然后,他又好奇地问我,其他的词有没有说明它们的用法和功能的名称。 这就引 发了我们对名词、形容词和冠词的讨论。 在短短十分钟的驾驶时间内,他从对语法一无所 知到学会了句子中主要词语的词性。 这是一次毫无痛苦而又非常有趣的学习经历。

11 也许,语言应该被看成是一张路线图和一件珍品:我们要常常查看路线图(核对语法) 和调整汽车的引擎(调节词汇) 。学好语法和掌握大量的词汇就好比拿着路线图在车况良好 的车里驾驶。

12 路线图为你的旅行提供所需的基本路线和路途指南,可是它不会告诉你一路上你究竟会 看见什么树或什么花,你会遇见什么样的人,或会有什么样的感受。 这里,词汇会使你的 旅途变得五彩缤纷、栩栩如生。 大量的词汇让你享受到开车途中所见的点点滴滴。 借助语 法和丰富的词汇,你就有了灵活性,掌控自如。 路线图会把你带到目的地,而一台好车却 能让你完全陶醉于旅途的所有景色、声音及经历之中。

13 对学生来说,有效、准确且富有成效的沟通技能取决于语法和词汇这两大有利条件,可 是学校并没有教他们这些。

14 就在今天早上,我跟儿子吃早饭时,我想把牛奶加入我的茶里。 “爸爸, ”他说, “如果

Unit 2

The humanities: Out of date?

1 When the going gets tough, the tough take accounting. When the job market worsens, many students calculate they can't major in English or history. They have to study

something that boosts their prospects of landing a job.

2 The data show that as students have increasingly shouldered the ever-rising cost of tuition, they have defected from the study of the humanities and toward applied science and "hard" skills that they bet will lead to employment. In other words, a college education is more and more seen as a means for economic betterment rather than a means for human betterment. This is a trend that is likely to persist and even accelerate.

3 Over the next few years, as labor markets struggle, the humanities will probably continue their long slide in succession. There already has been a nearly 50 percent decline in the portion of liberal arts majors over the past generation, and it is logical to think that the trend is bound to continue or even accelerate. Once the dominant pillars of university life, the humanities now play little roles when students take their college tours. These days, labs are more vivid and compelling than libraries.

4 Here, please allow me to stand up for and promote the true value that the humanities add to people's 我是你的话,我不会这样做。牛奶会变酸。

15 “哦,上帝! ”我满怀着无比的骄傲说道,

而不是 was 。” 16 “我知道,我知道, ”他愉悦地舒了口气,

17 这下轮到我“哇!”了。

If I were you, I wouldn't do that. It's sour. )” “这是一句语法完全正确的句子。你用了 were

“这是虚拟语气! ”

lives. Since ancient times, people have speculated about the mystery of those inner forces that drive some people to greatness and others to self-destruction. This inner drive has been called many things over the centuries. The famous psychologist, Sigmund Freud, called it the "unconscious mind" or, more familiarly, "instinct".

5 From the beginning of time, this inner aspect of our being, this drive that can be constructive or destructive, has captured our imagination. The stories of this amazing struggle have formed the basis of cultures the world over. Historians, architects, authors, philosophers and artists have captured the words, images and meanings of this inner struggle in the form of story, music, myth, painting, architecture, sculpture, landscape and traditions. These men and women developed artistic "languages" that help us understand these aspirations and also educate generations. This fertile body of work from ancient

times, the very foundation of civilization, forms the basis of study of the humanities.

6 Studying the humanities improves our ability to read and write. No matter what we do in life, we will have a huge advantage if we can read complex ideas and understand their meaning. We will have a bright career if we are the person in the office who can write a clear and elegant analysis of those ideas!

7 Studying the humanities makes us familiar with the language of emotion and the creative process. In an information economy, many people have the ability to produce a useful product such as a new MP3 player. Yet, very few people have the ability to create a spectacular brand: the iPod. Most importantly, studying the humanities invests us with great insight and self-awareness, there by releasing our creative energy and talent in a positive and constructive manner.

8 Perhaps the best argument in favor of the humanities is the scope of possibilities that are widely open to us. Did you know that James Cameron, world-famous director of the movie, Titanic , graduated with a degree in the humanities? So did Sally Ride, the first woman in space. So did actors Bruce Lee, Gwyneth Paltrow, Renee Zellweger and Matt

Damon. Dr. Harold Varmus, who won a Nobel Prize for Medicine, studied the humanities. Even Michael Eisner, Chairman of the Disney Company, majored in the humanities. Famous people who studied the humanities make a long list indeed. It's easy to see that the humanities can prepare us for many different careers and jobs we can undertake, whether medicine, business, science or entertainment. If we study only mathematics, it's likely we will be a candidate only for jobs as a mathematician. If we include studying the humanities, we can make breakthroughs on many barriers and are limited only by our effort and imagination.

9 Of course, nowadays, if we study the humanities alone, we are liable to miss many opportunities. Each one of us needs to become as technically and professionally skilled as possible to help meet the needs of modern life. In fact, increasingly a pairing of technical knowledge and inner insight is seen as the ideal in the establishment of a career. If I were the Dean of Admissions at a medical school and two people applied to our school, both having the required basic scientific courses, one a philosophy major and the other solely a pre-med student, the philosophy applicant would be chosen.

10 In summary, the humanities help to create well-rounded human beings with insight and understanding of the passions, hopes and dreams common to all humanity. The humanities, the ancient timeless reservoir of knowledge, teach us to see things differently and broaden our horizons. They are as useful and relevant in our modern age as they have always been. Doesn't it make sense to spend some time in the company of the humanities, our outstanding and remarkable treasure of

knowledge? Who knows how famous YOU might become!



1 当形势变得困难时,强者会去选学会计。当就业市场恶化时,许多学生估算着他们不能再主修英语或历史。他们得学一些能改善他们就业前景的东西。

2 数据显示,随着学生肩负的学费不断增加,他们已从学习人文学科转向他们相信有益于将来就业的应用科学和“硬”技能。换言之,大学教育越来越被看成是改善经济而不是提升人类自身的手段。这种趋势可能会持续,甚至有加快之势。

3 在未来几年内,由于劳动力市场的不景气,人文学科可能会继续其长期低迷的态势。在上一代大学生中,主修文科的学生数跌幅已近50% 。这种趋势会持续、甚至加速的想法是


4 在这儿,请允许我为人文学科给人们的生活所增添的真实价值进行支持和宣传。自古以来,人们一直在思索人类自身具有什么神奇的内力使一些人变得崇高伟大,而使另一些人走向自我毁灭。几个世纪以来,这股内力被称作很多东西。著名的心理学家西格蒙德弗洛伊


5 从一开始,人类这股可以是建设性也可以是毁灭性的内在驱动力,就令我们心驰神往。这




6 学习人文学科会提高我们的阅读和写作能力。无论我们这一生中从事什么职业,如果我



7 学习人文学科会让我们熟悉表达情感的语言及进行创造的过程。在信息经济中,很多人

都有能力创造出一个如新的MP3 播放器那样的有用产品。然而,仅有很少的人具有能力创造出一个如iPod 那样的精彩品牌。最重要的是,学习人文学科使我们具有伟大的洞察力和自我意识,从而以积极和建设性的方式来发挥我们的创造力和才艺。

8 也许,支持人文学科的最好论点是,人文学科为我们提供了广阔的机会。你知道世界闻





9 当然,在当下,如果我们单学人文学科,可能会失去很多机会。我们每个人都需要尽可




10 总之,人文学科帮助造就全面发展的人,这些人具有洞察力,并理解全人类共有的激情、希望和理想。人文学科,这个古老、永恒的知识储蓄库,教我们如何以不同的方式看待事物,同时也拓宽我们的视


Unit 5

Spend or save —The student's dilemma

1 Do you feel as confused and manipulated as I do with this question, "Should I spend or should I save?" I think that the messages we get from our environment seem to defy common sense and contradict each other. The government tells us to spend or we'll never get out of the recession. At the same time, they tell us that unless we save more, our country is in grave danger. Banks offer higher interest rates so we increase savings. Then the same banks send us credit card offers so we can spend more.

2 Here's another familiar example: If we don't pay our credit card bill on time, we get demanding, nasty emails from the credit card company saying something like: "Your

failure to pay is unacceptable. Pay immediately or you'll be in trouble!" Then, as soon as we pay, we get a follow-up email in a charming tone telling us how valuable a customer we are and encouraging us to resume spending. Which depiction is correct: a failing consumer in trouble or a valued customer? The gap between these two messages is enormous.

3 The paradox is that every day we get two sets of messages at odds with each other. One is the "permissive" perspective, "Buy, spend, get it now. You need this!" The other we could call an "upright" message, which urges us, "Work hard and

save. Suspend your desires. Avoid luxuries. Control your appetite for more than you truly need." This message comes to us from many sources: from school, from parents, even from political figures referring to "traditional values". Hard work, family loyalty, and the capacity to postpone desires are core American values that have made our country great.

4 But the opposite message, advertising's permissive message, is inescapable. Though sometimes disguised, the messages are everywhere we look: on TV, in movies on printed media and road signs, in stores, and on busses, trains and subways. Advertisements invade our daily lives. We are constantly surrounded by the message to spend, spend, spend. Someone recently said, "The only time you can escape advertising is when you're in your bed asleep!"

5 It's been calculated that by the age of 18, the average American will have seen 600,000 ads; by the age of 40, the total is almost one million. Each advertisement is doing its utmost to influence our diverse buying decisions, from the breakfast cereal we eat to which cruise line we will use for our vacation. There is no shortage of ideas and things to buy! Now, of course, we don't remember exactly what the products were, but the essential message is cemented into our consciousness, "It's good to satisfy your desires. You should have what you want. You deserve the best. So, you should buy it —now!" A famous advertisement said it perfectly, "I love me. I'm a good friend to myself. I do what makes me feel good. I derive pleasure from nice things and feel nourished by them. I used to put things off. Not anymore. Today I'll buy new ski equipment, look at new compact cars, and buy that camera I've always wanted. I live my dreams today, not tomorrow."

6 What happens as we take in these contradictory but explicit messages? What are the psychological

and social consequences of this campaign to control our spending habits? On one hand, we want more things because we want to satisfy our material appetite. Most of us derive pleasure from treating ourselves. On the other hand, a little

voice inside us echoes those upright messages: "Watch out, take stock of your life, don't let your attention get scattered. Postpone your desires. Don't fall into debt. Wait! Retain control over your own life. It will make you stronger."

7 Anyway, many of the skills you need as a successful student can be applied to your finances. Consider your financial well-being as a key ingredient of your university education as money worries are extremely stressful and distracting. They can make you feel terrible and hinder your ability to focus on your prime objective: successfully completing your education.

8 How can you be a smart and educated consumer? Many schools, community organizations, and even some banks offer financial literacy classes. Consider consulting with your school's financial aid office or seek input from your parents or other respected adults in setting up a budget. An additional option is finding a partner to help you stay on track and find pleasure in the administration of your own financial affairs. Most importantly, if you find yourself getting into financial trouble, don't let your ego get in your way; urgently get help with tackling your problem before it spins out of control and lands you in legal troubles.

9 All this will help you become an educated consumer and saver. As you learn to balance spending and saving, you will become the captain of your own ship, steering your life in a successful and productive direction through the choppy waters.



1 你是不是跟我一样对“我应该花钱还是存钱”这个问题感到困惑,且有被操纵的感觉?我觉得我们从生活的环境里所获得的信息似乎是有违常识、互相矛盾的。政府告诉我们要花钱,否则我们将永远走不出衰退;与此同时,他们又告诉我们,除非我们节省更多的钱,否则我们的国家会处于严重危险之中。银行提供较高的利率以增加储蓄。然后,同样是这些银行又提供信用卡让我们可以花更多的钱。

2 这里还有一个大家熟悉的例子:如果我们不按时支付信用卡账单,我们会收到从信用卡公司发来的类似这样的令人讨厌的催缴账单的电子邮件:不还款是不可接受的。请立即缴付,否则后果自负!之后,一旦还款,我们就会收到一封跟进的电子邮件,语气和蔼可亲,说我们是多么宝贵的客户,并鼓励我们继续花钱。


3 自相矛盾的情况还有,我们每天都收到彼此相左的两种信息。一种从“纵容”的角度,让我们“买东西,花钱,现在就得到它。你需要这个!”另外一种,我们可称之为“正直”的信息,它力劝我们:“努力工作,把钱存起来。控制你的欲望,不要买奢侈品,不要垂涎那些你并不真正需要的东西。”这类信息来源甚多,有学校方面的,有家长方面的,甚至还来自提及传统价值观的政治人物。艰苦创业,忠于家庭、能推迟欲望是美国价值观的核心,它使我们的国家变得强大。

4 但相反的信息,即那些纵容人们不断花钱的广告,无所不在。虽然此类信息有时经过了乔装打扮,但仍随处可见,电视、电影、印刷媒介和路牌、商店,及公共汽车、火车和地铁上,比比皆是。广告侵入了我们的日常生活。我们时时被包围在花钱,花钱,花钱的信息中。最近有人说:“唯一可以逃脱广告的时候是当在床上睡着时!”

5 据计算,普通的美国人到18 岁时,会看过60 万则广告;到40 岁时,看过的广告总数近百万。每个广告都在尽最大努力影响我们形形色色的购买决定——从我们吃的早餐麦片到我们的假期将使用哪条邮轮线路。决不会缺少怎么花钱和买什么东西的广告!现在,我们当然不能确切地记得广告上的产品,但重要的信息已凝聚在我们的意识里:“要满足你的愿望。你应该拥有你想要的。你应该得到最好的。所以,你应该买下它——现在!”一个著名


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