Unit 1 Text A An impressive Engli lsesson
够区分诸如 their/there/they're 之间的不同，或区别 complimentary 跟complementary 之间显而易见的差异。由于这些知识缺陷，他们承受着大部分不该承受的批评和指责，因为舆论认为他们应该学得更好。
称 They've just ate。实际上，他们应该说 They've just eaten。因此，批评学生不合乎清理。
他看到一只小鸟飞得很不稳，就说：“它飞的不稳。"（It's flying so unsteady.)我小心翼翼地问：“儿子，鸟怎么飞?”“有问题吗？我说得不对吗？（Did I say anything incorrectly?）”他一头雾水。“太好了，你说的是 incorrectly 而不是 incorrect。我们用副词来描述动词。所以，要用 unsteadily 来描述鸟飞，而不是 unsteady。”
他说，“如果我是你的话，我不会这样做。牛奶会变酸。（If I were you, I wouldn't do that. It's sour.）
15. “哦，上帝！”我满怀着无比的骄傲说道，“这是一个语法完全正确的句子。你用了 were 而不是 was。”
Unit 2 Section A The humanities: Out of date?
1 When the going gets tough, the tough take accounting. When the job market worsens, many students calculate they can't major in English or history. They have to study something that boosts their prospects of landing a job.
2 The data show that as students have increasingly shouldered the ever-rising cost of tuition, they have defected from the study of the humanities and toward applied science and "hard" skills that they bet will lead to employment. In other words, a college education is more and more seen as a means for economic betterment rather than a means for human betterment. This is a trend that is likely to persist and even accelerate.
3 Over the next few years, as labor markets struggle, the humanities will probably continue their long slide in succession. There already has been a nearly 50 percent decline in the portion of liberal arts majors over the past generation, and it is logical to think that the trend is bound to continue or even accelerate. Once the dominant pillars of university life, the humanities now play little roles when students take their college tours. These days, labs are more vivid and compelling than libraries.
3 在未来几年内，由于劳动力市场的不景气，人文学科可能会继续其长期低迷的态势。在上一代大学生中，主修文科的学生数跌幅已近 50%。这种趋势会持续、甚至加速的想法是合情合理的。人文学科曾是大学生活的重要支柱，而今在学生们的大学游中却只是一个小点缀。现在，实验室要比图书馆更栩栩如生、受人青睐。
4 Here, please allow me to stand up for and promote the true value that the humanities add to people's lives. Since ancient times, people have speculated about the mystery of those inner forces that drive some people to greatness and others to self-destruction. This inner drive has been called many things over the centuries. The famous psychologist, Sigmund Freud, called it the "unconscious mind" or, more familiarly, "instinct".
5 From the beginning of time, this inner aspect of our being, this drive that can be constructive or destructive, has captured our imagination. The stories of this amazing struggle have formed the basis of cultures the world over. Historians, architects, authors, philosophers and artists have captured the words, images and meanings of this inner struggle in the form of story, music, myth, painting, architecture, sculpture, landscape and traditions. These men and women developed artistic "languages" that help us understand these aspirations and also educate generations. This fertile body of work from ancient times, the very foundation of civilization, forms the basis of study of the humanities.
6 Studying the humanities improves our ability to read and write. No matter what we do in life, we will have a huge advantage if we can read complex ideas and understand their meaning. We will have a bright career if we are the person in the office who can write a clear and elegant analysis of those ideas!
7 Studying the humanities makes us familiar with the language of emotion and the creative process. In an information economy, many people have the ability to produce a useful product such as a new MP3 player. Yet, very few people have the ability to create a spectacular brand: the iPod. Most importantly, studying the humanities invests us with great insight and self-awareness, thereby releasing our creative energy and talent in a positive and constructive manner.
7 学习人文学科会让我们熟悉表达情感的语言及进行创造的过程。在信息经济中，很多人都有能力创造出一个如新的 MP3 播放器那样的有用产品。然而，仅有很少的人具有能力创造出一个如 iPod 那样的精彩品牌。最重要的是，学习人文学科使我们具有伟大的洞察力和自我意识，从而以积极和建设性的方式来发挥我们的创造力和才艺。
8 Perhaps the best argument in favor of the humanities is the scope of possibilities that are widely open to us. Did you know that James Cameron, world-famous director of the movie, Titanic, graduated with a degree in the humanities? So did Sally Ride, the first woman in space. So did actors Bruce Lee, Gwyneth Paltrow, Renee Zellweger and Matt Damon. Dr. Harold Varmus, who won a Nobel Prize for Medicine, studied the humanities. Even Michael Eisner, Chairman of the Disney Company, majored in the humanities. Famous people who
studied the humanities make a long list indeed. It's easy to see that the humanities can prepare us for many different careers and jobs we can undertake, whether medicine, business, science or entertainment. If we study only mathematics, it's likely we will be a candidate only for jobs as a mathematician. If we include studying the humanities, we can make breakthroughs on many barriers and are limited only by our effort and imagination.
9 Of course, nowadays, if we study the humanities alone, we are liable to miss many opportunities. Each one of us needs to become as technically and professionally skilled as possible to help meet the needs of modern life. In fact, increasingly a pairing of technical knowledge and inner insight is seen as the ideal in the establishment of a career. If I were the Dean of Admissions at a medical school and two people applied to our school, both having the required basic scientific courses, one a philosophy major and the other solely a pre-med student, the philosophy applicant would be chosen.
10 In summary, the humanities help to create well-rounded human beings with insight and understanding of the passions, hopes and dreams common to all humanity. The humanities, the ancient timeless reservoir of knowledge, teach us to see things differently and broaden our horizons. They are as useful and relevant in our modern age as they have always been. Doesn't it make sense to spend some time in the company of the humanities, our outstanding and remarkable treasure of knowledge? Who knows how famous YOU might become!
Unit 3 section A Journey through the odyssey years
1 Most of us know about the phases of life which we label to parallel different age groups and life stages: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. We think of infancy before childhood and middle age before old age, with each unique phase bringing its own peculiar set of challenges. These challenges can be overcome by acquainting ourselves with them,
such as the child's need to learn, the adult's need to find the right career and build a family, and the senior's need for support and good health care.
2 Interestingly, ideas about the stages of life are changing.
3 In previous times, people didn't have a solid idea of childhood as being separate from adulthood. A hundred years ago, no one thought of adolescence. Until recently it was understood as a norm that their induction to adulthood was completed as soon as they graduated from college. They would now find a sensible job which would lead to a career. Then during this career they would start a family, ideally before they turned 30.
4 Today we have an equivalent need to recognize a new phase of life that comes after high school graduation, continues through college, and then leads to starting a family and having a career, the so-called odyssey years. Recent trends show radical changes as young people are following a different agenda. They take breaks from school, live with friends and often return to living with their parents. Similarly, they fall in and out of love, quit one job and try another or even shift to a new career. So, we need to recognize this new stage, the odyssey years, which many now consider to be an unavoidable stage in reaching adulthood.
5 People who were born prior to the 60s or 70s in the last century tended to frame their concept of adulthood based upon achieving certain accomplishments: moving away from home, becoming financially independent, finding the right spouse and starting a family. But that emphasis on stability did not remain static. Today, young people are unlikely to do the same. During the odyssey years, a high proportion of young people are delaying marriage, child bearing, and even employment.
5 出生于上个世纪 60 年代或 70 年代之前的人们往往会将成年的概念基于是否取得了某
6 The odyssey years can saddle young people with enormous pressure to move forward quickly. As the sole heir and focus of their parents' expectations, hopes and dreams, some react with rebellious and prideful attitudes and behavior toward their parents. They often resent the pressure they're feeling and keep a distance from their parents or even run away from home. Their confusion comes from the difficulties to make parents understand them
and the fluid journey of discovery they need in this phase of their lives. To get away from this confusion and upset, many young people resort to computer games, iPods, iPhones, or iPads, to help distract them from their pain and stress.
6 奥德赛岁月使年轻人承受了巨大的压力，迫使他们快速往前冲。作为他们父母唯一的继承人和所有期望、希望和梦想的聚焦，有些年轻人以叛逆和桀骜不驯的行为和态度对待父母。他们往往憎恨他们所感到的压力，并同他们的父母保持距离，甚至离家出走。他们的困惑源于很难让家长了解他们，也源于这段需要进行自我探索的、不确定的人生之旅。为了逃避困惑和不安，许多年轻人诉诸电脑游戏，iPod，iPhone 或 iPad，以帮助分散他们的痛苦和压力。
7 Likewise, their parents are feeling more anxious. They may make allowances for a transition phase from student life to adult life, but they get upset when they see the transition of their grown children's lives moving away from their expectations and stretching five years to seven years, and beyond. The parents don't even detect a clear sense of direction in their children's lives. They look at them and see the things that are being delayed.
8 It's hard to predict what's next. New guidelines haven't been established yet, and everything seems to give way to a less permanent version of itself. There's been a shift in the status and balance of power between the genders, too. More women are getting degrees than men. Male wages have remained stable over the past decades, while female wages have boomed.
9 Apart from anything else, this has had an implicit effect on courtship. Educated women can get many of the things they want, such as security, accomplishment, and identity without marriage. However, both genders are having a harder time finding suitable mates to build their lives with.
Considering all of this, it's beneficial to know that even though graduates are delaying many things after college, surveys show they still hold highly traditional aspirations. For example, this contemporary generation rates parenthood even more highly than previous generations did!
10 This new phase will likely grow more pronounced in the coming years. Nations around the world have witnessed similar trends toward delaying marriage and spending more years than ever shifting between higher education and settling down with a career and family.
11 Nevertheless, graduates shouldn't be deceived into thinking they can back off simply because things have become more difficult. A large number of people chasing relatively fewer opportunities can create strong competitive pressure. So, from the outset, keep your résumé professional and up-to-date.
12 To reinforce this essential message, success moving through the odyssey years will come to those who don't expect to achieve their goals right away but know that they must have the strength, capacity and confidence to endure over the long term. If you're a little
late with your goals, don't feel like a failure! Stay strong, be positive, and keep focused! Someday you will look back and wonder at the vast changes as you passed through the odyssey years.
Unit 4 Section A College sweethearts
1 I smile at my two lovely daughters and they seem so much more mature than we, their parents, when we were college sweethearts. Linda, who's 21, had a boyfriend in her freshman year she thought she would marry, but they're not together anymore. Melissa,
who's 19, hasn't had a steady boyfriend yet. My daughters wonder when they will meet "The One", their great love. They think their father and I had a classic fairy-tale romance heading for marriage from the outset. Perhaps, they're right but it didn't seem so at the time. In a way, love just happens when you least expect it. Who would have thought that Butch and I would end up getting married to each other? He became my boyfriend because of my shallow agenda: I wanted a cute boyfriend!
1 我微笑着看着我那两个可爱的女儿，她们似乎比她们的父母还是大学情侣那会儿更为成熟。琳达，21 岁，在大学一年级交过一个男友，她曾以为会跟那个男孩结婚，但他们已不再来往了。梅丽莎，19 岁，还没有一个固定的男友。我的女儿不知何时才能遇到她们的那个“唯一”，她们伟大的爱。她们认为她们的父亲和我有着一段经典的、童话般的浪漫史，从一开始就直奔婚姻的殿堂。也许，她们是正确的，但在那时似乎并不是那么回事。在某种程度上，爱神恰恰在你最没准备时来临。谁曾想到，布奇和我最终会结婚呢？他之所以成为我男友，只是因为当时我那肤浅的打算：我要找一个可爱的男友！
2 We met through my college roommate at the university cafeteria. That fateful night, I was merely curious, but for him I think it was love at first sight. "You have beautiful eyes", he
said as he gazed at my face. He kept staring at me all night long. I really wasn't that interested for two reasons. First, he looked like he was a really wild boy, maybe even dangerous. Second, although he was very cute, he seemed a little weird.
3 Riding on his bicycle, he'd ride past my dorm as if "by accident" and pretend to be surprised to see me. I liked the attention but was cautious about his wild, dynamic
personality. He had a charming way with words which would charm any girl. Fear came over me when I started to fall in love. His exciting "bad boy image" was just too tempting to resist. What was it that attracted me? I always had an excellent reputation. My concentration was solely on my studies to get superior grades. But for what? College is supposed to be a time of great learning and also some fun. I had nearly achieved a great education, and graduation was just one semester away. But I hadn't had any fun; my life was stale with no component of fun! I needed a boyfriend.Not just any boyfriend. He had to be cute. My goal that semester became: Be ambitious and grab the cutest boyfriend I can find.
4 I worried what he'd think of me. True, we lived in a time when a dramatic shift in sexual attitudes was taking place, but I was a traditional girl who wasn't ready for the new ways that seemed common on campus. Butch looked superb! I was not immune to his personality, but I was scared. The night when he announced to the world that I was his girlfriend, I went along with him. And then I suddenly thought: "Oh my gosh! Am I his girlfriend? How did that happen?" Then he whispered sweet words in my ear and said, "I'm going to marry you one day and I will be a lawyer. You will see."
5 I was laughing inside and said to myself, "I'd never marry this guy. He's a rebel without a good future. He's my boyfriend because I hate my boring student life. I just want to have fun."
6 Sure enough, the following month, I found out he had failed all his courses. Consequently, he was going to be expelled from the university. To my disgust, he seemed resigned to his fate. I knew there was hope, so I led him to the college secretary for reconsideration.
7 "You are going to graduate with a BA in political science from UPenn and proceed to the College of Law," I told him, lodging an appeal on his behalf, which was approved. Butch was granted reconsideration. And, once we became steadies, he coordinated his studies and social life, passing all of his classes. He eventually studied law.
8 Despite Butch's somewhat wild character, at his core, he is always a perfect gentleman and deserves a lot of credit for that. True, he'd sometimes take the liberty of displaying his love by planting a kiss on my lips right in front of my astonished friends who watched and disapproved. But the truth is we had a pure and responsible relationship for seven full years. Sitting by the palm trees, hand in hand, we would listen to romantic songs, watch the sunset, and weave dreams of being together with children of our own, forever.
9 Two years passed in a blur. One day, Butch took me by surprise as he knelt down and proposed marriage holding a dozen red roses! Filled with deep emotion, I confessed my love for him, "How roooomaaaantic!!" Then my brain woke up from fantasy land. I cried out, "Good heavens. No! We're too young to tie the knot. We haven't even graduated from college yet!" I really loved him but was pessimistic about our chances for success.
10 We married five years later.
11 Our faithful journey of love and learning took us down rocky roads of hardship and on smooth easy-going highways. It is a long, romantic, sometimes crazy, love story that sums up a 29-year long honeymoon together as a couple who are still madly in love with each other. Our love commenced with a casual attraction but bloomed into a mature love and rich life.
11 我们忠实的爱和学习之旅带我们走过艰难崎岖的岩石路，走上平坦易行的公路。它是一个永久、浪漫，有时又疯狂的爱情故事。它诠释了一对仍在疯狂地爱着对方的夫妇如何一起度过了 29 年之久的蜜月。我们的爱从漫不经心的互相吸引开始，但最终却发展出成熟的爱情和富足的生活。
Unit 5 Section A Spend or save — The student's dilemma
1 Do you feel as confused and manipulated as I do with this question, "Should I spend or should I save?" I think that the messages we get from our environment seem to defy common sense and contradict each other. The government tells us to spend or we'll never get out of the recession. At the same time, they tell us that unless we save more, our country is in grave danger. Banks offer higher interest rates so we increase savings. Then the same banks send us credit card offers so we can spend more.
2 Here's another familiar example: If we don't pay our credit card bill on time, we get demanding, nasty emails from the credit card company saying something like: "Your failure to pay is unacceptable. Pay immediately or you'll be in trouble!" Then, as soon as we pay, we get a follow-up email in a charming tone telling us how valuable a customer we are and encouraging us to resume spending.Which depiction is correct: a failing consumer in trouble or a valued customer? The gap between these two messages is enormous.
3 The paradox is that every day we get two sets of messages at odds with each other. One is the "permissive" perspective, "Buy, spend, get it now. You need this!" The other we could call an "upright" message, which urges us, "Work hard and save. Suspend your desires. Avoid luxuries. Control your appetite for more than you truly need." This message comes to us from many sources: from school, from parents, even from political figures referring to "traditional values". Hard work, family loyalty, and the capacity to postpone desires are core American values that have made our country great.
4 But the opposite message, advertising's permissive message, is inescapable. Though sometimes disguised, the messages are everywhere we look: on TV, in movies on printed media and road signs, in stores, and on busses, trains and subways. Advertisementsinvade our daily lives. We are constantly surrounded by the message to spend, spend, spend. Someone recently said, "The only time you can escape advertising is when you're in your bed asleep!"
5 It's been calculated that by the age of 18, the average American will have seen 600,000 ads; by the age of 40, the total is almost one million. Each advertisement is doing its utmost to influence our diverse buying decisions, from the breakfast cereal we eat to whichcruise line we will use for our vacation. There is no shortage of ideas and things to buy! Now, of course, we don't remember exactly what the products were, but the essential message is cemented into our consciousness, "It's good to satisfy your desires. You should have what you want. You deserve the best. So, you should buy it — now!" A famous advertisement said it perfectly, "I love me. I'm a good friend to myself. I do what makes me feel good. I derive pleasure from nice things and feel nourished by them. I used to put things off. Not anymore. Today I'll buy new ski equipment, look at new compact cars, and buy that camera I've always wanted. I live my dreams today, not tomorrow."
5 据计算，普通的美国人到 18 岁时，会看过 60 万则广告；到 40 岁时，看过的广告总数近百万。每个广告都在尽最大努力影响我们形形色色的购买决定——从我们吃的早餐麦片到我们的假期将使用哪条邮轮线路。决不会缺少怎么花钱和买什么东西的广告！现在，我们当然不能确切地记得广告上的产品，但重要的信息已凝聚在我们的意识里：“要满足你的愿望。你应该拥有你想要的。你应该得到最好的。所以，你应该买下它——现在！”一个着名的广告诠释得很完美：“我爱自己。我是自己的好朋友。我做让我感觉舒服的事。我从精美的东西里得到乐趣，并感觉到它们给我的滋养。我过去常想着等一下再买，现在再也不会了。今天，我会购买全新的滑雪装备，看看新型的小巧灵便的轿车，买下那台我一直想要的相机。我今天就要实现我的梦想，不会等到明天。”
6 What happens as we take in these contradictory but explicit messages? What are the psychological and social consequences of this campaign to control our spending habits? On one hand, we want more things because we want to satisfy our material appetite. Most of us derive pleasure from treating ourselves. On the other hand, a little voice inside us echoes those upright messages: "Watch out, takestock of your life, don't let your attention get scattered. Postpone your desires. Don't fall into debt. Wait! Retain control over your own life. It will make you stronger."
7 Anyway, many of the skills you need as a successful student can be applied to your finances. Consider your financial well-being as a key ingredient of your university education as money worries are extremely stressful and distracting. They can make you feel terrible and hinder your ability to focus on your prime objective: successfully completing your education.
8 How can you be a smart and educated consumer? Many schools, community organizations, and even some banks offer financial literacy classes. Consider consulting with your school's financial aid office or seek input from your parents or other respected adults in setting up a budget. An additional option is finding a partner to help you stay on track and find pleasure in the administration of your own financial affairs. Most importantly, if you find yourself getting into financial trouble, don't let your ego get in your way; urgently get help with tackling your problem before it spins out of control and lands you in legal troubles.
9 All this will help you become an educated consumer and saver. As you learn to balance spending and saving, you will become the captain of your own ship,steering your life in a successful and productive direction through the choppy waters.
Unit 6 Section A Door closer, are you?
1 The next time you're deciding between rival options, one which is primary and the other which is secondary, ask yourself this question: What would Xiang Yu do?
2 Xiang Yu was a Chinese imperial general in the third century BC who took his troops across the Zhang River on a raid into enemy territory. To his troops' astonishment, he ordered their cooking pots crushed and their sailing ships burned.
3 He explained that he was imposing on them a necessity for attaining victory over their opponents. What he said was surely motivating, but it wasn't really appreciated by many of his loyal soldiers as they watched their vessels go up in flames. But the genius of General Xiang Yu's conviction would be validated both on the battlefield and in modern social science research. General Xiang Yu was a rare exception to the norm, a veteran leader
who was highly respected for his many conquests and who achieved the summit of success.
4 He is featured in Dan Ariely's enlightening new publication, Predictably Irrational, a fascinating investigation of seemingly irrational human behavior, such as the tendency for keeping multiple options open. Most people can't marshal the will for painful choices, not even students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where Dr. Ariely teaches behavioral economics. In an experiment that investigated decision-making, hundreds of students couldn't bear to let their options vanish, even though it was clear they wouldprofit from doing so.
5 The experiment revolved around a game that eliminated the excuses we usually have for refusing to let go. In the real world, we can always say, "It's good to preserve our options." Want a good example? A teenager is exhausted from soccer, ballet, piano, and Chinese lessons, but her parents won't stop any one of them because they might come in handy some day!
6 In the experiment sessions, students played a computer game that provided cash behind three doors appearing on the screen. The rule was the more money you earned, the better player you were, given a total of 100 clicks. Every time the students opened a door by clicking on it, they would use up one click but wouldn't get any money. However, each subsequent click on that door would earn a fluctuating sum of money, with one door always revealing more money than the others. The important part of the rule was each door switch, though having no cash value, would also use up one of the 100 clicks. Therefore, the winning strategy was to quickly check all the doors and keep clicking on the one with the seemingly highest rewards.
6 在这个实验里，学生要玩一个电脑游戏: 在电脑屏幕上会显示三扇门，每扇门后都会提供一些现金。该游戏的规则是每个人都只能点击 100 次，你点击获取的钱越多，你就玩得越好。学生每点击一次打开一扇门，他们会用掉一个点击数，但却不会得到任何钱。然而，随后接着在那扇门上的每次点击都会挣得数额不等的钱，三扇门显示的钱总有一扇比另外两扇多。这个游戏规则的重点是虽然每次换门没有金钱回报，可还是会用掉一次点击数。所以，制胜战略是要迅速查看所有的门，然后只点击那扇似乎是钱最多的门。
7 While playing the game, students noticed a modified visual element: Any door left
un-clicked for a short while would shrink in size and vanish. Since they already understood the game, they should have ignored the vanishing doors. Nevertheless, they hurried to click on the lesser doors before they vanished, trying to keep them open. As a result, they wasted so many clicks rushing back to the vanishing doors that they lost money in the end. Why were the students so attached to the lesser doors? They would probably protest that they were clinging to the doors to keep future options open, but, according to Dr. Ariely, that isn't the true factor.
8 Instead of the excuse to maintain future options open, underneath it all the students' desire was to avoid the immediate, though temporary, pain of watching options close. "Closing a door on an option is experienced as a loss, and people are willing to pay a big price to avoid the emotion of loss," Dr. Ariely says. In the experiment, the price was easily measured in lost cash. In life, the corresponding costs are often less obvious such as wasted time or missed opportunities.
9 "Sometimes these doors are closing too slowly for us to see them vanishing," Dr. Ariely writes. "We may work more hours at our jobs without realizing that the childhood of our
sons and daughters is slipping away."
10 So, what can be done to restore balance in our lives? One answer, Dr. Ariely says, is to implement more prohibitions on overbooking. We can work to reduce options on our own, delegating tasks to others and even giving away ideas for others to pursue. He points to marriage as an example, "In marriage, we create a situation where we promise ourselves not to keep options open. We close doors and announce to others we've closed doors."
11 Since conducting the door experiment, Dr. Ariely says he has made a conscious effort to lessen his load. He urges the rest of us to resign from committees, prune holiday card lists, rethink hobbies and remember the lessons of door closers like Xiang Yu.
12 In other words, Dr. Ariely is encouraging us to discard those things that seem to have outward merit in favor of those things that actually enrich our lives. We are naturally prejudiced to believe that more is better, but Dr. Ariely's research provides a dose of reality that strongly suggests otherwise.
13 What price do we pay for trying to have more and more in life? What pleasure and satisfaction can be derived from focusing our energy and attention in a more concentrated fashion? Surely, we will have our respective answers.
14 Consider these important questions: Will we have more by always increasing options or will we have more with fewer, carefully chosen options? What doors should we close in order to allow the right windows of opportunity and happiness to open?
Unit 7 section A Woman at the management level
1When Monica applied for a job as an administrative assistant in 1971, she was asked whether she would rather work for a male or a female attorney. "I immediately said a man," she says. "I felt that a male-boss/female-employee relationship was more natural, needing no personal accommodation whatsoever." But 20 years later, when she was asked the same question, she said, "I was pleasantly surprised that female bosses are much more accessible to their employees; they're much more sensitive and intimate with their employees."
1 当莫妮卡 1971 年申请一个行政助理的工作时，有人问她想与男律师共事还是与女律师共事。“我马上说想与男律师共事，”她说。“我认为男老板和女雇员的关系更自然，丝毫不
需互相调整。”但 20 年后，有人问她同样的问题时，她说：“令我感到惊喜的是，对员工来说，女上司更容易接近，她们更能理解人，与员工更亲密。”
2 Female bosses today are still finding they face subtle resistance. There is still a segment of the population, both men and, surprisingly, women who report low tolerance for female bosses. The growing presence of female bosses has also provoked two major questions that revolve around styles: Do men and women manage differently, and, if so, is that a good thing?
3 Monica is disposed to think so, on both counts. Now a 40-year-old mother of four, she is president of a public sector labor union with 45,000 members. "Relations with my employees are probably different from those of male managers preceding me," she says. "I know what it's like to have to call and say my kid got the mumps so I won't be coming in. I have a more flexible style — not soft, just more understanding." The man who is Monica's assistant agrees, "She tends to delegate more and is always looking for a consensus. People are happy and flourish because they have an input into decisions and they are not mere bystanders; their energies are harnessed. On the other hand, consensus takes longer."
3 莫妮卡对这两个问题都持肯定的意见。莫妮卡现在 40 岁，有四个孩子，并且是一位拥有 45,000 名成员的公共部门工会的主席。“我与员工的关系可能跟在我之前的前任男性主管不同，”她说。“我知道当有人不得不打电话来说孩子得了腮腺炎而不能来上班是一种什么样的状况。我的风格更灵活，这不是软弱，只是多了一点理解。”莫妮卡的男助理表示赞成：“她往往放权更多，并总是寻求共识。大家都很开心，也有成就感，因为他们参与了决策，而不
4 So, are the differences symbolic or real? Plausible studies suggest that men are typically hierarchical, goal-oriented and feel entitled. Women, by contrast, manage diplomatically, and share power. That point of view is often challenged and argued. Some proclaim that men and women of similar backgrounds, experience and aspirations basically manage in the same way. This view is echoed by younger women, especially those who have encountered little gender discrimination. That was certainly the lesson for Nicole. When her father died of a heart attack, she was an employee at a petroleum products export company. She quit and took over her family's 160-acre fruit farm in St.David's County. On her first day in the field, a worker called her "darling". "He was trying to test me. I was shaking with anger," says Nicole, now 34. "I stood erect and said, ‘You wouldn't have called my father darling and you're not going to take that liberty with me. If you do, I'll fire you.'"
4 那么，这种差异是象征性的还是实质性的呢？可靠的研究指出，男人通常有等级观念，以目标为导向，喜欢有权力的感觉。相反，女人则是灵活变通的，愿意分享权力。这一观点往往受到质疑和争论。有人宣称，有类似的背景、经验和抱负的男女，基本上管理方式相同。那些年轻女性，特别是很少遭受性别歧视的女性，也是这样认为的。妮可尔无疑从中得到了教训。当她的父亲因心脏病去世时，她是一家石油产品出口公司的雇员。她辞了职，接管了她家在圣大卫县 160 英亩的果园。她第一天出现在果园时，一名工人称她为“亲爱的”。“他是想试探我。我气得发抖，”现年 34 岁的妮可尔说。“我挺直腰板站在那里跟
5 When women work for women, a different dynamic often takes over. Susan, a cashier in a Toronto auction house, says that she has explored friendships with some of her female bosses and feels she can rely on them more. While women may feel more at ease with a female boss, men often have to make concessions to the new working styles. Brian, a marine biologist, says, "It took me a couple of years before I felt comfortable enough to relax around a female manager. In fact, my relations with her were much more businesslike."
6 To some extent, the male-female differences come down to conflicting styles. One female vice-president discussed the time she burst into tears during a meeting. "Men think that tears are a nuclear weapon in a conventional war. They take exception to a woman crying, inferring that she's feeling unhappy or violated." The men failed to understand that what prompted her tears was not hurt but genuine rage. "When we cry, it's because we have all this valid rage that has no appropriate release," she says. "Women cry; men get relief by going on with the offense or by veiling their feelings to appear composed."
7 Deborah, president of a firm with its headquarters in Toronto, says that even if men do understand, they sometimes react differently to the identical information and to her cooperative management style.
8 Deborah says that her authority is sometimes undermined by perceptions about her gender. "It stems from the whole social context of traditional roles for men and women," she says. "Mom would tell you to do things, but perhaps you wouldn't take as much notice as when Dad told you to do things. Men also have a stronger urge to control," she says.
9 For female bosses, the great expectation of some female employees is one more obstacle. Junior women assume a female boss will promote them more quickly than a man would. But, they also expect female bosses to be more self-sufficient. "They ask, ‘Why can't you scan your own stuff?' or ‘Why can't you do your own filing?'" says one senior female executive.
10 On the other hand, there is no dispute that a few decades ago they would rarely have had a female boss in the workplace. Nina, a management consultant says she's vaguely optimistic. "I'm looking forward to the day, before I die, when we recognize that the best management styles will be composed of the best that both genders bring to the table ..." Well, she pauses, maybe not before she dies, perhaps in her daughter's lifetime.
Unit 8 Section A Animals or children? — A scientist's choice
1 I am the enemy! I am one of those cursed, cruel physician scientists involved in animal research. These rumors sting, for I have never thought of myself as an evil person. I became a children's doctor because of my love for children and my supreme desire to keep them healthy. During medical school and residency, I saw many children die of cancer and bloodshed from injury — circumstances against which medicine has made great progress but still has a long way to go. More importantly, I also saw children healthy thanks to advances in medical science such as infant breathing support, powerful new medicines and surgical techniques and the entire field of organ transplantation. My desire to tip the scales in favor of healthy, happy children drew me to medical research.
2 My accusers have twisted the truth into a fable and cast me as the devil. They claim that I have no moral compass, that I torture innocent animals for the sole purpose of career advancement, and that my experiments have no relevance to medicine. Meanwhile, an uncaring public barely watches, convinced that the issue has no significance, and publicity-conscious senators and politicians increasingly give way to the lobbying of animal rights activists.
3 We, in medical research, have also been unbelievably uncaring. We have allowed the most extreme animal rights protesters to creep in and frame the issue as one of "animal fraud" and hatred. We have persisted in our belief that a knowledgeable public would consent to the importance of animal research for public health. Perhaps we have been mistaken in not responding to the emotional tone of the argument. Perhaps we should have
responded to those sad slogans and posters of animals by waving equally sad posters of children dying of cancer or external wounds.
4 In the animal rights forum, much is made of the volume of pain these animals experience in the name of medical science. Activists deny that we are trying to help and say it is evidence of our evil and cruel nature. A more reasonable argument, however, can be advanced in our defense. Life is often cruel to animals and human beings. Teenagers are flung from trucks and suffer severe head injuries. Young children barely able to walk find themselves at the bottom of swimming pools while a parent is occupied with something else. From everyday germs to gang violence, no life is free of pain. Physicians hoping to relieve the eternal suffering of these tragedies have only three choices: 1) create an animal model of the problem to understand the process and test new therapies; 2) experiment on human beings (some experiments will succeed, most will fail); or 3) leave medical knowledge static, hoping that accidental discoveries will lead us forward.
5 Some animal rights activists would suggest an optional fourth choice, claiming that computer models can create animal experiments, thus omitting actual experiments. Computers can imitate the effects of well-understood principles on complex systems, as in the application of the laws of physics to airplane and automobile design. However, when the principles themselves are in question, as is the case with the complex biological systems of human life under study, computer modeling alone is of little value.
6 One of the terrifying effects of arresting the use of animals in medical research is that the impact will not be felt for years or even decades. Drugs to cure infection will remain undiscovered, surgical and diagnostic techniques will remain undeveloped, and fundamental biological processes that might have been understood will remain mysteries. There is the danger that quick decisions by well-meaning politicians will create resolution to diplomatically satisfy the small minority of loud protestors while the consequences and damaging impact of those decisions will not be apparent until long after.
7 Fortunately, most of us enjoy good health, and the agony of watching one's child die has become a rare experience. Yet our good fortune should not make us unappreciative. Protection from serious sickness and drugs to combat heart disease, high blood pressure and stroke are all based on animal research. Most complex surgical procedures such as heart or hip surgery and organ transplantation surgeries were initially developed in animals. Techniques to replace defective genes, the cause of so much disease, as well as the development of synthetic organs are presently undergoing animal studies. These studies, and any subsequent advances, will effectively end if animal research is severely restricted.
8 In America today, death has become an event isolated from our daily existence. As a doctor who has watched many children die and seen their parents' infinite grief, I am particularly angered by any minute expression of caring for the suffering of creatures and so little for sick and dying human beings. People are too protected from the reality of human life and death and what it means.
8 在今天的美国，死亡已经成为我们日常生活中孤立少见的事。作为一个看见过许多儿童死亡和他们父母悲痛至极的医生，我感到特别愤怒的是，有人对动物的痛苦表达入微，但对生病和生命垂危的人却冷漠无情。人们受到了太多的保护, 以至于他们感觉不到现实世界里的生与死，也感觉不到其所代表的真实意义。
9 Make no mistake, however. I would never advocate needless cruel treatment of animals. The animal rights movement has made a contribution in making us more aware of animals' needs and the need to search harder for suitable alternatives. But if the more radical members of this movement are successful in threatening further research, their efforts will bring about a tragedy that will cost many lives. Hence the real question is whether an uncaring majority can be aroused to protect its future against a loud, but misdirected, minority.