As we are at the start of the course, this seems a good moment to offer some advice on how to make the task of learning English easier.
Some Strategies for Learning English
Learning English is by no means easy. It takes great diligence and prolonged effort.
Nevertheless, while you cannot expect to gain a good command of English without sustained hard work, there are various helpful learning strategies you can employ to make the task easier. Here are some of them.
1. Do not treat all new words in exactly the same way. Have you ever complained about your memory because you find it simply impossible to memorize all the new words you are learning? But, in fact, it is not your memory that is at fault. If you cram your head with too many new words at a time, some of them are bound to be crowded out. What you need to do is to deal with new words in different ways according to how frequently they occur in everyday use. While active words demand constant practice and useful words must be committed to memory, words that do not often occur in everyday situations require just a nodding acquaintance. You will find concentrating on active and useful words the most effective route to enlarging your vocabulary.
2. Watch out for idiomatic ways of saying things. Have you ever wondered why we say, "I am interested in English", but "I am good at French"? And have you ever asked yourself why native English speakers say, "learn the news or secret", but "learn of someone's success or arrival"? These are all examples of idiomatic usage. In learning English, you must pay attention not only to the meaning of a word, but also to the way native speakers use it in their daily lives.
2．密切注意地道的表达方式。你可曾纳闷过，为什么我们说“我对英语感兴趣”是“I'm interested in English”，而说“我精于法语”则是“I'm good at French”？你可曾问过自己，为什么以英语为母语的人说“获悉消息或秘密”是“learn the news or secret”，而“获悉某
人的成功或到来”却是“learn of someone's success or arrival”？这些都是惯用法的例子。在学习英语时，你不仅必须注意词义，还必须注意以英语为母语的人在日常生活中如何使用它。
3. Listen to English every day. Listening to English on a regular basis will not only improve your ear, but will also help you build your speaking skills. In addition to language tapes especially prepared for your course, you can also listen to English radio broadcasts, watch English TV, and see English movies. The first time you listen to a taped conversation or passage in English, you may not be able to catch a great deal. Try to get its general meaning first and listen to it over and over again. You will find that with each repetition you will get something more.
4. Seize opportunities to speak. It is true that there are few situations at school where you have to communicate in English, but you can seek out opportunities to practice speaking the language. Talking with your classmates, for example, can be an easy and enjoyable way to get some practice. Also try to find native speakers on your campus and feel free to talk with them. Perhaps the easiest way to practice speaking is to rehearse aloud, since this can be done at any time, in any place, and without a partner. For instance, you can look at pictures or objects around you and try to describe them in detail. You can also rehearse everyday situations. After you have made a purchase in a shop or finished a meal in a restaurant and paid the check, pretend that all this happened in an English-speaking country and try to act it out in English.
5. Read widely. It is important to read widely because in our learning environment, reading is the main and most reliable source of lan
guage input. When you choose reading materials, look for things that you find interesting, that you can understand without relying too much on a dictionary. A page a day is a good way to start. As you go on, you will find that you can do more pages a day and handle materials at a higher level of difficulty.
6. Write regularly. Writing is a good way to practice what you already know. Apart from compositions assigned by your teacher, you may find your own reasons for writing. A pen pal provides good motivation; you will learn a lot by trying to communicate with someone who shares your interests, but comes from a different culture. Other ways to write regularly include keeping a diary, writing a short story and summarizing the daily news.
Language learning is a process of accumulation. It pays to absorb as much as you can from reading and listening and then try to put what you have learned into practice through speaking and writing.
At sixty-five Francis Chichester set out to sail single-handed round the world. This is the story of that adventure.
Sailing Round the World
Before he sailed round the world single-handed, Francis Chichester had already surprised his friends several times. He had tried to fly round the world but failed. That was in 1931.
The years passed. He gave up flying and began sailing. He enjoyed it greatly. Chichester was already 58 years old when he won the first solo transatlantic sailing race. His old dream of going round the world came back, but this time he would sail. His friends and doctors did not think he could do it, as he had lung cancer. But Chichester was determined to carry out his plan. In August, 1966, at the age of nearly sixty-five, an age when many men retire, he began the greatest voyage of his life. Soon, he was away in his new 16-metre boat, Gipsy Moth.
Chichester followed the route of the great nineteenth century clipper ships. But the clippers had had plenty of crew. Chichester did it all by himself, even after the main steering device had been damaged by gales. Chichester covered 14,100 miles before stopping in Sydney, Australia. This was more than twice the distance anyone had previously sailed alone.
He arrived in Australia on 12 December, just 107 days out from England. He received a warm welcome from the Australians and from his family who had flown there to meet him. On shore, Chichester could not walk without help. Everybody said the same thing: he had done enough; he must not go any further. But he did not listen.
After resting in Sydney for a few weeks, Chichester set off once more in spite of his friends' attempts to dissuade him. The second half of his voyage was by far the more dangerous part, during which he sailed round the treacherous Cape Horn.
On 29 January he left Australia. The next night, the blackest he had ever known, the sea became so rough that the boat almost turned over. Food, clothes, and broken glass were all mixed together. Fortunately, the damage to the boat was not too serious. Chichester calmly got into bed and went to sleep. When he woke up, the sea had become calm again. Still, he could not help thinking that if anything should happen, the nearest person he could contact by radio, unless there was a ship nearby, would be on an island 885 miles away.
After succeeding in sailing round Cape Horn, Chichester sent the following radio message to
London: "I feel as if I had wakened from a nightmare. Wild horses could not drag me down to Cape Horn and that sinister Southern Ocean again."
Just before 9 o'clock on Sunday evening 28 May, 1967, he arrived back in England, where a quarter of a million people were waiting to welcome him. Queen Elizabeth II knighted him with the very sword that Queen Elizabeth I had used almost 400 years earlier to knight Sir Francis Drake after he had sailed round the world for the first time. The whole voyage from England and back had covered 28,500 miles. It had taken him nine months, of which the sailing time was 226 days. He had done what he wanted to accomplish.
Like many other adventurers, Chichester had experienced fear and conquered it. In doing so, he had undoubtedly learnt something about himself. Moreover, in the modern age when human beings depend so much on machines, he had given men throughout the world new pride.
They say that blood is thicker than water, that our relatives are more important to us than others. Everyone was so kind to the old lady on her birthday. Surely her daughter would make an even bigger effort to please her?
It was the old lady's birthday.
She got up early to be ready for the post. From the second floor flat she could see the
postman when he came down the street, and the little boy from the ground floor brought up her letters on the rare occasions when anything came.
Today she was sure there would be something. Myra wouldn't forget her mother's birthday, even if she seldom wrote at other times. Of course Myra was busy. Her husband had been made Mayor, and Myra herself had got a medal for her work for the aged.
The old lady was proud of Myra, but Enid was the daughter she loved. Enid had never married, but had seemed content to live with her mother, and teach in a primary school round the corner.
One evening, however, Enid said, "I've arranged for Mrs. Morrison to look after you for a few days, Mother. Tomorrow I have to go into hospital –just a minor operation. I'll soon be home."
In the morning she went, but never came back –she died on the operating table. Myra came to the funeral, and in her efficient way arranged for Mrs. Morrison to come in and light the fire and give the old lady her breakfast.
Two years ago that was, and since then Myra had been to see her mother three times, but her husband never.
The old lady was eighty today. She had put on her best dress. Perhaps –perhaps Myra might come. After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it.
Even if Myra did not come, she would send a present. The old lady was sure of that. Two spots of colour brightened her cheeks. She was excited –like a child. She would enjoy her day.
Yesterday Mrs. Morrison had given the flat an extra clean, and today she had brought a card and a bunch of marigolds when she came to do the breakfast. Mrs. Grant downstairs had made a cake, and in the afternoon she was going down there to tea. The little boy, Johnnie, had been up with a packet of mints, and said he wouldn't go out to play until the post had come.
"I guess you'll get lots and lots of presents," he said. "I did last week when I was six. "
What would she like? A pair of slippers perhaps. Or a new cardigan. A cardigan would be lovely. Blue's such a pretty colour. Jim had always liked her in blue. Or a table lamp. Or a book, a travel book, with pictures, or a little clock, with clear black numbers. So many lovely things.
She stood by the window, watching. The postman turned round the corner on his bicycle. Her heart beat fast. Johnnie had seen him too and ran to the gate.
Then clatter, clatter up the stairs. Johnnie knocked at her door.
"Granny, granny," he shouted, "I've got your post."
He gave her four envelopes. Three were unsealed cards from old friends. The fourth was sealed, in Myra's writing. The old lady felt a pang of disappointment.
"No parcel, Johnnie?"
Maybe the parcel was too large to come by letter post. That was it. It would come later by parcel post. She must be patient.
Almost reluctantly she tore the envelope open. Folded in the card was a piece of paper. Written on the card was a message under the printed Happy Birthday –Buy yourself something nice with the cheque, Myra and Harold.
The cheque fluttered to the floor like a bird with a broken wing. Slowly the old lady stooped to pick it up. Her present, her lovely present. With trembling fingers she tore it into little bits.
Many people in the United States spend most of their free time watching television. Certainly, there are many worthwhile programs on television, including news, educational programs for children, programs on current social problems, plays, movies, concerts, and so on. Nevertheless,
perhaps people should not be spending so much of their time in front of the TV. Mr. Mayer imagines what we might do if we were forced to find other activities.
Turning Off TV: A Quiet Hour Robert Mayer
I would like to propose that for sixty to ninety minutes each evening, right after the early evening news, all television broadcasting in the United States be prohibited by law.
Let us take a serious, reasonable look at what the results might be if such a proposal were accepted. Families might use the time for a real family hour. Without the distraction of TV, they might sit around together after dinner and actually talk to one another. It is well known that many of our problems –everything, in fact, from the generation gap to the high divorce rate to some forms of mental illness –are caused at least in part by failure to communicate. We do not tell each other what is disturbing us. The result is emotional difficulty of one kind or another. By using the quiet family hour to discuss our problems, we might get to know each other better, and to like each other better.
On evenings when such talk is unnecessary, families could rediscover more active pastimes. Freed from TV, forced to find their own activities, they might take a ride together to watch the sunset. Or they might take a walk together (remember feet?) and see the neighborhood with fresh, new eyes.
With free time and no TV, children and adults might rediscover reading. There is more entertainment in a good book than in a month of typical TV programming. Educators report that the generation growing up with television can barely write an English sentence, even at the
college level. Writing is often learned from reading. A more literate new generation could be a product of the quiet hour.
A different form of reading might also be done, as it was in the past: reading aloud. Few pastimes bring a family closer together than gathering around and listening to mother or father read a good story. The quiet hour could become the story hour. When the quiet hour ends, the TV networks might even be forced to come up with better shows in order to get us back from our newly discovered activities.
At first glance, the idea of an hour without TV seems radical. What will parents do without the electronic baby-sitter? How will we spend the time? But it is not radical at all. It has been only twenty-five years since television came to control American free time. Those of us thirty-five and older can remember childhoods without television, spent partly with radio –which at least involved the listener's imagination –but also with reading, learning, talking, playing games, inventing new activities. It wasn't that difficult. Honest. The truth is we had a ball.
Have you ever dreamed of becoming a writer, only to be put off by fears that you lacked the ability? If so, then reading Linda Stafford's story will have you reaching for your pen with renewed hope.
I Never Write Right Linda Stafford
When I was 15, I announced to my English class that I was going to write and illustrate my own books. Half of the students nearly fell out of their chairs laughing.
"Don't be silly. Only geniuses can become writers," the English teacher said. "And you are getting a D this semester."
I was so embarrassed that I burst into tears. That night I wrote a short, sad poem about broken dreams and mailed it to the Capper's Weekly. To my astonishment they published it, and sent me two dollars. I was a published and paid writer! I showed my teacher and fellow students. They laughed.
"Just plain dumb luck," the teacher said.
I'd tasted success. I'd sold the first thing I'd ever written. That was more than any of them had done, and if it was "just plain dumb luck," that was fine with me.
During the next two years I sold dozens of poems, letters, jokes and recipes. By the time I graduated from high school (with a C-minus average), I had scrapbooks filled with my published work. I never mentioned my writing to my teachers, friends or my family again. They were dream killers. And if people must choose between their friends and dreams, they must always choose the latter.
But sometimes you do find a friend who supports your dreams. "It's easy to write a book," my new friend told me. "You can do it."
"I don't know if I'm smart enough," I said, suddenly feeling 15 again and hearing echoes of laughter.
"Nonsense!" she said. "Anyone can write a book if they want to."
I had four children at the time, and the oldest was only four. We lived on a goat farm in Oklahoma, miles from anyone. All I had to do each day was take care of four kids, milk goats, and do the cooking, laundry and gardening.
While the children slept, I typed on my ancient typewriter. I wrote what I felt. It took nine months, just like a baby.
I chose a publisher at random and put the manuscript in an empty diapers package, the only box I could find. The letter I enclosed read: "I wrote this book myself, and I hope you like it. I also drew the illustrations. Chapters 6 and 12 are my favorites. Thank you."
I tied a string around the diaper box and mailed it without a self-addressed stamped envelope, and without making a copy of the manuscript. A month later I received a contract, an advance on royalties and a request to start working on another book.
Crying Wind became a bestseller, was translated into 15 languages and sold worldwide. I appeared on TV talk shows during the day and changed diapers at night. I traveled from New York to California and Canada on promotional tours. My first book also became required reading in Native American schools in Canada.
It took six months to write my next book. My Searching Heart also became a bestseller. My next novel, When I Give My Heart, was finished in only three weeks.
People ask what college I attended, what degree I have, and what qualifications I have to be a writer. The answer is none. I just write. I'm not a genius, I'm not gifted and don't write right. I'm not disciplined, either, and spend more time with my children and friends than I do writing.
I didn't own a thesaurus until four years ago and I use a small Webster's dictionary that I bought for 89 cents. I use an electric typewriter that I paid $129 for six years ago. I've never used a word processor. I do all the cooking, cleaning and laundry for a family of six and fit my writing in a few minutes here and there. I write everything in longhand while sitting on the sofa with my four kids, eating pizza and watching TV. When the book is finished, I type it and mail it to the publisher.
I've written eight books. Four have been published, and three are still out with the publishers. One stinks.
To all those who dream of writing, I'm shouting at you, "Yes, you can! Yes, you can!" I don't
write right, but I've beaten the odds. Writing isn't difficult, it's fun, and anyone can write a book if they set their mind on it. Of course, a little dumb luck doesn't hurt.
Sam set out to improve efficiency at the shirt factory but, as we find out later in this unit, his plans turned out not quite as he had expected.
Sam Adams, Industrial Engineer
If you ask my mother how I happened to become an industrial engineer, she'll tell you that I have always been one.
She means that I have always wanted everything to be well organized and neat. When I was still in elementary school, I liked to keep my socks in the upper left-hand drawer of my bureau, my underwear in the upper right drawer, shirts in the middle drawer, and pants, neatly folded, in the bottom drawer.
In fact, I was the efficiency expert for the whole family. I used to organize my father's tools, my mother's kitchen utensils, my sister's boyfriends.
I needed to be efficient. I wanted to be well organized. For me, there was a place for everything and everything was always in its place. These qualities gave me a good foundation for a career in industrial engineering.
Unfortunately, I was also a bit bossy and I wasn't a very good listener. You'll see what I mean when I tell you about the first project I ever did after I finished my bachelor's degree at the university.
After graduation I returned home to my small town in Indiana. I didn't have a job yet. Mr. Hobbs, a friend of my father's, owned a small shirt factory in town. Within the past five years it had grown from twenty to eighty workers. Mr. Hobbs was worried that his plant was getting too big and inefficient, so he asked me to come in on a short-term basis as a consultant.
I went to the plant and spent about a week looking around and making notes. I was really amazed at what I saw.
Most curious of all, there was no quality control whatsoever. No one inspected the final product of the factory. As a result some of the shirts that were put in boxes for shipment were missing one or two buttons, the collar, even a sleeve sometimes!
The working conditions were poor. The tables where the workers sat were very high and uncomfortable. Except for a half hour at lunchtime, there were no breaks in the day to relieve the boring work. There was no music. The walls of the workrooms were a dull gray color. I was amazed that the workers hadn't gone on strike.
Furthermore, the work flow was irregular. There was one especially absent-minded young man in the assembly line who sewed on buttons. After a while I recognized him as "Big Jim," who used to sit behind me in math class in high school. He was very slow and all the shirts were held
up at his position. Workers beyond him in line on his shift had to wait with nothing to do; therefore, a great deal of time and efficiency were lost as Big Jim daydreamed while he worked. All week I wondered why he wasn't fired.
After I made observations for a week, Mr. Hobbs asked me for an oral report of my findings. I covered my major points by telling him the following:
"If you have a quality control inspection, you will greatly improve your finished product."
"If the assembly line is redesigned, a smooth work flow can be achieved and time and energy can be saved."
"If you decrease the height of the worktables, the machine operators will work more comfortably."
"If the management provides pleasant background music and beautifies the dull setting, the factory will be much more productive."
"If the workers have a fifteen-minute coffee break in the morning and afternoon, they will be more efficient."
"If excellent work results in frequent pay increases or promotions, the workers will have greater incentive to produce."
Mr. Hobbs thanked me for this report and told me he would talk over my suggestions with his brother, the co-owner and manager of the factory. "We're interested in progress here," he said. "We want to keep up with the times."
He also gave me a check for $100 and a box of shirts with his compliments.
The author finds out that good intentions alone are not enough when his attempt to be kind to an old man leaves them both feeling worse than before.
In a certain store where they sell puddings, a number of these delicious things are laid out in a row during the Christmas season. Here you may select the one which is most to your taste, and you are even allowed to sample them before coming to a decision.
I have often wondered whether some people, who had no intention of making a purchase, would take advantage of this privilege. One day I asked this question of the shop girl, and I learned it was indeed the case.
"Now there's one old gentleman, for instance," she told me, "he comes here almost every week and samples each one of the puddings, though he never buys anything, and I suspect he never will. I remember him from last year and the year before that, too. Well, let him come if he wants it, and welcome to it. And what's more, I hope there are a lot more stores where he can go and get his share. He looks as if he needed it all right, and I suppose they can afford it."
She was still speaking when an elderly gentleman limped up to the counter and began looking closely at the row of puddings with great interest.
"Why, that's the very gentleman I've been telling you about," whispered the shop girl. "Just watch him now." And then turning to him: "Would you like to sample them, sir? Here's a spoon for you to use."
The elderly gentleman, who was poorly but neatly dressed, accepted the spoon and began eagerly to sample one after another of the puddings, only breaking off occasionally to wipe his red eyes with a large torn handkerchief.
"This is quite good."
"This is not bad either, but a little too heavy."
All the time it was quite evident that he sincerely believed that he might eventually buy one of these puddings, and I am positive that he did not for a moment feel that he was in any way cheating the store. Poor old chap! Probably he had come down in the world and this sampling was all that was left him from the time when he could afford to come and select his favorite pudding.
Amidst the crowd of happy, prosperous looking Christmas shoppers, the little black figure of the old man seemed pitiful and out of place, and in a burst of benevolence, I went up to him and said:
"Pardon me, sir, will you do me a favor? Let me purchase you one of these puddings. It would give me such pleasure."
He jumped back as if he had been stung, and the blood rushed into his wrinkled face.
"Excuse me," he said, with more dignity than I would have thought possible considering his appearance, "I do not believe I have the pleasure of knowing you. Undoubtedly you have mistaken me for someone else." And with a quick decision he turned to the shop girl and said in a loud voice, "Kindly pack me up this one here. I will take it with me." He pointed at one of the largest and most expensive of the puddings.
The girl took down the pudding from its stand and started to make a parcel of it, while he pulled out a worn little black pocketbook and began counting out shillings and pennies on to the counter. To save his "honour" he had been forced into a purchase which he could not possibly afford. How I longed for the power to unsay my tactless words! It was too late though, and I felt that the kindest thing I could do now would be walk away.
"You pay at the desk," the shop girl was telling him, but he did not seem to understand and kept trying to put the coins into her hand. And that was the last I saw or heard of the old man. Now he can never go there to sample puddings any more.
The boy was at first delighted to discover the present his mother had hidden away as his Christmas gift. But then he began to worry that his mother would now no longer have the pleasure of giving him a surprise. What was he to do?
Magician at Stretching a Dollar Russell Baker 1RT That December, with Christmas approaching, she was out at work and Doris was in the kitchen when I let myself into her bedroom one afternoon in search of a safety pin. Since her bedroom opened onto a community hallway, she kept the door locked, but needing the pin, I took the key from its hiding place, unlocked the door and stepped in. Standing against the wall was a big, black bicycle with balloon tires. I recognized it instantly. It was the same second-hand bike I'd been admiring in a Baltimore Street shop window. I'd even asked about the price. It was a shock. Something like $15. Somehow my mother had scraped together enough for a down payment and meant to surprise me with the bicycle on Christmas morning.
I was deeply moved by the discovery and yet sickened by the knowledge that, bursting into her room like this, I had robbed her of the pleasure of seeing me astonished and delighted on Christmas day. I hadn't wanted to know her lovely secret; still coming upon it like this made me feel as though I'd struck a blow against her happiness. I backed out, put the key back in its hiding place, and thought over what to do.
I decided that between now and Christmas I must do nothing, absolutely nothing, to reveal the slightest hint of my terrible knowledge. I must avoid the least word that might reveal my
第一单元 课程开始之际，就如何使学习英语的任务更容易提出一些建议似乎正当其实。 学习英语的几种策略 学习英语决非易事。它需要刻苦和长期努力。 虽然不经过持续的刻苦努力便不能期望精通英语，然而还是有各种有用的学习策略可以用来使这一任务变得容易一些。以下便是其中的几种： 1．不要以完全相同的方式对待所有的生词。你可曾因为简直无法记住所学的所有生词而抱怨自己的记忆力太差？其实，责任并不在你的记忆力。如果你一下子把太多的生词塞进头脑，必定有一些生词会被挤出来。你需要做的是根据生词日常使用的频率以不同的方式对待它们。积极词汇需要经常练习，有用的词汇必须牢记，而在日常情况下不常出现的词只需见到时认识即可。你会发现把注意力集中于积极有用的词上是扩大词汇量最有效的途径。 2．密切注意地道的表达方式。你可曾纳闷过，为什么我们说“我对英语感兴趣”是“I’m interested in English”，而说“我精于法语”则是“I’m good at French”?你可曾问过自己，为什么以英语为母语的人说“获悉消息或密秘”是“learnthenewsorsecret”,而“获悉某人的成功或到来”却是“learn of someone’s success or arrival”?这些都是惯用法的例子。在学习英语时，你不仅必须注意词义，还必须注意以英语为母语的人在日常生活中如何使用它。 3．每天听英语。经常听英语不仅会提高你的听力，而且有助你培养说的技能。除了专为课程准备的语言磁带外，你还可以听英语广播，看英语电视和英语电影。第一次听录好音的英语对话或语段，你也许不能听懂很多。先试着听懂大意，然后在反复地听。 你会发现每次重复都会听懂更多的xx。 4．抓住机会说。的确，在学校里必须用英语进行交流的场合并不多，但你还是可以找到练习讲英语的机会。例如，跟你的同班同学进行交谈可能就是得到一些练习的一种轻松愉快的方式。还可以找校园里以英语为母语的人跟他们
Lesson Eight The Kindness of Strangers Mike Mclntyre 1. One summer I was driving from my home town of Tahoe City, Calif, to New Orleans. In the middle of the desert, I came upon a young man standing by the roadside. He had his thumb out and held a gas can in his other hand. I drove right by him. There was a time in the country when you' d be considered a jerk if you passed by somebody in need. Now you are a fool for helping. With gangs, drug addicts, murderers, rapists, thieves lurking everywhere, "I don't want to get involved" has become a national motto. 2. Several states later I was still thinking about the hitchhiker. Leaving him stranded in the desert did not bother me so much. What bothered me was how easily I had reached the decision. I never even lifted my foot off the accelerator. 3. Does anyone stop any more? I wondered. I recalled Blanche DuBois's famous line: "I have always depended on the kindness of strangers." Could anyone rely on the kindness of strangers these days? One way to test this would be for a person to journey from coast to coast without any money, relying solely on the good will of his fellow Americans. What kind of Americans would he find? Who would feed him, shelter him, carry him down the road? 4. The idea intrigued me. 5. The week I turned 37, I realized that I had never taken a gamble in my life. So I decided to travel from the Pacific to the Atlantic without a penny. It would be a cashless journey through the land of the almighty dollar. I would only accept offers of rides, food and a place to rest my head. My final destination would be Cape Fear in North Carolina, a symbol of all the fears I'd have to conquer during the trip. 6. I rose early on September 6, 1994, and headed for the Golden Gate Bridge with a 50-pound pack on my back and a sign displaying my destination to passing vehicles: "America." 7. For six weeks I hitched 82 rides and covered 4223 miles across 14 states. As I traveled, folks were always warning me about someplace else. In Montana they told me to watch out for the cowboys in Wyoming, In Nebraska they said people would not be as nice in Iowa. Yet I was treated with kindness everywhere I went. I was amazed by people's readiness to help a stranger, even when it seemed to run contrary to their own best interests. 8. One day in Nebraska a car pulled to the road shoulder. When I reached the window, I saw two little old ladies dressed in their Sunday finest." I know you're not supposed to pick up hitchhikers, but it's so far between towns out here, you feel bad passing a person," said the driver, who introduced herself as Vi. I didn't know whether to kiss them or scold them for stopping. This woman was telling me she'd rather risk her life than feel bad about passing a stranger on the side of the road. 9. Once when I was hitchhiking unsuccessfully in the rain, a trucker pulled over, locking his brakes so hard he skidded on the grass shoulder. The driver told me he was once robbed at knifepoint by a hitchhiker. "But I hate to see a man stand out in the rain," he added. "People don't have no heart anymore." 10. I found, however, that people were generally compassionate. Hearing I had no money and would take none, people bought me food or shared whatever they happened to have with them. Those who had the least to give often gave the most. In Oregon a house painter named Mike noted the chilly weather and asked if I had a coat. When he learned that I had "a light one," he drove me to his house, and handed me a big green army-style jacket. A lumber-mill worker named Tim invited me to a simple dinner with his family in their shabby house. Then he offered me his tent. I refused, knowing it was probably one of the family's most valuable possessions. But Tim was determined that I have it, and finally I agreed to take it. 11. I was grateful to all the people I met for their rides, their food, their shelter, and their gifts. But what I found most touching was the fact that they all did it as a matter of course.
Unit1 课程开始之际，就如何使学习英语的任务更容易提出一些建议似乎正当其时。 Some Strategies or Learning English 学习英语绝非易事。它需要刻苦和长期努力。 虽然不经过持续的刻苦努力便不能期望精通英语，然而还是有各种有用的学习策略可以用来使这一任务变得容易一些。以下便是其中的几种。 1. 不要以完全同样的方式对待所有的生词。你可曾因为简直无法记住所学的所有生词而抱怨自己的记忆力太差？其实，责任并不在你的记忆力。如果你一下子把太多的生词塞进头脑，必定有一些生词会被挤出来。你需要做的是根据生词日常使用的频率以不同的方式对待它们。积极词汇需要经常练习，有用的词汇必须牢记，而在日常情况下不常出现的词只需见到时认识即可。你会发现把注意力集中于积极有用的词上是扩大词汇量最有效的途径。 2．密切注意地道的表达方式。你可曾纳闷过，为什么我们说我对英语感兴趣是I'm 湩整敲瑳摥椠?湅汧獩屨，而说我精于法语则是???潧摯愠?牆湥档？你可曾问过自己，为什么以英语为母语的人说获悉消息或秘密是汜慥湲琠敨渠睥?牯猠捥敲屴，而获悉某人的成功或到来却是汜慥湲漠?潳敭湯?环猠捵散獳漠?牡楲慶屬？这些都是惯用法的例子。在学习英语时，你不仅必须注意词义，还必须注意以英语为母语的人在日常生活中如何使用它。 3．每天听英语。经常听英语不仅会提高你的听力，而且有助你培养说的技能。除了专为课程准备的语言磁带外，你还可以听英语广播，看英语电视和英语电影。第一次听录好音的英语对话或语段，你也许不能听懂很多。先试着听懂大意，然后再反复地听。你会发现每次重复都会听懂更多的东西。 4．抓住机会说。的确，在学校里必须用英语进行交流的场合并不多，但你还是可以找到练习讲英语的机会。例如，跟你的同班同学进行交谈可能就是得到一些练习的一种轻松愉快的方式。还可以找校园里以英语为母语的人跟他们随意交谈。或许练习讲英语最容易的方式是高声朗读，因为这在任何时间，任何地方，不需要搭档就可以做到。例如，你可以看着图片18 / 1 或身边的物件，试着对它们详加描述。你还可以复述日常情景。在商店里购物或在餐馆里吃完饭付过账后，假装这一切都发生在一个讲英语的国家，试着用英语把它表演出来。 5．广泛阅读。广泛阅读很重要，因为在我们的学习环境中，阅读是最重要、最可靠的语言输入来源。在选择阅读材料时，要找你认为有趣的、不需要过多依赖词典就能看懂的东西。开始时每天读一页是个好办法。接下去，你就会发现你每天可以读更多页，而且能对付难度更高的材料。6．经常写。写作是练习你已经学会的东西的好方法。除了老师布置的作文，你还可以找到自己要写的理由。有个笔友可以提供很好的动力；与某个跟你趣味相投但来自不同文化的人进行交流，你会学到很多东西。经常写作的其他方式还有记日记，写小故事或概述每天的新闻。 语言学习是一个积累的过程。从读和听中吸收尽量多的东西，然后再试着把学到的东西通过说和写加以运用，定会大有收益。 Unit2 弗朗西斯·奇切斯特在六十五岁时开始了只身环球航行。本文记述的就是这一冒险故事。 Sailing Round the Word 弗朗西斯·奇切斯特在独自驾船作环球航行之前，已有好几次让他的朋友们感到吃惊了。他曾试图作环球飞行，但没有成功。那是1931年。 好多年过去了。他放弃了飞行，开始航海。他领略到航海的巨大乐趣。奇切斯特在首届横渡大西洋单人航海比赛中夺魁时，已经五十八岁。他周游世界的宿愿重又被唤起，不过这一次他是要驾船环游。由于他患有肺癌，朋友们和医生们都认为他不该去，但奇切斯特决意实施自己的计划。
综合英语 1 Comprehensive English1 【学分】4 【学时】64 【编写】袁邦照【审核】程莹 （一）授课对象 四年制本科英语专业学生 （二）课程的性质和地位 本课程是是本科英语专业低年级的一门学科基础课程，是英语专业基础阶段全面培养和提高学生语言能力和交际能力的一门课程，在整个基础英语教学中具有重要奠基作用。本课程的教学，是在学生已初步掌握一定的英语词汇、语音、语法基本知识和听、说、读、写基本技能的基础上进行的，因此，主要教学目的在于进一步提高学生综合运用英语的能力，特别是要加强口笔头语言表达能力，同时加深对词汇、语法、写作、修辞等方面的知识，同时指导学生学习方法，培养逻辑思维能力，为进一步接受英语专业高年级教育打下全面的牢固的基础。本课程以课文教学为中心，采用精讲多练、讲练结合的方式，主要通过语言基础训练与篇章讲解分析，启发学生学习语言的积极性和自觉性，使学生逐步提高语篇阅读理解能力，了解英语各种文体的表达方式和特点，扩大词汇量和熟悉英语常用句型，具备基本的口头与笔头表达能力，并逐步形成用英语思维的能力。 （三）课程教学的目标 1.改变观念：帮助学生尽快熟悉大学学习环境和自主学习方法；使学生养成良好的学习习惯；培养学生的独立工作能力。引导学生改变应试学习的观点，逐步树立“To know English is to speak English.”的观念。 2.语音：通过一对一纠音练习，语音模仿秀等，整顿学生的语音面貌，提高学生的朗读技巧。 3.词汇和语法：盘活中学所学语法和词汇，使之成为语言交际的实际技能。认知词汇3000-4000个(其中含中学已学2 000个)，熟用其中1600-1800个及其最基本的搭配。听力：能在15分钟听写根据已学知识编写的材料(词数120左右，念四遍，第一、四遍语速为每分钟100个词，第二、三遍根据意群停顿)，错误率不超过8%。要求学生每天收听CRI及VOA的Special English。熟悉新闻广播的特点和语速。 4.口语：能使用课文中的重点词汇和短语复述课文；能用英语正确表达所学的功能意念，以达到实际交流运用的目的。 5.阅读和写作：能读懂词汇量为2000-2500的浅易材料及简易读物，阅读速度每分钟60-80个词，理解基本正确，能抓住中心大意。对重点句子能够释义。学会初步使用“英英”
Unit1 Twocollege-ageboPs,unawarethatmakingmonePusuallPinvolveshardwork,aretemptedbPanadvertis ementthatpromisesthemaneasPwaPtoearnalotofmoneP.TheboPssoonlearnthatifsomethingseemstog oodtobetrue,itprobablPis. 一个大学男孩，不清楚赚钱需要付出艰苦的劳动，被一份许诺轻松赚大钱的广告吸引了。男孩们很快就明白，如果事情看起来好得不像真的，那多半确实不是真的。BIGBUCKSTHEEASPWAP轻轻松松赚大钱"Pououghttolookintothis,"Isuggestedtoourtwocollege-agesons."ItmightbeawaPtoavoidtheindignitP ofhavingtoaskformonePallthetime."Ihandedthemsomemagazinesinaplasticbagsomeonebadhungon ourdoorknob.AmessageprintedonthebagofferedleisurelP,lucrativework("BigBuckstheEasPWaP!")o fdeliveringmoresuchbags. “你们该看看这个，”我向我们的两个读大学的儿子建议道。“你们若想避免因为老是向人讨钱而有失尊严的话，这兴许是一种办法。”我将挂在我们门把手上的、装在一个塑料袋里的几本杂志拿给他们。塑料袋上印着一条信息说，需要招聘人投递这样的袋子，这活儿既轻松又赚钱。（“轻轻松松赚大钱!”） "Idon'tmindtheindignitP,"theolderoneanswered.“我不在乎失不失尊严，”大儿子回答说。"Icanlivewithit,"hisbrotheragreed.“我可以忍受，”他的弟弟附和道。"Butitpainsme,"Isaid，"tofindthatPoubothhavebeenpanhandlingsolongthatitnolongerembarrassesPou."“看到你们俩伸手讨钱讨惯了一点也不感到尴尬的样子，真使我痛心，”我说。TheboPssaidthePwouldlookintothemagazine-deliverPthing.Pleased,Ilefttownonabusinesstrip.BPmi dnightIwascomfortablPsettledinahotelroomfarfromhome.Thephonerang.ItwasmPwife.Shewantedt oknowhowmPdaPhadgone.孩子们说他们可以考虑考虑投递杂志的事。我听了很高兴，便离城出差去了。午夜时分，我已远离家门，在一家旅馆的房间里舒舒服服住了下来。电话铃响了，是妻子打来的。她想知道我这一天过得可好。 "Great!"Ienthused."HowwasPourdaP?"Iinquired.“好极了!”我兴高采烈地说。“你过得怎么样?”我问道。 "Super!"Shesnapped."Justsuper!Andit'sonlPgettingstarted.Anothertruckjustpulledupoutfront."“棒极了!”她大声挖苦道。“真棒!而且这还仅仅是个开始。又一辆卡车刚在门前停下。”"Anothertruck?"“又一辆卡车?” "Thethirdonethisevening.ThefirstdeliveredfourthousandMontgomerPWards.Thesecondbroughtfour thousandSears,Roebucks.Idon'tknowwhatthisonehas,butI'msureitwillbefourthousandofsomething.S incePouareresponsible,IthoughtPoumightliketoknowwhat'shappening.“今晚第三辆了。第一辆运来了四千份蒙哥马利-沃德百货公司的广告；第二辆运来四千份西尔斯-罗伯克百货公司的广告。我不知道这一辆装的啥，但我肯定又是四千份什么的。既然这事是你促成的，我想你或许想了解事情的进展。” WhatIwasbeingblamedfor,itturnedout,wasanewspaperstrikewhichmadeitnecessarPtohand-deliverth eadvertisinginsertsthatnormallPareincludedwiththeSundaPpaper.ThecompanPhadpromisedourboPs $600fordeliveringtheseinsertsto4,000housesbPSundaPmorning.我之所以受到指责，事情原来是这样：由于发生了一起报业工人罢工，通常夹在星期日报纸里的广告插页，必须派人直接投送出去。公司答应给我们的孩子六百美金，任务是将这些广告插页在星期天早晨之前投递到四千户人家去。 "Pieceofcake!"ouroldercollegesonhadshouted.“不费吹灰之力!”我们上大学的大儿子嚷道。"SiGhundredbucks!"Hisbrotherhadechoed,"Andwecandothejobintwohours!"“六百块!”他的弟弟应声道，“我们两个钟点就能干完!” "BoththeSearsandWardadsarefournewspaper-sizepages,"mPwifeinformedme."TherearethirtP-twot housandpagesofadvertisingonourporch.Evenaswespeak,twobigguPsarecarrPingarmloadsofpaperup thewalk.Whatdowedoaboutallthis?"“西尔斯和沃德的广告通常都是报纸那么大的四页，”妻子告诉我说，“现在我们门廊上堆着三万二千页广告。就在我们说话的当儿，两个大个子正各抱着一大捆广告走过来。这么多广告，我们可怎么办?”"JusttelltheboPstogetbusP,"Iinstructed."TheP'recollegemen.TheP'lldowhatthePhavetodo."“你让孩子们快干，”我指示说。“他们都是大学生了。他们自己的事得由他们自己去做。”AtnoonthefollowingdaPIreturnedtothehotelandfoundanurgentmessagetotelephonemPwife.Hervoic
UNIT 1 As we are at the start of the course, this seems a good moment to offer some advice on how to make the task of learning English easier. 课程开始之际，就如何使学习英语的任务更容易提出一些建议似乎正当其时。 Some Strategies for Learning English Learning English is by no means easy. It takes great diligence and prolonged effort. 学习英语绝非易事。它需要刻苦和长期努力。 Nevertheless, while you cannot expect to gain a good command of English without sustained hard work, there are various helpful learning strategies you can employ to make the task easier. Here are some of them. 虽然不经过持续的刻苦努力便不能期望精通英语，然而还是有各种有用的学习策略可以用来使这一任务变得容易一些。以下便是其中的几种。 1. Do not treat all new words in exactly the same way. Have you ever complained about your memory because you find it simply impossible to memorize all the new words you are learning? But, in fact, it is not your memory that is at fault. If you cram your head with too many new words at a time, some of them are bound to be crowded out. What you need to do is to deal with new words in different ways according to how frequently they occur in everyday use. While active words demand constant practice and useful words must be committed to memory, words that do not often occur in everyday situations require just a nodding acquaintance. You will find concentrating on active and useful words the most effective route to enlarging your vocabulary. 1. 不要以完全同样的方式对待所有的生词。你可曾因为简直无法记住所学的所有生词而抱怨自己的记忆力太差？其实，责任并不在你的记忆力。如果你一下子把太多的生词塞进头脑，必定有一些生词会被挤出来。你需要做的是根据生词日常使用的频率以不同的方式对待它们。积极词汇需要经常练习，有用的词汇必须牢记，而在日常情况下不常出现的词只需见到时认识即可。你会发现把注意力集中于积极有用的词上是扩大词汇量最有效的途径。 2. Watch out for idiomatic ways of saying things. Have you ever wondered why we say, "I am interested in English", but "I am good at French"? And have you ever asked yourself why native English speakers say, "learn the news or secret", but "learn of someone's success or arrival"? These are all examples of idiomatic usage. In learning English, you must pay attention not only to the meaning of a word, but also to the way native speakers use it in their daily lives. 2．密切注意地道的表达方式。你可曾纳闷过，为什么我们说“我对英语感兴趣”是“I'm interested in English”，而说“我精于法语”则是“I'm good at French”？你可曾问过自己，为什么以英语为母语的人说“获悉消息或秘密”是“learn the news or secret”，而“获悉某
大学英语精读1课文翻译 Unit1 Some Strategies or Learning English 学习英语绝非易事。它需要刻苦和长期努力。 虽然不经过持续的刻苦努力便不能期望精通英语，然而还是有各种有用的学习策略可以用来使这一任务变得容易一些。以下便是其中的几种。 1. 不要以完全同样的方式对待所有的生词。你可曾因为简直无法记住所学的所有生词而抱怨自己的记忆力太差？其实，责任并不在你的记忆力。如果你一下子把太多的生词塞进头脑，必定有一些生词会被挤出来。你需要做的是根据生词日常使用的频率以不同的方式对待它们。积极词汇需要经常练习，有用的词汇必须牢记，而在日常情况下不常出现的词只需见到时认识即可。你会发现把注意力集中于积极有用的词上是扩大词汇量最有效的途径。 2．密切注意地道的表达方式。你可曾纳闷过，为什么我们说 "我对英语感兴趣"是"I'm interested in English"，而说"我精于法语"则是"I'm good at French"？你可曾问过自己，为什么以英语为母语的人说"获悉消息或秘密"是"learn the news or secret"，而"获悉某人的成功或到来"却是"learn of someone's success or arrival"？这些都是惯用法的例子。在学习英语时，你不仅必须注意词义，还必须注意以英语为母语的人在日常生活中如何使用它。 3．每天听英语。经常听英语不仅会提高你的听力，而且有助你培养说的技能。除了专为课程准备的语言磁带外，你还可以听英语广播，看英语电视和英语电影。第一次听录好音的英语对话或语段，你也许不能听懂很多。先试着听懂大意，然后再反复地听。你会发现每次重复都会听懂更多的东西。 4．抓住机会说。的确，在学校里必须用英语进行交流的场合并不多，但你还是可以找到练习讲英语的机会。例如，跟你的同班同学进行交谈可能就是得到一些练习的一种轻松愉快的方式。还可以找校园里以英语为母语的人跟他们随意交谈。或许练习讲英语最容易的方式是高声朗读，因为这在任何时间，任何地方，不需要搭档就可以做到。例如，你可以看着图片或身边的物件，试着对它们详加描述。你还可以复述日常情景。在商店里购物或在餐馆里吃完饭付过账后，假装这一切都发生在一个讲英语的国家，试着用英语把它表演出来。
Lesson One Half a Day Naguib Mahfous 1. I walked alongside my father, clutching his right hand. All my clothes were new: the black shoes, the green school uniform, and the red cap. They did not make me happy, however, as this was the day I was to be thrown into school for the first time. 2. My mother stood at the window watching our progress, and I turned towards her from time to time, hoping she would help. We walked along a street lined with gardens, and fields planted with crops: pears, and date palms. 3. "Why school ?" I asked my father. "What have I done ?" 4. "I'm not punishing you, " he said, laughing. "School's not a punishment. It's a place that makes useful men out of boys. Don' t you want to be useful like your brothers?" 5. I was not convinced. I did not believe there was really any good to be had in tearing me away from my home and throwing me into the huge, high-walled building. 6. When we arrived at the gate we could see the courtyard, vast and full of boys and girls. "Go in by yourself, " said my father, "and join them. Put a smile on your face and be a good example to others. " 7. I hesitated and clung to his hand, but he gently pushed me from him. "Be a man, " he said. "Today you truly begin life. You will find me waiting for you when it's time to leave. " 8. I took a few steps. Then the faces of the boys and girls came into view. I did not know a single one of them, and none of them knew me. I felt I was a stranger who had lost his way. But then some boys began to glance at me in curiosity, and one of them came over and asked, "Who brought you?" 9. "My father, " I whispered. 10. "My father's dead, " he said simply. 11. I did not know what to say. The gate was now closed. Some of the children burst into tears. The bell rang. A lady came along, followed by a group of men. The men began sorting us into ranks. We were formed into an intricate pattern in the great courtyard surrounded by high buildings; from each floor we were overlooked by a long balcony roofed in wood. 12. "This is your new home, "said the woman. "There are mothers and fathers here, too. Everything that is enjoyable and beneficial is here. So dry your tears and face life joyfully. " 13. Well, it seemed that my misgivings had had no basis. From the first moments I made many friends and fell in love with many girls. I had never imagined school would have this rich variety of experiences. 14. We played all sorts of games. In the music room we sang our first songs. We also had our first introduction to language. We saw a globe of the Earth, which revolved and showed the various continents and countries. We started learning numbers, and we were told the story of the Creator of the universe. We ate delicious food, took a little nap, and woke up to go on with friendship and love, playing and learning. 15. Our path, however, was not totally sweet and unclouded. We had to be observant and patient. It was not all a matter of playing and fooling around. Rivalries could bring about pain and hatred or give rise to
大学英语精读第三版(上海外语教育出版社董亚芬主编)第一册答案Book 1 Unit 1 Study&Practice Vocabulary Activities 1. 1)e 2)g 3)j 4)a 5)b 6)i 7)c 8)d 9)h 10)f 2. 1) handling 2) summarized 3) process 4) absorb 5) are bound to 6) feel free 7) for instance 8) strategies 9) complained 10) has committed... to memory 11) Nevertheless 12) rely... on 13) Apart from 14) command 3. 1) over and over again 2) at a time 3) put it into practice 4) watching out for 5) by no means 6) concentrate on 7) In addition to 8) in detail Enriching Your Word Power 1. 1)action 2)employ 3)announce 4)examination 5)communication 6)express 7)compose 8)improvement 9)concentration 10)management 11)consider 12)motivate 13)development
15)discuss 16)operate 17)division 18)production 19)educate 20)repeat 2. 1) a) additional b) add c) addition d) addition 2) a) effectively b) effect c) effective d) effect 3) a)helpful b) help c) helpless d) help e) helplessly f) helpfully g) helpful 4) a) reliant b) reliable c) reliance, reliable d) relies e) reliably 5) a) repetition b) repeating c) repeatedly d) repeated e) repetition Usage 1) In my opinion 2) According to Mary 3) In our opinion 4) According to today’s papers 5) In most doctors’ opinion ( According to most doctors) Structure 1. 1) Shakespeare was not only a dramatist but also an actor. 2) Miss Crain not only took me home in her car, but also came the next day to see if I had recovered. 3) Hainan Island attracts tourists not only in winter but also in summer. 4) There is always a black market not only in Britain, but also in other European countries. 5) At the Athens Olympics in 2004, Liu Xiang not only won a gold medal in the 110-meter hurdles, but also broke the Olympic record. 2. 1) It is true that your sentences are all gramma tically correct, but they don’t make any sense. 2) It is true that they lost that battle, but they still went on fighting. 3) It is true that Tom’s very clever and hardworking, but I still don’t think he is the right person for the job. 4) It is true that learning English is by no means easy, but we can make the task easier by using some learning strategies. Cloze 1. 1) strategies 2) frequently 3) over and over again 4) commit to memory 5) acquaintance 6) watch out for 7) communicate 8) process