Socrates was a classical Greek philosopher who is credited with laying th e fundamentals (基础)
of modern Western philosophy. He is a mysterious figure known chiefly t hrough the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of hi s most famous student Plato.Socrates has become well known for his con tribution to the field of ethics. His method of teaching, known as the Soc ratic Method, by asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thin king and to explain ideas remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions. He also made important and lasting contributions
to the field of epistemology(认识论） and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a str ong foundation for Western philosophy that followed.Socrates was the m ost colorful figure in the history of ancient philosophy.
His fame was widespread in his own time, and his name soon became a household word although he constructed no philosophical system, establ ished no school, and founded no sect (宗派).
翻译：Confucius was a great thinker and educator in Chinese history. He was the founder of Confucianism and was respectfully referred to as an ancient "sage". His words and life story were recorded i n The Analects. An enduring classic of ancient Chinese culture, The Anale cts has had a great influence on the thinkers, writers, and statesmen that came after Confucius. Without studying this book, one could hardly trul y understand the thousands-of-years' traditional Chinese culture. Much o f Confucius' thought, especially his thought on education, has had a prof ound influence on Chinese society. In the 21st century, Confucian though t not only retains the attention of the Chinese, but it also wins an increasi ng attention from the
Christmas is a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated on December 25 by millions of people around the world. It commemorates (纪念) the birth of Jesus Christ. The festival dated from as early as 336 AD. G radually it evolved into a religious as well as secular (非宗教的) celebration, celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians. To day Christmas is observed as an important festival and public holiday aro und the world. Christmas customs differ in different countries. Popular m odern customs of the holiday include an exchange of Christmas cards an
d gifts, Christmas singing, church attendance, th
e display o
f various Chris tmas decorations and trees, family gatherings, and a special meal prepar ation. To small children, the festival is full of fantasy and surprise. Legend (传说) has it that Santa Claus will enter each house through the chimney an d brin
g gifts to well-behaved children on Christmas Eve. Because gift-givi ng and many other aspects of the Christmas festival heighten economic a ctivity among bot
h Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has also be come a significant event and a key sales period for businesses.翻译：
圣诞节是一个被广泛庆祝的文化节日，全世界有许许多多的人在1 2月2 5日庆祝这一节日。它是为了纪念耶稣基督的诞辰。该节日最早可追溯到公元3 3 6年。渐渐地，这一节日演变为一个既是宗教又是非宗教的节日，越来越多的非基督徒也庆祝圣诞节。如今，圣诞节在全球被作为一个重大的节日和公共假日来庆祝。不同国家的圣诞节风俗也各不相同。现代流行的圣诞节风俗包括交换圣诞贺卡和圣诞礼物、唱圣诞歌曲、参加教堂活动、摆放各种圣诞装饰品和圣诞树、举行家庭聚会以及准备一顿特别的大餐。对小孩子们来说，这个节日充满了幻想和惊喜。据传说，圣诞老人会在圣诞夜从烟囱进入每户人家，给乖巧听话的孩子带来礼物。由于圣诞节送礼物以及许多其他方面推动了基督徒和非基督徒的经济活动，圣诞节也因此成为商家的一个重大活动和主要销售季。原文：
每年农历（Chinese lunar calendar）八月十五是
我国的传统节日——中秋节（the Mid-Autumn Festival）。这时是一年秋季的中期，所以被称为中秋。中秋节的一项重要活动是赏月。夜晚，人们赏明月、吃月饼，共庆中秋佳节。中秋节也是家庭团圆的时刻，远在他乡的游子，会借此寄托自己对故乡和亲人的思念之情。中秋节的习俗很多，都寄托着人们对美好生活的热爱和向往。自2008年起，中秋节成为中国的法定节假日翻译：
According to the Chinese lunar calendar, August 15 of every year is a trad itional Chinese festival — the Mid-Autumn Festival. This day is the middl e of autumn, so it is called Mid-Autumn. One of the important Mid-Autu mn Festival activities is to enjoy the moon. On that night, people gather t ogether to celebrate the Mid-Autumn Festival, looking up at the bright m oon and eating moon cakes. The festival is also a time for family reunion. People living far away from home will express their feelings of missing th eir hometowns and families at this festival. There are many customs to c elebrate the festival, all expressing people's love and hope for a happy lif e. Since 2008, the Mid-Autumn Festival has become an official national h oliday in China.
he London Underground is a rapid transit (交通运输系统) system in the United Kingdom, serving a large part of Greater London . The underground system is also known as the Tube, due to the characte
ristic shape of the subway tunnels. It all started in the mid-1800s. The Tu be wasthe world's first underground train system, with the first section o pening in 1863. Since then it has grown to an underground masterpiece (杰
作) of 12 lines, 275 stations, and over 250 miles of rail track, 45% of whic h is underground. It is the fourth largest metro system in the world in ter ms of route miles. It also has one of the largest numbers of stations. As a n affordable and easy way to get around London, the Tube remains the fi rst choice for millions of commuters each day, as well as tourists visiting t he city on holidays. The Tube has been an international icon for London. The London Underground celebrated its 150 years of operation in 2013, with various events marking the milestone (里程碑). 翻译：
伦敦地铁是英国的一个快速交通运输系统，服务于大伦敦的大部分地区。地铁系统因其地铁隧道的典型形状也被称为地下管道。伦敦地铁始建于19 世纪中期，是世界上最早的地下铁路系统。它的第一段地铁于1863 年开始运营。自此，伦敦地铁不断延伸，发展成为一个包括12条线路、275个车站、铁轨总长超过250 英里的地铁杰作，其中有45％在地下运行。就路线长度而言，它是世界上第四大地铁系统，也是车站数量最多的地铁系统之一。作为一个走遍伦敦的经济便捷的途径，伦敦地铁一向是每天数百万通勤者以及在节假日游历伦敦的游客的首选。伦敦地铁已成为伦敦的一个国际标志。2013 年伦敦举办了各种各样的活动，庆祝地铁运营150 周年，纪念这一里程
中国航天业开创于1956年。几十年来，中国航天事业创造了一个又一个奇迹。1970年，中国成功发射了第一颗人造地球卫星，成为世界上第五个独立自主研制和发射人造地球卫星的国家。1992年，中国开始实施载人航天飞行工程（manned spaceflight program）。2003年，中国成功发射了"神舟五号"载人飞船，使中国成为第三个发射载人飞船的国家。2007年发射了"嫦娥一号"，即第一颗绕月球飞行（lunar-orbiting）的人造卫星。2013年，第五艘载人飞船"神舟十号"发射成功，为中国空间站的建设打下了基础。翻译：
China's space industry was launched in 1956. Over the past decades, Chi na's space industry has created one miracle after another. In 1970 China l aunched its first man-made earth satellite, ranking China the fifth countr y in the world to independently develop and launch man-made earth sat ellites. In 1992 China began to carry out the manned spaceflight program . In 2003 China launched Shenzhou-5, a manned spaceship. The successf ul launch made China the third country to launch manned spaceships. In 2007 Chang'e-1, the first lunar-orbiting man-made satellite, was sent to s pace. In 2013 Shenzhou-10, the fifth manned spaceship, was launched su ccessfully, laying the foundation for building the Chinese Space Station. Unit 4
As one of the first Europeans to travel across Asia through China, Marco
Polo is perhaps the most well-known foreign merchant and voyager to th e Chinese people. He traveled extensively (广泛地) with his family, journeying from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295. H e remained in China for 17 of those years. His book The Travels of Marco Polo depicts his journeys throughout Asia, giving Europeans their first co mprehensive look into the Far East, including China, India, and Japan. Fro m his written accounts the Westerners learned of porcelain, coal, gunpo wder, printing, paper money, and silk for the first time. The wealth of ne w geographic information recorded by Polo was widely used in the late 1 5th and the 16th centuries duringthe age of the European voyages of dis covery and conquest (征服). In the centuries since his death, Marco Polo has received the recogni tion that failed to come his way during his lifetime. Marco Polo's story ha s inspired countless other adventurers to set off and see the world. 翻译：
作为通过中国游历亚洲的首批欧洲人之一，马可?波罗可能是中国人最熟知的外国商人和航海家。从1271 年到1295 年，他和他的家人游历广泛，遍及欧洲和亚洲。期间，他在中国留居了17 年。他的著作《马可?波罗游记》描述了他游历亚洲的旅程，让欧洲人首次全面领略了包括中国、印度和日本在内的远东地区的情况。从他的文字叙述中，西方人第一次了解到瓷器、煤炭、火药、印刷术、纸币以及丝绸。在15 世纪末和16 世纪欧洲发现与征服的大航海时代，马可?波罗所
郑和是中国历史上最著名的航海家（maritime explorer）。公元1405 年，明朝的统治者为了稳固边防（border defense）和开展海上贸易，派郑和下西洋（the Western Seas）。在此后的28 年里，郑和带领船队七下西洋，前后出海的人员有10 多万人，访问了30 多个国家和地区。船队纵横南亚、西亚，一直到非洲大陆。郑和下西洋是世界航海（navigation）史上的壮举，它展现了郑和卓越的航海和组织才能，同时展现了明朝的国力和国威（national strength and prestige），加强了明朝和海外各国之间的关系。翻译：
Zheng He was the most famous maritime explorer in Chinese history. In 1 405 AD, the ruler of the Ming Dynasty sent Zheng He on a voyage to the Western Seas in order to strengthen border defense and develop trade b y sea. In the following 28 years, Zheng He led his fleet, made seven voyag es to the Western Seas with over 100,000 crew members in total, and vis ited more than 30 countries and regions. The fleet traveled far into South Asia and West Asia, and made all the way to the continent of Africa. Zhe ng He's voyages to the Western Seas were a great feat in the world's navi gation history. It showed Zheng He's outstanding navigation and organiza tion talents; meanwhile, it exhibited the national strength and prestige of the Ming Dynasty, and strengthened the relationships between the Ming
Dynasty and the overseas countries.
The first written records of the ancient Olympic Games date to 776 BC. T he ancient Olympics were held every four years between August 6 and S eptember 19 during a religious festival honoring Zeus (宙斯). The first modern Olympics were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. The Olympic symbol consists of five interlaced rings of equal dimensions, rep resenting the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes fro m throughout the world at the Olympic Games. The Olympics truly took off as an international sporting event after 1924, when the 8th Olympic Games were held in Paris. Some 3,000 athletes from 44 nations compete d that year, and for the first time the Games featured a closing ceremony. The Winter Olympics debuted (问世) that year, including such events as figure skating, ice hockey, bobsled ding and the biathlon. Eighty years later, when the 2004 Summer Olympi cs returned to Athens for the first time in more than a century, nearly 11, 000 athletes from 201 countries competed, breaking the then record of p articipating countries.翻译：
太极拳（Tai Chi）是一种武术（martial arts）项目，也是一种健身运动，在中国有着悠久的历史。太极拳动作缓慢而柔和，适合任何年龄、性别、体型的人练习。太极拳既可防身，又能强身健体，因而深受中国人的喜爱。太极拳在发展的过程中，借鉴并吸收了中国传统哲学、医术、武术的合理内容（element），成为特色鲜明的一项运动。作为中国特有的一种运动形式，太极拳也越来越受到众多外国朋友的喜爱。翻译：
Tai Chi is a kind of martial arts, and a fitness exercise as well. It has a long history in China. With slow and gentle movements, Tai Chi is suitable for people of any age, sex, or body type to practice. It can be used to provide self-defense as well as build the body. Therefore, it has become very pop ular among Chinese people. During its development, Tai Chi borrowed an d absorbed desirable elements from traditional Chinese philosophy, medi cine, and martial arts, and it has developed into a sport with unique feat
ures. As a unique sport in China, Tai Chi is also gaining increasing popular ity among many foreign friends.
Gap year (间隔年) refers to a period of time —not necessarily a year — in which students take time off and do somethi ng other than schooling, such as travel or work. The year out is most com monly taken after high school and before going to university. During this time, a student might travel, engage in volunteer work or undertake (承担) a working holiday abroad. A new trend is to participate in internation al education programs that combine language study, home stays, cultural exchange, community service, and independent study. The practice of ta king a year out developed in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. It has gro wn very popular among students in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. In the United States, however, the practice of taking a year off re mains the exception (例外). But in recent years, taking a year out has become slightly more com mon for Americans. Some 40,000 American students participated in 2013 in gap year programs, an increase of almost 20% since 2006. Universities such as Princeton University, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology have formal policies allowing students to defer (延期) admission. 翻译：
改革开放以来，中国的教育事业得到了快速发展，取得了引人瞩目的成就。中国政府把教育摆在优先发展的地位，坚持科教兴国（revitalize the country），全面提倡素质教育 (quality-oriented education)。同时，积极推进教育公平，保障人人有受教育的机会。中国的教育成就反映在两个不同的层面：一个是全面普及了九年义务教育（nine-year compulsory education），另一个是实现了高等教育大众化（mass higher education）。教育的发展为中国的经济发展和社会进步作出了重大贡献。近年来，为适应社会、经济发展的需要，中国政府不断加快培养各领域的急需人才。翻译：Since its economic reform and opening-up to the world, China's educatio n has gone through rapid development and made remarkable achieveme
nts. The Chinese government gives top priority to the development of ed ucation, persists in revitalizing the country by science and education, and fully advocates quality-oriented education. Meanwhile, it actively promo tes equality in education to guarantee everyone access to education. Chi na's achievements in education can be reflected in two different layers: One is the popularization of the nine-year compulsory education; the oth er is the realization of mass higher education. The development of educa tion has made significant contributions to China's economic developmen t and social progress. In recent years, to satisfy the needs of social and ec onomic development, the Chinese government has sped up the training of qualified personnel urgently needed in various fields.
The belief in the freedom of the individual is probably the most basic and most strongly held of all American beliefs. The most important thing to u nderstand Americans is probably their devotion (深爱) to "individualism". They have been trained since very early in their liv es to consider themselves as separate individuals who are responsible for their own situations in life and their own destiny. Americans view thems elves as highly individualistic in their thoughts and actions. They resist be ing thought of as representatives of any homogeneous (由同类组成的) group. When they do join groups, they believe they are special, just a
little different from other members of the same group. Closely associate d with the value they place on individualism is the importance Americans assign privacy. Americans assume people "need some time to themselve s" or "some time alone" to think about things or recover their spent psyc hological energy. Americans have great difficulty understanding foreigner s who always want to be with another person and who dislike being alon e. 翻译：
理人才之道。随着我国社会经济和文化的发展，"和"的思想更加深入人心。中国正在向构建社会主义和谐社会的目标迈进。翻译：Integrity and harmony are traditional Chinese virtues. "Harmony" is dem onstrated in various aspects. In regard to interpersonal relations, traditio nal Chinese thoughts hold that "Harmony is most precious" and "A family that lives in harmony will prosper". A harmonious social environment ca n be created based on these principles. As for relations between human beings and nature, people should learn to understand, respect and prote ct nature. Harmony is essential to interpersonal relations, relations betw een human beings and society, as well as between human beings and nat ure. Nowadays, harmonious development is still the way of running the c ountry and managing talented personnel. With the development of Chin a's society, economy and culture, the idea of "harmony" goes even deep er into people's hearts. China is on its way toward the goal of building a h armonious socialist society.
As the world's only truly universal global organization, the United Nation s (UN) has become the foremost forum to address issues that transcend (超
越) national boundaries and cannot be resolved by any one country actin g alone. The initial goals of the UN are safeguarding (保
护) peace, protecting human rights, establishing the framework for inter national justice and promoting economic and social progress. In recent y ears, the UN has been faced with new challenges, such as climate change , international terrorism and AIDS. While conflict resolution and peaceke eping continue to be among its primary efforts, the UN, along with its sp ecialized agencies, is also engaged in a wide range of activities to improv e people's lives around the world — from disaster relief, through educati on and advancement of women, to peaceful uses of atomic energy. The UN and its specialized agencies have helped the world become a more h ospitable (热情友好的) and livable place and brought great benefits to people around the wo rld. 翻译：
外交领域取得了巨大成就。截至2011年，中国已与172个国家建立了外交关系（diplomatic relations）。近年来，随着中国综合国力的提升（enhancement），中国在国际事务中的作用越来越重要，中国的国际地位得到进一步提升。在地区性事务中，中国积极推动各种区域合作，为维护地区和平、促进地区发展作出了重要贡献。中国外交（diplomacy）将高举"和平、发展、合作、共赢"的旗帜（banner），在和平共处五项原则的基础上，通过全面发展同各国的友好合作，为建设持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界作出不懈的努力（make unremitting efforts）。翻译：
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China has persisted in the independent foreign policy of peace, and made tremendous progr ess in foreign affairs. By 2011, China had established diplomatic relations with 172 countries. Over recent years, with the enhancement of its comp rehensive national strength, China has been playing an increasingly impo rtant role in international affairs, and China's international status has bee n further enhanced. In regional affairs, China actively promotes all kinds of regional cooperation. It has made important contributions in maintain ing regional peace and promoting regional development. China's diplom acy will hold high the banner of "peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit". On the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexisten ce and through all-round and friendly cooperation with various countries , China will make unremitting efforts to build a harmonious world of end
uring peace and common prosperity.