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全新版大学英语综合教程(第二版)第一册_课文翻译及课后答案

Ⅰ.Vocabulary

1\Alan was always in trouble with the police when he was young but he’s now a respectable married man.

2\The people who had been hurt in the car accident lay screaming in agony.

在交通事故中受伤的人正躺在地上痛哭的哭叫。

3\Because his condition’s not serious they’v e put his name down on the hospital waiting list

因为他的病情并不严重,他们已经把他的名字写在医院的等候名单

4\the second part of the book deseribes the strange sequence of events that lead to the King’s fall from power.

本书的第二部分介绍了一连串奇怪的事件,导致国王下台的。

5\when I saw my little boy crying bitterly over the death of his pet dog,I could hardly hold back my tears.

当我看到我的小男孩的痛苦哭泣超过他的宠物狗的死亡,我几乎控制不住我的眼泪。

6\thery are going to distribute t hose clothes and blan-kets among the flood victims.

他们将要分发这些衣服和blan-kets给洪水灾民。

7\lind manage to support herself by working off and on as a waitress.

林德管理是不时当服务员来支持自己的工作,。

8\parts of my childhood are so vivid t o me that they could be memories of yesterday.

我童年的一些部分是如此栩栩如生,就好像是昨天的记忆。

9\people ofte n associate the old days with good times,and seem to forget the hardship they suffered.

人们常把过去的美好时光联系起来,似乎忘记了他们所遭受的艰辛。

10\andrew f inally decided,after much thought,to leave his job.

经过深思熟虑之后,安得烈终于决定,离开他的工作。

11\jane’s worried she won’t be able to turn in her paper on time.

简担心她不能及时交她的论文。

12\the president came under attack from all sides for his inability to tackle the country’s severe social problems.总统遭到来自四面八方的攻击他无法解决该国严重的社会问题。

1.respectable

adj. 值得尊敬的;人格高尚的;相当数量的n. 可敬的人

2.Agony

n. 苦恼;极大的痛苦;临

死的挣扎

3.put…down

镇压,压制,扑灭,取缔;制止;

写下来,记下来,记下名字和地

4.sequence

n. [数][计] 序列;顺序;续

发事件vt. 按顺序排好

5.Hold back

隐瞒;退缩;抑制;阻止6.Distribute

vt. 分配;散布;分开;把…分

7.Off and on

断断续续地,时不时地

8.Vivid

adj. 生动的;鲜明的;鲜艳的

9.Associate

vi. 交往;结交n. 同事,伙伴;关联的事物

vt. 联想;使联合;使发生联系adj. 副的;联合的10.Finally

adv. 最后;终于;决定性地

11.turn in

交上;归还;拐入;告发;上床

睡觉

12.Tackle

n. 滑车;装备;用具;扭

倒vt. 处理;抓住;固定;与…

交涉vi. 扭倒;拦截抢球

2).

1. George has been assigned to(分配,指派)the newspaper’s Paris office.sent

2. The man's story was so extraordinary(非常特别)that I didn’t know whether to believe him or not. well beyond(远远超出)

3. She had a clear image of how she would look in twenty years’ time.be formed(形成,构成)

4. When the officer gave the command (给出命令)the soldiers opened fire.on an order(给出命令)

5. As long as people keep buying bikes we’ll keep turning them out(生产).produce(生产)

Ⅱ. Translation

1. As it was a formal dinner party, I wore formal dress, as Mother told me to.

2.His girlfriend advised him to get out of/get rid of his bad habit of smoking before it took hold.

3. Anticipating that the demand for electricity will be high during the next few months, they have decided to increase its production.

4. It is said that Bill has been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. /Bill is said to have been fired for

continually violating the company’s safety rules.

5. It is reported that the government has taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. /The local government is reported to have taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage.

2. Susan lost her legs because of / in a car accident. For a time, she didn’t know how to face up to the fact that she would never (be able to) walk again.

One day, while scanning (through) some magazines, a true story caught her eye /she was attracted by a true story. It gave a vivid description of how a disabled girl became a writer. Greatly inspired, Susan began to feel that she, too, would finally be bale to lead a useful life.

Ⅰ.Vocabulary

1\there was no wind and the oak tree behind the house was standing absolutely still.

没有风,房子后面的橡树静静地伫立着。

2\if you don’t want to buy a kite,you can make your own using directions available in books at your local library.

如果你不想买一个风筝,在当地图书馆你可以自行使用有用的指南。

3\the girl walked steadily north,pausing every now and then to check her direction.

女孩稳步北走,不时地停下来检查她的方向。

4\the trade unions urged employers to invest more money in saff training.

工会督促雇主投资更多的钱在saff培训。

5\as a sailing ship has a destination,so we must have a definite goal in our life.

如同船舶航行有目的地,我们的生活必须有一个明确的目标。

6\before people knew how to make and use metals,engineering constructions were mostly built of wood or stone.

在人们就知道如何制作和使用的金属以前,工程建筑大多用的石头或木头。

7\you’ll probably find dave at the school disco he often hangs out there.

你会发现戴夫经常混迹在学校的迪斯科舞厅里。

8\if your house has been broken into,don’t touch anything.calll the police right away.

如果你的房子被破门而入,别碰任何东西,立刻报警。

9\we had a family reunion where I saw relatives I hadn’t see for 20 years.

在我们的家庭团聚中我看到20年没见的亲戚。

10\i guess henry has been busy writing an article or something recently,that’s why he could’t accept the invitation.

我想亨利最近一直忙着写一篇文章或什么,这就是为什么他不能接受邀请。

11\scientists estimate that smoking reduces life expectancy by around 12 years on average.

科学家估计,在平均寿命上吸烟将减少约12年寿命。

12\although it is unlikely that everyong will be able to come,they are still going ahead with the plan to hold a class reunion.尽管每个人都能来是不可能的,他们仍然继续着计划举行同学聚会。

Absolutely

adv. 绝对地;完全地Available

adj. 有效的,可得的;可利用的;

空闲的

every now and then

不时地;常常

Urge

vt. 力劝,催促;驱策,推

Destination n. 目的地,终点Mostly

adv. 主要地;通常;多半地

hang out

挂出;闲逛

right away

立刻

Reunion n. 重聚or something

或是什么的;诸如此类的什么

Estimate

vi. 估计,估价n. 估计,

估价;判断,看法vt. 估计,估

量;判断,评价

going ahead

前进;进行

1. It seemed that his failure in the examination was still on his mind.(使挂念) anxious(担忧的)

2. He was completely chocked up(塞满)by the sight of his team losing in the final minutes of the game.left him so upset that he unable to say a word(他如此悲伤以至于无法说出一个字)

3. She was so lost in(专注于)study that she forgot to have dinner.Occupy(占据)

4.Something has come up(发生,开始) and I’m afraid I won’t be able to accomplish the project on time.happen(发生,开始)

5. The cost of equipping the new hospital was estimated(估价) at $2 million.calculate(计算;预测)

Ⅱ. Translation

1.Half an hour had gone by, but the last bus hadn’t come yet. We had to walk home.

2.Mary looks as if she is ver y worried about the Chinese exam because she hasn’t learned the texts by heart.

3.Since the basketball match has been postponed, we might as well visit the museum.

4.He stayed in Australia with his parents all the way through World WarⅡ.

5.Since I graduated from Nanjing University in 1985,I have kind of lost touch with my classmates.

2. It is not easy to keep in touch with friends when they are far away. This is certainly true in my case.

It has been a couple of years since I left my old neighborhood and all the friends I had there. I’ve been meaning to write to them but something or other comes up and I just don’t seem to find the time. They are always on my mind, however, and I think I will certainly make an effort to keep up correspondence with them in future.

Ⅰ.Vocabulary

1\it’ll only be a brief visit because we recently haven’t much time.

只会是一个短暂的访问,因为我们最近没有太多的时间。

2\ the job is great in the terms of advancement but the starting salary is rather low.

就工作进展而言是大的,但工资相当低。

3\we’d better pay that electricity bill before they cut us off.

在他们短我们电前我们最好付账单。

4\as pace of life quickens things tend to change fast in the city.

随着生活节奏的加快,城市的变化日新月异。

5\why don’t we get rid of these old chairs, since we don’t use them anyway?

这些旧椅子已经没有任何用途了,为什么不扔掉呢?

6\the earth’s atmosphere m akes precise observation of distant stars difficult.

地球大气层,使精确的观察遥远的星球很难。

7\the lawn was laid out in the form of the figure8.

草坪以数字8的形式铺设。

8\i shouldn’t always have to tell you what to do,use your own initiative.

我不应该总是告诉你怎么做,而应该让你自主。

9\words cannot convey how grateful we are for his timely help.

言语无法表达我们有多么感谢他的及时帮助。

10\it seems to me that the board of directors is in two minds over the opening of a branch office in south Africa.

在我看来,董事会对在开个分公司在南非摇摆不定。

11\i find it difficult to grasp the concept of infinite space.

我发现要掌握无限空间的概念很难。

12\philip presented a complex argument that was completely beyond my grasp.

菲利普提出了一个复杂的论点完全超出了我的控制。

brief

adj. 简短的,简洁的;短暂的,草率的n. 摘要,简报;概要,诉书vt. 简报,摘要;作…in terms of

依据;按照;在…方面;以…措

cut off

切断;中断;使死亡;剥夺继承

Tend

vi. 趋向,倾向;照料,照

顾vt. 照料,照管

Anyway

adv. 无论如何,不管怎样;总之Precise

adj. 精确的;明确的;严格的

in the form of

以某种形式

Nitiative

主动

convey

vt. 传达;运输;让与in two minds

三心二意

Concept

n. 观念,概念

Grasp

n. 抓住;理解;控制vt. 抓

住;领会vi. 抓

1) Winning the match today has ensured(确保) their team a place in the Cup final.certainly(必定)

2) It is medical workers’ responsibility(职责) to heal the wounded and rescue the dying.duty(责任)

3) These computer games entertain(v娱乐) as well as educate(v教育) the learner.amusement(n消遣)knowledge(n知识)

4) No living thing can do without(强调没有) air and water.vital(至关重要的)

5) The election is likely(很可能的) to be held in June.a strong possibility(很可能的)

II Translation

1) As is predicted by scientists, global pollution has become one of the most serious problems humans are faced with.

2) Competition for these jobs is very tough –we have five times as many applicants this year as we did last year/ there are five times as many applicants this year as there were last year.

3) As the facts show, educational programs need to fit into the national plan for economical development.

4) The car burns too much gas, and moreover, the price is almost twice as much as I intend to pay.

5) To understand a great international event, we, first of all, need to consider the historical and political background to it.

2. It is hard to imagine how our forefathers could do without so many conveniences that modern technology has brought about. Back then only a small proportion of the population enjoyed the comforts of life. The majority didn’t even hav e sufficient food, not to speak of/ let alone the privilege of being educated. However, many people blame modern technology for creating so many problems. They want to slow down the rate of progress. But no one can put the clock back.

Vocabulary

1\it was already a wreck when two weeks later the police found his stolen car and he had to buy a newone.

2周后,警方发现了他被偷的汽车已经成了残骸,他不得不买一辆新的。

2\with great patience the clerk showed the elderly lady how to check the balance in her bank account on an atm.

以极大的耐心的店员给老太太展示了怎么用自动取款机查银行户头上的余额。

3\if you look out of the window on the left side of the bus, you’ll see that we’re now approach the tower of London.

如果你往公共汽车左边的窗外看,你会看到我们正在靠近伦敦塔。

4\there’ll certainly be some problems,but nothing that you can’t handle.

一定会有一些问题,但没有什么你不能处理。

5\people who discard litter in the streets should be fined heavily.

在街上乱丢东西的人应该被处以重罚。

6\successful businessmen today are likely to be young,aggressive ,and well-educated.above all,they are willing to take risks to achieve success.

成功的商人今天也许是年轻的,积极的,和受过良好教育。首先,他们愿意承担风险获得成功。

7\druing those difficult years,the family lived almost entirely on a diet of cabbages.

在那些艰难的日子里,家庭几乎完全靠吃卷心菜生活。

8\what are we going to do with the food left over from the party?

派对上剩下的食物呢我们要怎么办?

9\we checked on tom’s age by getting h is birth record.

我们从他的出生记录查到了汤姆的年龄。

10\we’ll go out as soon as I’ve cleaned up the kitchen.

我清理完厨房我们就出去。

11\for women lawyers in the united sates,their weekly earnings are on the average much less than those of male lawyers. 在美国,女律师每周的平均收入低于男性律师。

12\i won’t get involved in a deal like this-its against all my principle.

我不会违反我的原则卷入交易像this-its。

Wreck

破坏;失事;残骸;失去健康的人vt. 破坏;使失事;拆毁vi. 失事;营救失事船只Balance

平衡;余额;匀称vt. 使平衡;

结算;使相称vi. 保持平衡;相

称;抵销

Approaching

n. 方法;途径;接近vt. 接近;

着手处理vi. 靠近

Handle

n. [建] 把手;柄;手感;口实

vt. 处理;操作;运用;买卖;

触摸vi. 搬运;易于操纵

Dis Discard

vt. 抛弃;放弃;丢弃vi. 放弃n. 抛弃;被丢弃的东西或人Above all

首先;尤其是

Diet

n. 饮食;食物;规定饮食

vi. 节食vt. [医] 照规定饮食

do with

处理

checked on 检查;核实cleaned up

清理

Weekly

每周

Principles

n. 原理,原则;主义

1) Effort to look for survivors were abandoned(被抛弃的)after it had been/was determined that all the people in the sunken ship had died.give up(放弃)

2) I was amazed(吃惊) that Bob left a well-paid job travel around the world. To my amazement(令我吃惊的)

3) Her repuest for a loan has been turned down(调低) by many a bank as her business is small and she could provide no guarantee. refused(拒绝)

4) She doesn’t express her thoughts with precision(精确), so people often misunderstand her.precise (精确的)

5) Nothing will weaken(使变弱) our determination(决心) to modernize our country in the shortest possible time.firm(坚定的) decision(决心)

Translation

1) It is reported that UN mediators have worked out a plan which they hope will be acceptable to both sides.

2) Doris walked in the forest cautiously, afraid of being attacked by giant snakes.

3) Earthquakes, typhoons and other natural disaters cannot be prevented, but action can be taken to protect life and property.

4) I bought a new issue of my favorite sports magazine and hurried home, anxious to amuse myself reading it.

5) Helen lacks confidence. I’ve never known anyone so unsure of herself.

2.

After graduating from college, Tony decided to start his own business. At the beginning, many a bank turned down his request for a loan. But he was not a bit discouraged, and continued to call on one banker after another seeking help. Impressed by his determination and optimism, one banker finally agreed to loan him the money. Now he has become a wealthy businessman. Talking about his amazing achievement, Tony says that it is important to create rather than wait for opportunities.

Vocabulary

I.1

1\a monthly statement is a general term for a personal-ized financial record that regularly informs a recipient about the status of his or her account.

月结是一个个性化信息的财务记录,定期通知的收件人,他或她的帐户情况的总项。

2\over a hundred children came to the annual Christmas party which was a good opportunity for them to gather and renew acquaintances.

超过一百孩子来参加圣诞派对,是一个他们相识和重新认识的好机会。

3\my parent’s marriage was a classic of its time-those years of the so-called cultural revolution, with no wedding cer-emony and no honey moon.

我的父母的婚姻是“文化大革命”那个年代的典型,没有婚礼和蜜月。

4\having failed in the examination ,owen didn’t dare look his father in the eye.

考试失败,欧文不敢看父亲的眼睛。

5\britain still has a bicycle industry; frames and complete bicycles are manufactured here,though most of the components are imported.

英国仍有自行车行业;框和完整的自行车在这里加工制造,虽然大部分部件是进口的。

6\the employees of the company are treated right with hand some paychecks and stock options.

公司员工享受好的待遇是与握有工资和股票期权。

7\san Francisco is one of the largest cities in California and a leading center of culture ,finance ,and industry in the united states.

旧金山是加利福尼亚最大的城市之一而且是美国的主要的文化,金融,和实业中心。

8\steve announced just now that he was leaving,but the coach had already started looking around for a replacement weeks before.

史提夫刚刚宣布了他将要离开,但是教练数周前已经开始四处寻找替代者。

9\shortly after he learned of the earthquake,the man hurried back to his hometown,searching high and low to find out whether his parents have survived the calamity.

在他了解到地震后不久,就急忙回到他的家乡,到处寻找确认父母是否在灾难中幸存。

10\i was listening for grace’s voice,but it wasn’t easy to pick it out among all the others.

我听优美的声音,但是要从其他所有声音中把她跳出来并不容易。

11\the survey reveals that in increasing mumber of young people claim the enjoy married life.

调查显示,声称享受婚姻生活的年轻会员在增加。

12someone grabbed at the letter I was reading,looking up,I was delightful surprised to find that it was my former classmate.

抬头看那个抓住我在读的那封信的人我惊喜的发现,这人竟然是我以前的同班同学。

Monthly

adv. 每月,每月一次Acquaintances

n. 熟人;相识;了解;知道

Classic

adj. 经典的;古典的,传统的

look; in the eye

用眼镜看

Manufactured

adj. 制造的,已制成的v. 制造,加工(manufacture的过去式)options

n. 选择;期权

Finance

n. 财政,财政学;金融

Replacement

代替者

Survived

v. 幸存;从…中坚持过来;继续使用(survive的过去分词)pick out

挑拣

Married

婚姻的,夫妇的

grabbed at

抓住,抓取;抓住不放

2.

1) Olny an eight-month-old baby girl survived(幸存) a car crash that killed both her parents.survivor(幸存者)

2) I was almost embarrassed (v尴尬)to death when Sarah read my poem out to the whole class.embarrassment(n尴尬)

3) Doctors and nurses of the Children’s Hospital will care for(照顾)the seriously injured pupils.be under the care of(被..照顾)

4) The personnel department has received several phone calls making inquiries(询问) about the position of the Chief Financial Officer.

5) We can help you straighten out(清理) all your financial problems if you join our club.find a solution(想办法)

II. Translation

1.

1) I’m not sure where you can find a good carpenter---you’d better ask around.

2) Feeling a little embarrassed, he quickly cleared his throat and looked up at the painting on the wall.

3) Michael was survived by three sons, two daughters, and his wife Elizabeth.

4) As a financial expert, William advised us to invest our money in the stock market.

5) We small retailers can’t compete with supermarkets in pricing and sales.

2.

My dad is a hard-working executive of a manufacturing firm. He works six days a week. Every day he has to straighten out various kinds of problems so that he often stays up late/nights. However, he tries his best to balance/maintain balance between work and family. On Sundays my dad usually stays at home and cares for us as much as he can. To my greatest joy, he cooks our favorite dished and plays ball with us.

Unit 6 Homework

Vocabulary

Ⅰ 1.1\the former lake bed is now a fertile plain producing good crops of wheat.

湖前床现在是一个肥沃的平原,生产好的作物小麦。

2\aunt pat’s rough,red hands reflected a life of hard physical labor.

阿姨柏氏粗糙且红手反映艰苦的体力劳动的生活。

3\if you are living overseas,you may not have to pay tax in your own country.

如果你生活在海外,在自己的国家你可以不需要缴税。

4\helen is pretty,of slim build,with blue eyes.

海伦很漂亮,身材纤细,蓝眼睛。

5\we split the boards down the middle to use them for the back of the shelves.

我们劈木板中间用在他们的书架的后面。

6\only the hope that the rescuers were getting nearer sustained the trapped miners. 只希望救援人员正在接近持续的被困矿工。

7\the glow of the setting sun reddened the stream.

夕阳染红了溪流。

8\the kidnappers thrust the boy into the car and drove off.

绑匪把孩子推到车上,开车走了。

9\it is common knowledge that dogs have a keen sense of smell.

这是共同的知识,狗有敏锐的嗅觉。

10\the unusually cold winter caused many plants to bud late this year

异常寒冷的冬天使许多植物发芽晚了一年

11\training is Previous,so no previous experience is required for the job.

提前培训,所以不需要有工作经验。

12\we can go to the seven o’clock performance or the eight-whichever suits you best. 我们可以去七点或八哪一个最适合您的节目。

Fertile

adj. 富饶的,肥沃的Reflected

v. 反射;思考(reflect的过去

式和过去分词)

Overseas

海外

Slim

adj. 苗条的;修长的

Split

vt. 分离;使分离;劈开;Sustained

v. 维持(sustain的过去式和过

去分词);承受

Glow

n. 灼热;色彩鲜艳;

Thrust

推挤

Keen

adj. 敏锐的,Bud

vi. 发芽,萌芽

Previous

adv. 在先;在…以前

Whichever

pron. 任何一个;无论哪个

2.

1) The sickly smell of carpets and furniture in the bedroom disgusts(vt. 使厌恶;使作呕)me.dislike(不喜欢)

2) Mary stopped corresponding(v通信with Henry after the death of her mother.correspondence(n. 通信)

3) A radio transmitter is best located(最好位置at an isolated lace far from cities.the most suitable site(最合适的位置)

4) I was so absorbed in(全神贯注于)the game on TV that I didn’t hear Martin come https://www.sodocs.net/doc/7c3236225.html,pletely held my attention(完全抓住了我的注意里)

5) The rough surface of the basketball helps players grip(vt. 紧握)the ball.firm hold(紧握)

ⅡTranslation

1.

1) Before I went off to university, my grandfather gave me a few words of wisdom which impressed me deeply.

2) Never tell my parents about my injuries and I’ll be very grateful to you (for it).

3) At the meeting some of our colleagues put forward sensible suggestions about improving our working environment.

4) The management has/have agreed to grant the workers a 10% pay rise in response to union pressure.

5) It was very thoughtful of the hostess to give the house a thorough cleaning before we arrived.

2. Not rich himself, Uncle Li never hesitates to help others. Previous to/Before his retirement, through Project Hope he located the addresses of two country kids who grew up in poor families but had a keen desire to study. From then on he sent them money regularly. Later the two made their way to college, and even got a chance to study overseas.

I. Vocabulary

1\the financial help they got from the local government didn’t go far to ward solving the problem.

财务帮助他们从当地政府拿到未能解决的病房问题。

2\their retail business in asia has expanded rapidly since the early 1990s.

零售业务自90年代初以来在亚洲迅速扩大。

3\in the interests of world peace ,we must promote mutual understanding among nations with different social systems.

为了世界和平,我们必须促进国家之间的相互了解与不同社会制度。

4\i thought it was still early,yet got to the library only to find it closed.

我以为现在还早,但到了图书馆却发现它关门了。

5\on the train encounted an old lady who happened to be a neighbor of my daughter’s when she lived in losangeles.

在火车上遇到一个老太太,她住在洛杉机时是我女儿的邻居。

6\our company has cooperated with several American companies for the past few years in joint ventures.

在过去几年我公司与许多美国公司合作在合资企业。

7\phil looked around at the other competitors and assessed his chances of winning.

菲尔环顾其他竞争者并且评估他获胜的机会。

8\the police believed that the reason the failed to find anything suspicious in that guy’s bag was that member of the gang had switched bags at the airport.

警察认为在那家伙的袋子里未能找到任何可疑物品的原因是团伙成员在机场转移了袋子。

9\our visit to the far east has certainly broadened our horizons.

我们的远东之旅无疑扩大了我们的视野。

10\emily felt increasingly uncomfortable under the woman’s steady gaze.

在女子持续地凝视下艾米丽感到越来越不舒服。

11\everything was going smoothly until suddenly the disaster struck.

一切都很顺利直到灾难突然打击。

12\smallpox ,which used to be a severe epidemic disease ,has been completely wiped out.

天花,这曾经是一个严重的传染病,已被全部歼灭。

go (very) far 成功has expanded

vi. 发展

in the interest(s) of

为了…

only to

encountered

v. 遇到;曾遭遇(encounter的过去式)has cooperated

vi. 合作,配合;协力

Assessed

v. 对…进行评估(assess过去

时形式)

(had) switched

转换

Horizons

n. [天] 地平线;视野;眼界;范围gaze

vi. 凝视;注视

disaster

n. 灾难

wiped out

被消灭

1) There used to be a long running controversy over(围绕……的争议) whether the book should be published or not. An issue people disagreed(一个问题人们不同意)

2) Kate felt relieved (放心)after her first meeting with Tom had gone smoothly.made her feel less uneasy(使她不那么不安)

3) Something suddenly went wrong(出错)with my computer when I was in the middle of writing the essay. Stop walking(不工作)

4) It is obvious(明显的)that our company is still maintaining its composition as market leader in software.clearly(显然地)

5) She is determined not to give in(让步) until they give her a pay rise。

II. Translation

1. 1) A local business undertook the project but went bankrupt before it was completed.

2) Let’s make a deal—you wash my car, and I’ll let you use it tonight.

3) We got to the village which we thought must have been wiped out in the severe earthquake, only to find it slightly damaged.

4) My garden is dry and shady—few plants thrive in that condition

5) Mystery still surrounds the exact truth behind the film star’s death/exact circumstance of the film star’s death.

2. When I was young I used to visit the zoo in my hometown. There what attracted me most was a couple of tigers, especially the male. They were dept in a huge iron cage at first, but later were released from it and moved to a place called Tiger Hill. Twenty years later I revisited the zoo and was relieved to find Tiger Hill was still there, but greatly extended. Moving around now were six tigers, old and young, instead of two!

This morning I heard an interesting piece of news over my portable radio: a man of 36 and his son of 10 attend the same class competing with each other for high marks. The story goes/ It’s like this:

The man, Li Wei by name, was too idle to learn anything when young. With little education, with no useful skills, he could hardly earn an adequate living wage. His life experiences drove home to him the point that he had to acquire knowledge before he was able to accumulate wealth. So Li Wei swore that he would go to school with his son, determined to learn.

Unit 1 Growing Up

为自己而写

——拉塞尔·贝克从孩提时代,我还住在贝尔维尔时,我的脑子里就断断续续地转着当作家的念头,但直等到我高中三年级,这一想法才有了实现的可能。在这之前,我对所有跟英文课沾边的事都感到腻味。我觉得英文语法枯燥难懂。我痛恨那些长而乏味的段落写作,老师读着受累,我写着痛苦。

弗利格尔先生接我们的高三英文课时,我就准备着在这门最最单调乏味的课上再熬上沉闷的一年。弗利格尔先生在学生中以其说话干巴和激励学生无术而出名。据说他拘谨刻板,完全落后于时代。我看他有六七十岁了,古板之极。他戴着古板的毫无装饰的眼镜,微微卷曲的头发剪得笔齐,梳得纹丝不乱。他身穿古板的套装,领带端端正正地顶着白衬衣的领扣。他长着古板的尖下巴,古板的直鼻梁,说起话来一本正经,字斟句酌,彬彬有礼,活脱脱一个滑稽的老古董。

我作好准备,打算在弗利格尔先生的班上一无所获地混上一年,不少日子过去了,还真不出所料。后半学期我们学写随笔小品文。弗利格尔先生发下一张家庭作业纸,出了不少题目供我们选择。像"暑假二三事"那样傻乎乎的题目倒是一个也没有,但绝大多数一样乏味。我把作文题带回家,一直没写,直到要交作业的前一天晚上。我躺在沙发上,最终不得不面对这一讨厌的功课,便从笔记本里抽出作文题目单粗粗一看。我的目光落在"吃意大利细面条的艺术"这个题目上。

这个题目在我脑海里唤起了一连串不同寻常的图像。贝尔维尔之夜的清晰的回忆如潮水一般涌来,当时,我们大家一起围坐在晚餐桌旁——艾伦舅舅、我母亲、查理舅舅、多丽丝、哈尔舅舅——帕特舅妈晚饭做的是意大利细面条。那时意大利细面条还是很少听说的异国食品。多丽丝和我都还从来没吃过,在座的大人也是经验不足,没有

一个吃起来得心应手的。艾伦舅舅家诙谐有趣的场景全都重现在我的脑海中,我回想起来,当晚我们笑作一团,争论着该如何地把面条从盘子上送到嘴里才算合乎礼仪。

突然我就想描述那一切,描述当时那种温馨美好的气氛,但我把它写下来仅仅是想自得其乐,而不是为弗利格尔先生而写。那是我想重新捕捉并珍藏在心中的一个时刻。我想重温那个夜晚的愉快。然而,照我希望的那样去写,就会违反我在学校里学的正式作文的种种法则,弗利格尔先生也肯定会打它一个不及格。没关系。等我为自己写好了之后,我可以再为弗利格尔先生写点什么别的东西。

等我写完时已是半夜时分,再没时间为弗利格尔先生写一篇循规蹈矩、像模像样的文章了。第二天上午,我别无选择,只好把我为自己而写的贝尔维尔晚餐的故事交了上去。两天后弗利格尔先生发还批改过的作文,他把别人的都发了,就是没有我的。我正准备着遵命一放学就去弗利格尔先生那儿挨训,却看见他从桌上拿起我的作文,敲了敲桌子让大家注意听。

"好了,孩子们,"他说。"我要给你们念一篇小品文。文章的题目是:吃意大利细面条的艺术。"

于是他开始念了。是我写的!他给全班大声念我写的文章。更不可思议的是,全班同学都在听着他念,而且听得很专心。有人笑出声来,接着全班都笑了,不是轻蔑嘲弄,而是乐乎乎地开怀大笑。就连弗利格尔先生也停顿了两三次,好抑制他那一丝拘谨的微笑。

我尽力不流露出得意的心情,但是看到我写的文章竟然能使别人大笑,我真是心花怒放。就在十一年级,可谓是最后的时刻,我找到了一个今生想做的事。这是我整个求学生涯中最幸福的一刻。弗利格尔先生念完后说道:"瞧,孩子们,这就是小品文,懂了没有。这才是——知道吗——这才是小品文的精髓,知道了没有。祝贺你,贝克先生。"他这番话使我沉浸在十全十美的幸福之中。

Unit 2 Friendship

出租车司机拥有的就剩一封信

——福斯特·弗克洛

他准是完全沉浸在所读的东西里了,因为我不得不敲挡风玻璃来引起他的注意。

他总算抬头看我了。“你出车吗?”我问道。他点点头,当我坐进后座时,他抱歉地说:“对不起,我在读一封信。”听上去他像是得了感冒什么的。

“我不着急,”我对他说,“你接着把信读完吧。”

他摇了摇头。“我已经读了好几遍了。我想我都能背出来了。”

“家书抵万金啊,”我说。“至少对我来说是这样,因为我老是在外旅行。”我估量他有六七十岁了,便猜测说:“是孩子还是孙子写来的?”

“不是家里人,”他回答说。“不过,”他接着说,“想起来,也可以算是一家人了。埃德老伙计是我最老的朋友了。实际上,过去我俩总是以‘老朋友’相称的——就是说,当我俩相见时。我这人就是不大会写东西。”

“我看大家写信都不那么勤快,”我说,“我自己笔头就很懒。我看,你认识他挺久了吧?”

“差不多认识了一辈子了。我俩小时候就一起玩,所以我俩的友谊确实很长了。”

“一起上的学?”

“都一起上到高中呢。事实上,我俩从小学到高中都在一个班里。”

“保持这么长久友谊的人可真不多见啊,”我说。

“其实呢,”司机接着说,“近25到30年来,我跟他一年只见一两次面,因为我从原来住的街区搬了出来,联系自然就少了,虽说你一直放在心上。他在的时候可真是个大好人。”

“你刚才说他‘在的时候’。你是说——?”

他点了点头。“前几个星期过世啦。”

“真遗憾,”我说,“失去朋友真不是个滋味,失去个真正的老朋友更让人受不了。”

他开着车,没有接话儿。我们沉默了几分钟。可我知道他还在想着老埃德。他又开口时,与其说是跟我说话,还不如说是自言自语:“我真该一直保持联系。真的,”他重复道,“我真该一直保持联系。”

“是啊,”我表示赞同,“我们都该与老朋友保持更多的联系。不过总是有事情冒出来,好像就是抽不出空来。”

他耸了耸肩。“我们过去总能抽出空来,”他说。“信里还提到呢。”他把信递给我,“你看看吧。”

“谢谢你,”我说,“不过我不想读你的信。这纯属私事。”

司机耸一耸肩。“老埃德人都死了。没什么私事不私事了。看吧,”他催促说。

信是用铅笔写的。称呼写着“老朋友”,而开头第一句话让我想到自己。“早就想写信了,可就是一拖再拖。”信

里接着写道,他常常回想从前两人住在一个街区时的快乐时光。信里提到些事,可能对司机很重要,比如“那次蒂姆·谢打破窗子,那年万圣节前夕,我们把老帕克先生的大门拴了起来,还有卡尔弗太太老是在放学后把咱俩留下训斥的那阵子”。

“你们俩准是在一起度过了不少时光,”我对他说。

“就跟信里写的那样,”他回答说,“我俩在那个时候能花的只有时间。”他摇头叹道:“时间啊。”

信里接下来的那段我觉得有点凄凉:“信的开头我写着‘老朋友’,因为这么多年来,我们这对老朋友渐渐都老了。我们这些人当中留下的也不多了。”

“你要知道,”我对他说,“信里说我们这些人当中留下的不多了,说得一点不错。比如说,每次我去参加老同学聚会,来的人总是越来越少。”

“时间不饶人啊,”司机说。

“你们俩以前在一起工作吗?”我问他。

“不,不过没成家时我俩总在一起闲荡。后来,两人都成了家,就不时相互串门。可最近这二三十年来,主要就是寄寄圣诞卡了。当然,我俩都总在卡上写几句——通常是关于各自家里的情况,不是吗,孩子们在干些什么,谁搬到哪儿,添了个小孙子,都是这类事——可一直都没正儿八经地写过信什么的。”

“这一处写得好,”我说,“这里写道:‘你多年的友谊对我非常重要,远比我能说出来的重要得多,因为我不擅长说这样的话。’”我颔首称是。“这话准让你听着开心,是吧?”

司机说了句什么,可我没听明白,因为他似乎哽噎得厉害。于是我接着说:“我也真想收到这样一封老朋友的来信。”

我们快到目的地了,于是我跳到最后一段。“因此我想你一定想知道我惦记着你。”信末署名:“老朋友汤姆”。

我们在我的旅店前停下,我把信递了回去。“很高兴能和你聊聊,”我将衣箱从车上提下时说。汤姆?信的署名是汤姆?

“我记得你朋友叫埃德,”我说,“为什么他署名汤姆呢?”

“这封信不是汤姆写给我的,”他解释说,“我是汤姆。这是我在得知他去世前写给他的信。所以我一直没寄出。”

他神情有点悲伤,似乎想看清远处什么东西。“我想我真该早些写这封信。”

我进了旅馆房间之后,没有马上打开箱包。首先我得写封信——而且要寄出去。

Unit 3

公众科学观

——斯蒂芬·霍金

无论我们是否愿意,我们生活的世界在过去一百年间已经变化了许多,而且在未来的一百年里可能变化更多。有人想中止这种种变化,回到那个他们认为更纯洁更朴素的时代。但正如历史所表明的,过去并非那么美妙。过去对享有特权的少数人不算太糟,但即便他们也无从享受现代医疗,而生育对妇女来说风险极大。对占人口大多数的民众而言,生活是艰难、残忍而又短暂的。

不管怎样,即使有人想这么做,他也无法将时钟拨回到早先的时代。知识与技术不可能说忘就忘了。也没有人能阻止未来的进一步发展。即使所有用于研究的政府资金都被取消(现政府最擅此事),竞争的力量仍将继续带来技术的发展。更何况,没有人能阻止探究求索之士去思索基础科学,无论他们是否会为此得到酬劳。惟一能阻止进一步发展的办法或许是一个压制任何新事物的全球政府,但人类的进取心与创造力如此旺盛,即便这个政府也不会成功。它所能做到的只是延缓变化的速度。

如果我们承认,我们无法阻止科学技术改变我们的世界,我们至少可以努力确保科技带来的变化方向正确。在一个民主社会里,这意味着公众需要对科学有一个基本的了解,从而可以作出明达的决定,而不是把决定留给专家去作。目前,公众对科学存有矛盾之心。公众期望科技新发展带来的生活水准的稳定提高能继续,但又怀疑科学,因为他们不懂科学。那个在实验室里设法制造弗兰肯斯泰因的疯狂的科学家的卡通人物清楚地体现了公众的这种怀疑。这也是人们之所以支持各种绿色组织的一个重要因素。但公众同时也对科学深感兴趣,尤其是对天文学,诸如《夜空》之类的电视系列节目观众不少以及科幻小说读者甚多就是明证。

怎么样才能利用这种兴趣,向公众提供所需要的科学知识,以便其在酸雨、温室效应、核武器以及基因工程等问题上作出明达的决定呢?显然,必须把基础建立在学校课程上。但在学校里,科学往往被教得枯燥乏味。孩子们死记硬背应付考试,他们看不出科学与他们的周围世界的联系。更有甚者,科学常常是用公式来教的。虽然公式是

阐述数学概念的一种简单而精确的方式,它们却使大多数人望而生畏。前不久我写了一本通俗读物,当时有人告诫我说,我每使用一个公式就会使销量减半。我只使用了一个公式,即爱因斯坦那个著名的公式,E=mc2。如果不用这个公式的话,也许我能多卖出一倍的书。

科学家和工程师倾向于用公式阐述观点,因为他们需要知道量的精确值。但对我们其余的人来说,对科学概念有个质的认识就已足够,这可以用文字和图表来表述,大可不必使用公式。

人们在学校学到的科学知识可以提供一个基本的框架。但如今科学进步的速度如此之快,一个人离开学校或大学后新的发展层出不穷。我在学校从未学过分子生物学或晶体管,但基因工程和计算机是极有可能改变我们未来生活的两项发展。有关科学的通俗读物和杂志文章能帮助人们了解新发展,但即使是最畅销的科普读物也只有一小部分人阅读。只有电视能赢得真正广大的观众。电视上有一些相当优秀的科学节目,但其他的节目把科学奇迹简单地作为魔术播出,既不加以说明,也不展现它们与科学观念的整体框架的关系。电视科学节目的制片人应该认识到,他们负有教育民众的重任,而不仅仅是为他们提供娱乐。

当今世界充满危险,因此就有了那个令人毛骨悚然的玩笑,说我们尚未受到外星文明造访的原因在于:但凡文明发展到我们目前的程度,它们往往就自我毁灭了。然而我对公众的明智充满信心,因而相信,我们将证明这一说法是错误的。"

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