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Passage 1:







Passage 2:

题目:Exploring the British Village






1. iv

2. v

3. i

4. vii

5. viii

6. ix

7. ii


8. cottage

9. Domesday Book

10. self sufficient

11. remnants

12. defense

13. triangular


Passage 3:

题目: Video-games’ Unexpected Benefits to Human


题型:单选题4 +判断题4+人名配对5




Video Games’ Unexpected Benefits to Human Brain


James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin Madison, played his first video game years ago when his six-year-old son Sam was playing Pajama Sam: No Need to Hide When It’s Dark Outside. He wanted to play the game so he could support Sam’s problem solving. Though Pajama Sam is not an “educational game”, it is replete with the types of problems psychologists study when they study thinking and learning. When he saw how well the game held Sam’s attention, he wondered what sort of beast a mor e mature video game might be.


Video and computer games, like many other popular, entertaining and addicting kid’s activities, are looked down upon by many parents as time wasters, and worse, parents

think that these games rot the brain. Violent video games are readily blamed by the media and some experts as the reason why some youth become violent or commit extreme anti-social behavior. Recent content analyses of video games show that as many as 89% of games contain some violent content, but there is no form of aggressive content for 70% of popular games. Many scientists and psychologists, like James Paul Gee, find that video games actually have many benefits - the main one being making kids smart. Video games may actually teach kids high-level thinking skills that they will need in the future.


“Video games change your brain,” according to University of Wisconsin psychologist Shawn Green. Video games change the brain’s physical structure the same way as do learning to read, playing the piano, or navigating using a map. Much like exercise can build muscle, the powerful combination of concentration and rewarding surges of neurotransmitters like dopamine, which strengthens neural circuits, can build the player’s brain.


Video games give your child’s brain a real workout. In many video games, the skills required to win involve abstract and high level thinking. These skills are not even taught at school. Some of the mental skills trained by video games include: following instructions, problem solving, logic, hand-eye coordination, fine motor and spatial skills. Research also suggests that people can learn iconic, spatial, and visual attention skills from video games. There have been even studies with adults showing that experience with video games is related to better surgical skills. Jacob Benjamin, doctor from Beth Israel Medical Center NY, found a direct

link between skill at video gaming and skill at keyhole or laparoscopic surgery. Also, a reason given by experts as to why fighter pilots of today are more skillful is that this generation’s pilots are being weaned on video games.


The players learn to manage resources that are limited, and decide the best use of resources, the same way as in real life. In strategy games, for instance, while developing a city, an unexpected surprise like an enemy might emerge. This

forces the player to be flexible and quickly change tactics. Sometimes the player does this almost every second of the game giving the brain a real workout. According to researchers at the University of Rochester, led by Daphne Bavelier, a cognitive scientist, games simulating stressful events such as those found in battle or action games could be a training tool for real world situations. The study suggests that playing action video games primes the brain to make quick decisions. Video games can be used to train soldiers and surgeons, according to the study. Steven Johnson, author of Everything Bad is Good For You:How Today’s Popular Culture, says gamers must deal with immediate problems while keeping their long-term goals on their horizon. Young gamers force themselves to read to get instructions, follow storylines of games, and get information from the game texts.



必考的高频替换 增加 / 提高 减少 / 下降 保护 发现 改变 称为 / 名称 方法 惊讶 灭绝 特别 各种 媒体 机会 军事 国际 预测 困难 局限 营养 钱 进化 政府 否定 范围 /数量极限词 程度极限词 频率极限词 顺序极限词Increase improve rise more higher develop boom grow enhance reinforce explosion expand thrive boost benefit surge promote climb advance soar. Decline decrease reduce downward fall drop loss Protect preserve conservation save. Find discover identify spot detect recognize realize Change vary shift modify transform revise alter reform Named called referred to as ,known as, termed, expression Way approach method means access solution Surprising unexpected take aback Extinction ,die out, endangered Special, unusual, not tradition, particular. Various ,a variety of ,diversity, a series of ,a rang of , a array of ,a line of ,a list of ,sorts of ,types of. Media, newspaper, TV,broadcasting,magazine, redio Chance, opportunity, edge Military,war,battle,weapon International ,global, world,cosmopolitan,universal,oversea,not domestic,external. Predict,expect,anticipate. Difficult,demanding,hard,serious condition. Limit, restrict, occupy part of ,confine Nutrition, diet, food, protein, mineral. Cost,profit,investment,price,salary,wage,fund,income,wealth,income,tax,tariff,expense, Budget, Evolve,evolution,develop Government, policy, planner, authority. 显性: not 系列; no 系列 隐形: hardly,too...to, rather than, yet, seldom,rarely,scarcely,be inferior to,flaw,deficient,dis- 系列, mis-系列 . 极限词 Only merely whole completely every all universal wherever cosmopolitan fully entire no one without majority most generally any through Most,ultimately,optimum,must, main,supereme,fully,urgent,dominant,prime,chief,immediate,ultimate . Always remain ,never,invariably,constant,stay. Top,origin,earliest,begin,launch,initial,coin,first.



Next Year Marks the EU's 50th Anniversary of the Treaty A. After a period of introversion and stunned self-disbelief,continental European governments will recover their enthusiasm for pan-European institution-building in . Whether the European public will welcome a return to what voters in two countries had rejected so short a time before is another matter. B. There are several reasons for Europe’s recovering self-confidence. For years European economies had been lagging dismally behind America (to say nothing of Asia), but in the large continental economies had one of their best years for a decade, briefly outstripping America in terms of growth. Since politics often reacts to economic change with a lag,’s improvement in economic growth will have its impact in , though the recovery may be ebbing by then. C. The coming year also marks a particular point in a political cycle so regular that it almost seems to amount to a natural law. Every four or five years, European countries take a large stride towards further integration by signing a new treaty: the Maastricht treaty in 1992, the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997, the Treaty of Nice in . And in they were supposed to ratify a European constitution, laying the ground for yet more integration—until the calm rhythm was rudely shattered by French and Dutch voters. But the political impetus to sign something every four or five years has only been interrupted,not immobilised, by this setback. D. In the European Union marks the 50th anniversary of another treaty—the Treaty of Rome, its founding charter. Government leaders have already agreed to celebrate it ceremoniously, restating their commitment to “ever closer union” and the basic ideals of European unity. By itself, and in normal circumstances, the EU’s 50th-birthday greeting to itself would be fairly meaningless, a routine expression of European good fellowship. But it does not take a Machiavelli to spot that once governments have signed the declaration (and it seems unlikely anyone would be so uncollegiate as to veto


剑桥雅思口语真题解析 Part 1: 1.1姓名 1. What’s your full name? 2. Can I have your name, please? 3. Are there any special meanings of your name? 4. Do you like your name? Why? 5. Do Chinese people like changing their names? 6. What kind of people in China like changing their names? 7. Is there any rule for Chinese people giving names to their children? 1.2故乡 My hometown is Guangzhou. It is the capital of Guangdong province in the southwest of China. It is a large industrial city. It is close to Hong Kong so a lot of the industries involve trade and retail. It is also a finance area. The people in Guangzhou are very genial and helpful, also are very easy to get around. If you lose your way and ask someone, he will give you the direction immediately, he can also give you a hand if you are in trouble. By the year 2011, it is believed that my hometown Guangzhou has become the economic center of China. 2. Where is it located? 3. How about the climate in your hometown? Which season do you like? In my hometown Guangzhou, the four seasons are not evident, which only has spring and summer. It is too hot in the summer and it is also humid in the winter. I like summer better, for we will go swimming and start our outdoor activities in the summer, it gives us pretty environment, which full of various kinds of colors. Another reason is that it is suitable for traveling around. 4. How about the people in your hometown? The people in my hometown Guangzhou are very genial and helpful, also are very easy to get around. People will always give you a hand with things. If you lose your way and ask someone, he will give you the direction immediately, he can also give you a hand if you are in trouble. 5. What do most people do in your hometown? 6. Oh yes. Even though Guangzhou is very modern, it has some interesting temples and streets. There is one called the Temple of Six Banyan Trees and it was built about 1500 years ago. There is also a famous cultural and commercial street in Guangzhou called Beijing Road. In this street, you can not only see a historic exhibition about different years roadbed, which has more than thousand histories, but also has many business shops sale almost all kinds of things. Besides, you can taste traditional snacks and refreshments or experience temples with /unusual special architectural style nearby. Anyway, it is an interesting place so worth to visit! 7. How about the style of the building in your hometown? 8. What is one of the greatest changes having taken place over the years? 9. What problems still exist in your hometown? 10. How to improve the situation in your hometown? 11. Where is Chinese population mainly distributed? 12. What changes have occurred in people’s dwelling? 1.3学习 1. Are you an employee or a student? (Are you working or studying?) 2. What is your major?


2012年9月1日的雅思考试过后,环球雅思也在第一时间整理了完整的2012年9月1日雅思阅读机经,在此次的雅思阅读考试的三篇文章中,其中比较典型的几个题型的TRUE\FALSE\NOT GIVEN、Complete table、多选题、Sentence completion的出题比例依旧比较稳定,可以看到判断TRUE\FALSE\NOT GIVEN还是2012年9月1日雅思阅读机经中的重头戏。 考试日期:2012年9月1日 Reading Passage 1 Title:Man and Machine Question types:段落细节信息配对题填空题summary 文章内容 回顾 关于机器人的,MIT和日本的一些研究 英文原文阅读Types of Robots Humanoid Entertainment Robots ASIMO, manufactured by Honda QRIO, by Sony HOAP(*1) Robot Series (Humanoid for Open Architecture Platform), Manufactured by Fujitsu Toyota Partner Robot, manufactured by Toyota. EMIEW, by Hitachi

Androids Androids are robots designed to strongly resemble humans. Actroid, a realistic female robot demonstrated most prominently at Expo 2005 in Japan Hanako, a humanoid robot designed for dentist training HRP-4C, a humanoid robot with a realistic head and the average figure of a young Japanese female Animal (four legged) robots Aibo playing with kids AIBO is a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Social robots PaPeRo Paro, a robot baby seal intended for therapeutic purposes Wakamaru Guard robots Guardrobo D1 is manufactured by Sohgo Security Services. Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo and TMSUK. Domestic robots SmartPal V, manufactured by Yaskawa Electric

2019-2020-雅思阅读同义词替换(剑八TEST 3)-实用word文档 (2页)

2019-2020-雅思阅读同义词替换(剑八TEST 3)-实用word文档 本文部分内容来自网络整理,本司不为其真实性负责,如有异议或侵权请及时联系,本司将立即删除! == 本文为word格式,下载后可方便编辑和修改! == 雅思阅读同义词替换(剑八TEST 3) 雅思阅读同义词替换 Cambridge 8 TEST 3 1. building = property = construction n .建筑 2. support = back = be behind = in support of = back somebody up v .支持 3. financial support = fund = financial aid 资助 4. stumbling block = difficulty = trouble n .麻烦 5. create = generate = form = produce v .形成 6. direct = guide = lead = instruct = give order / instruction v .指导 7. beam = laser = ray = glow = glare n .光线,激光 8. aim = direct at = purpose = point = idea = objective = goal = target n .目的 9. test in real = field test 实地测试 10. genius = giftedness / talent / intellectual = intelligence = brains = brilliant = wisdom n .天才 11. inherit = run in family = receive = get = be given = be awarded v .继承 12. talent = prodigy = skill = ability = craftsmanship = flair = have a knack = a natural ability to do something well n .才能,技能 13. lessen = minimize = subside = lighten = relieve = ease = allay v .减少



Selling Digital Music without Copy-protection Makes Sense A. It was uncharacteristically low-key for the industry’s greatest showman. But the essay published this week by Steve Jobs, the boss of Apple,on his firm’s website under the unassuming title “Thoughts on Music” has nonetheless provoked a vigorous debate about the future of digital music,which Apple dominates with its iPod music-player and iTunes music-store. At issue is “digital rights management” (DRM)—the technology guarding downloaded music against theft. Since there is no common standard for DRM, it also has the side-effect that songs purchased for one type of music-player may not work on another. Apple’s DRM system, called FairPlay, is the most widespread. So it came as a surprise when Mr. Jobs called for DRM for digital music to be abolished. B. This is a change of tack for Apple. It has come under fire from European regulators who claim that its refusal to license FairPlay to other firms has “locked in” customers. Since music from the iTunes store cannot be played on non-iPod music-players (at least not without a lot of fiddling), any iTunes buyer will be deterred from switching to a device made by a rival firm, such as Sony or Microsoft. When French lawmakers drafted a bill last year compelling Apple to open up FairPlay to rivals, the company warned of “state-sponsored piracy”. Only DRM, it implied, could keep the pirates at bay. C. This week Mr. Jobs gave another explanation for his former defence of DRM: the record companies made him do it. They would make their music available to the iTunes store only if Apple agreed to protect it using DRM. They can still withdraw their catalogues if the DRM system is compromised. Apple cannot license FairPlay to others, says Mr Jobs, because it would depend on them to produce security fixes promptly. All DRM does is restrict consumer choice and provide a barrier to entry, says Mr Jobs; without it there would be far more stores and players, and far more innovation. So, he suggests, why not do away with DRM and sell music unprotected?“This is


雅思阅读判断题型解题方法 雅思阅读板块题型多样,其中判断题是必考题型,本文以剑桥雅思阅读真题为例,和大家解析雅思阅读中判断题型的解题方法。 剑桥雅思阅读真题解析判断题型解题方法 一、判断题题干有表示比较关系的词,考生需注意题目重点考察比较关系。 常见的比较关系词: 比较级:more/ less /adj-er than… 同级比较:as…as…/the same as…/equal/ like 试题中若出现以上比较关系词,需标记题中的比较对象(A 、B),并明确比较逻辑(如A比B更聪明),即可快速完成审题。如: 39. It is easier to find meaning in the field of science than in the field of art. – Test 2, Cambridge IELTS 11 审题步骤: 1.确定比较对象:A – field of science (科学领域)、B – field of art (艺术领域) 2.确定比较逻辑:科学的含义比艺术的含义更容易被人们理解(easier to find meaning)。 除了上述较明显的比较关系词外,出题人还会使用较隐晦的表达阐述比较关系,用以干扰考生的判断。因此,在审题时还需注意下列

具有隐含比较关系的表达: prefer to… compare to/compare with/contrast similar to…/similarly superior to/inferior to unusual 同样,考生在判定题干存在比较关系后,需标记题中的比较对象并明确比较逻辑。如: 35. Teachers say they prefer suggestopedia to traditional approaches to language teaching. – Test 1, Cambridge 7 1.确定比较对象:A –suggestopedia(暗示教学)、B –traditional approaches(传统教学方法) 2.确定比较逻辑:暗示教学比传统教学方法更受老师喜欢(teachers say they prefer)。 二、借助以下2种解题思路辅助解题: 1.题干中A、B存在比较关系但原文A、B不存在比较关系时,答案应为未提及——NOT GIVEN。 先看个简单的例子: 题干:喜茶比星爸爸贵得多。 原文:我的意中人是个盖世英雄,有一天他会踏着七彩祥云,排



考试日期: 8月25日 Reading Passage 1 Title: Dirty But Clean River ---(FLOOD) Question types: TRUE\FALSE\NOT GIVEN 9题 Complete table 5题 文章内容回顾flood对生态群系的重要性,但某处flood愈发减少以致人们不得不模拟flood。 问flood or fire对森林更有害,后面问自从1663年t鱼就开始减少,还有flood最多可到3500每秒,1996的人造flood开始被认为成功了,cube鱼的减少是因为t鱼的引入,人造flood比天然的大,以前flood含有干净的水。 题型难度分析难度偏低,本文只有两种题型,且都是有顺序的题目,降低了做题难度。是非无判断的题量较大,在一定程度上降低了定位的难度。在表格填空题中,还有两道是时间(数字)的定位,难度降低。 题型技巧分析是非无判断题: 解题思路: 1. 关键词定位到原文中与题目出现重复的段落 2. 判断方式不包含任何逻辑推理 TRUE: 是原文中同义近义改写 FALSE: 对于原文信息的直接改写 NOT GIVEN: 原文没有信息,或经过原文信息不能直接推理出来3. 书写应该规范,大写全拼 剑桥雅思推荐原文练习剑桥5-3-2 Disappearing Delta 话题相似剑桥6-2-3 题型相似 Reading Passage 2 Title: graffiti(涂鸦) Question types: Which paragraph contains the following information? 5题连续两个5选2 (4题) Sentence completion 4题 文章内容回顾 graffiti(涂鸦)是艺术还是犯罪,主要讲各种去除涂鸦的方法,不足之处和注意事项 等。 英文原文阅读Graffiti (singular: graffito; the plural is used as a mass noun) is writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface in a public place. Stickers and other adhesives are not considered graffiti, apparently because they are less common. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire.[2] In modern times, paint, particularly spray paint, and marker pens have become


雅思阅读高频词汇 雅思阅读高频词汇表(一)138个 accessible 易于得到的accompany 伴随accurate准确的activate 使活动,刺激adapt 适应adequate充足的affect 影响 alter 改变altitude 高地analyse 分析 anticipate预感,预期apparent明显的approach接近,方法appropriate 恰当的arise 出现,升起 arrange 整理,安排artificial 人造的assess 估计,评定assign指派,指定 attribute 把..归因于,属性authority 权力 available 可用的behave 举止,表现breed 繁殖,引起budget 预算 bully 恐吓burst 爆炸calendar 日历campaign 运动capable 能够的 capacity 容量capture 捕获cargo 货物 chronic 慢性的circumstance 环境,遭遇civil 文明的,民事的,国民的code 代码,法典communal 公用 的community 社会,社区component 元件constant 不断的,永恒的consult 商量,咨询contrast对比core 核心 corporate 全体的,社团的counterpart 与对方地位相当的 人 cure治愈curriculum 课程deduce 演绎,推断depict 描绘derive 得到,起源于 descend 下降,传下来despite 尽管,轻蔑discipline 训练,处罚,纪律distribute 分发dramatic 戏剧的,引人注目的 dynamic 动态的,有生气的ease 安逸,缓和efficient 有能力的element 要素 eliminate 消灭emphasize 强调engage 从事,占用enhance 提高entitle 给予权利,给题名 equivalent 相等的,等价物 evaluate 评价exceed 超过expand 扩张,延伸expose 暴露,揭露external 外面的extract 提 取,摘录 faculty 能力,院系,全体教职员forage 到处搜寻foundation 创办,基础fragile脆弱的fundamental 基本的


雅思阅读8大阅读题型介绍 雅思阅读的题型分类业界并不统一,不过一般可以认为其包括8类。给大家带来了雅思阅读8大阅读题型介绍,希望能够帮助到大家,下面就和大家分享,来欣赏一下吧。 雅思阅读8大阅读题型介绍 雅思阅读题型之一、段落标题(paragraphheadings) 在做雅思阅读*的时候,一般是10个选项,其中包括1-2个段落其标题的例子。要求根据段落中的内容找出与其相匹配的段落标题。正式考试中一般1个选项只能用于1个段落。 雅思阅读题型之二、辨别正误题型(True/false/notgiven) 该题型会涉及到:(notgiven/notmentioned)没有提到,有时还会出现下列提法accurat/inaccurat精确/不精 确;supported/contradicted一致/不一致。correct/incorrect正确与不正确。辨别正误题型属于比较难的题型。通常出现在阅读测试中的第3或第4部分。 规定时间内如果我们完成不能答题,可以选择根据逻辑猜测。这个办法在回答辨别正误(True;false;notgiven)题型时很有效。由于时间有限,很多题是通过此逻辑猜测得出正确答案。

雅思阅读题型之三、回答问题(short-answerquestiontasks) 回答问题是根据所给*或图表回答问题。雅思阅读考试中中通常是出现what、which、when、where、who、whose、whom、why、how等单词。这些单词有时会在答题指引中将所提问题列出。 回答问题答题步骤: 1.仔细查看答题指引,了解回答何种问题。 2.查看例句,确定答题方式。 3.要确定问句的种类,一般疑问句可按正常形式回答,如果是选择疑问句或者是以wh/how开头的问句就一定要具体回答。 4.仔细理解问句所提问题。 5.特别要注意问句中所提问题的关键词语(例如:单数、复数),以及问句中表明数量、时间、地点的词语。 6.将问句中的关键词语与*中相关句子中的词语进行匹配。 7.确定问句与*中相关句子含义是否一致,得出答案。 雅思阅读题型之四、完成图表、示意图题型(table、chartordiagramcompletion)


2019年11月4日雅思阅读机经真题答案及解析 一、考试概述: 本次考试的文章两篇新题一篇旧题,第一篇描述了两个科学家在撒哈拉的发现,研究了古代人的生存方式,第二篇是讲了利用心理学对课堂行为实行研究,第三篇是讲非语言交流的,人类除了用语言交流,其他手势、行为等的非语言形式也很重要 二、具体题目分析 Passage 1: 题目:Human Remain in Green Sahara 题型:判断题4 +简答题3+填空题6 新旧水准:旧题 文章大意:描述了两个科学家在撒哈拉的发现,研究古代人的生存方式。 参考文章: Human Remain in Green Sahara A On October 13,2,000, a small team of paleontologists led by Paul Sereno of the University of Chicago clambered out of three battered Land Rovers, filled their water bottles, and scattered on foot across the toffee-colored sands of the Tenere desert in northern Niger. The Tenere,on the southern flank of the Sahara, easily ranks among the most desolate landscapes on Earth. The Tuareg,turbaned nomads who for centuries have ruled this barren realm, refer to it as a

10月24 号最新雅思阅读机经

10月24 号最新雅思阅读机经 10月刚过去,对于11月将要考雅思的同学来说,10月的雅思真题机经很重要,多了解最近的考试趋势和考试形式有助于考试成绩的提高,郑州培雅雅思培训专注雅思培训多年,对于考试的趋势和预测把握很深,欢迎各位河南地区的同学前来免费咨询。 一、考试概述: 本次考试三篇文章两旧一新,第一篇内容关于娃娃的发展起源,第二篇为人们工作中所接触到的压力,第三篇介绍的是关于一种蜥蜴。对于历史发展类,工作类和生物类的文章大家可以参考剑桥系列中C8T1P1,C10T1P3和C7T3P1进行复习。 二、具体题目分析 Passage 1: 题目:Doll 内容:娃娃的发展起源,材料及制作过程 题型:填空题7+判断题6 参考答案: 1-7 Completion 2000BC 埃及坟墓里经常可以发现由平整的木头制成的娃娃,“头发”由1. clay或木珠子制成,可以追溯到公元前2000多年。 600BC 希腊和罗马,女孩长到不再适合玩娃娃的年纪时,她们就会把娃娃奉献给女神们2. goddesses;公元前600年前娃娃已经有了可活动四肢3. movable limbs和可拆服装。 16-17th century 德国Grodnertal生产许多4. peg wooden dolls(木制挂钩娃娃),这种娃娃有着非常简单的挂钩关节,类似于衣夹。 1700-1800 除了木质娃娃,蜡质娃娃在17和18世纪也很流行。第一个以婴儿为模板的蜡质5.wax娃娃产于19世纪初的英国。

1800-1900 木材的替代品是1800年代发展起来的。纸浆木或纸张6.pulped wood or paper混合而成的合成物被用来制造娃娃的头和身体。 Mid of the 19th 19世纪40年代,德国,法国和丹麦开始制造瓷质娃娃头。19世纪60年代,陶制bisque娃娃取代了7.china娃娃头。 8-13 True/False/Not Given 8. 法国的dolls比德国的bisque dolls more costly—TRUE 9. The first rag doll 是在1850s制造出来的—NOT GIVEN 10. 赛璐璐celluloid娃娃容易掉色easily fade away—TRUE 11. only开头的判断题—FALSE 12. plastic与此前的材料resembled但是can last a longer time—TRUE 13. 待补充 Passage 2: 题目:Stress Level 内容:人类压力 题型:配对题5+选择题3+单选题6 参考文章(仅供参考): Stress of Workplace A How busy is too busy? For some it means having to miss the occasional long lunch; for others it means missing lunch altogether. For a few, it is not being able to take a "sickie" (病假) once a month. Then there is a group of people for whom working every evening and weekend is normal, and frantic is the tempo of their lives. For most senior executives, workloads swing between extremely busy and frenzied. The vice-president of the management consultancy AT Kearney and its head of telecommunications for the Asia-Pacific region, Neil Plumridge, says his work weeks vary from a "manageable" 45 hours to 80 hours, but average 60 hours. B Three warning signs alert Plumridge about his workload: sleep, scheduling and family. He knows he has too much on when he gets less than six hours of sleep for three consecutive nights;