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1-5——————————Unit 1 5-10—————————Unit 2 10-16—————————Unit 3 17-20—————————Unit 4

Unit 1

Part I Pre-Reading Task

Script for the recording:

Ways of learning is the topic of this unit. It is also the topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach Your Children sung by Crosby, Stills and Nash.

Teach Your Children

Crosby, Stills and Nash

You, who are on the road,

Must nave a code that you can live by.

And so, become yourselr,

Because the past is just a goodbye.

Teach your cbildren well,

Their lather's hell did slowly go by.

And reed them on your dreams,

The one they picks, the one you'll mow by.

Don't you ever ash them why, ir they told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.

Appendix I - 93 -

And you, oi tender years,

Can't know the rears that your elders grew by.

Ana so please help them with your youtb,

They seek the truth before tbey can die.

Teacb your parents well,

Tbeir children's bell will slowly go by.

And reed them on your dreams,

Tbe one tbey picks, tbe one you'll know by.

Don t you ever ask them why, ir tbey told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know tbey love you.

The first part of die song is about how parents can inspire their children through sharing with them their dreams, their hopes for a better life. It starts with advice on how you need a set of rules, "a code diat you can live by," to guide you on the road of life. Only then will you be able to fully realise all that is within you and "become yourself." Therefore, parents need to teach their children well.

And children —"you of tender years" —also have something to teach their parents, for learning is not a one-way street. Children should share their own dreams with their parents so that young and old can get to understand each otiier better.

That said, one should not go too far. For some things are perhaps better left unsaid between parents and children. "Don't you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry." At such mo?ments all that there is left to do is to look at one another and sigh, happy in each otiier's love.

Part II Text A Text Organization

1. 1) The text begins with an anecdote/incident.

2) His thoughts are mainly about different approaches to learning in China and the West.

3) The end winds up the text with a suggestion in die form of a question.

Points for Comparison/Contrast Chinese Americans

1) ways to learn to accomplish a task show a child how to do something, or teach by holding his hand teach children that they should rely on themselves for solutions to problems

94 - Appendix I

2) attitudes to creativity and skills give greater priority to

de?veloping skills at an early age, believing creativity can be promoted over time put more emphasis on fos?tering creativity in young children, thinking skills can be picked up later


1) insert 2) on occasion

3) investigate 4) In retrospect

5) initial 6) phenomena

7) attached 8) make up for

9) is awaiting 10) exception

11) not... in the least 12)


13) working on 14) in due course

15) emerged

1) There is a striking contrast between the standard of living in the north of the country and

the south.

2) Natural fiber is said to be superior to synthetic fiber.

3) The city's importance as a financial center has evolved slowly.

4) His nationality is not relevant to whether he is a good lawyer.

5) The poems by a little-known sixteenth-century Italian poet have found their way into some English magazines.

3. 1) Chinese isn't a subject that can be picked up in a month. You can't accomplish your goal of mastering the language unless you work at it for years. Well, it sounds as if I'm exag?gerating the difficulties, but the fact is I'm only telling the truth.

2) The principal is somewhat disappointed with the performance of the children. From what she has gathered, some of the teaching staff have neglected their pupils. She has just announced that strict work regulations have been made and that they apply to both Chinese and overseas teachers.

3) The teacher-directed and the child-directed approaches to teaching art represent two ex?tremes of opinion. Too many

teacher-directed activities cannot be expected to effectively

assisLchildren in learning because of the rigid structure. On the other hand, too many child-directed activities may see a curriculum that is totally unstructured and out of con?trol. There are valid reasons to believe a teacher-guided approach would be a superior way Appendix I - 95 -

to guide children's development. This approach combines some form of structure with the child leading the direction.

II. Confusable Words


1) continual 3) continual 2

1) principal 3) principle 5) principal

2) continuous 4) continuous

2) principal

4) principles

III. Usage

1. themselves

3. herself/by herself/on her own

5. ourselves

2. himself/herself

4. itself

6. yourself/by yourself/on your own

Unit 2

Part I Pre-Reading Task

Script for the recording:

You have heard about Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, haven't you? He came from a poor family, but rose to become one of the most fondly remembered presidents in his country's history. There are many stories about him. Here is one of them.

When Abraham Lincoln was young he worked in a store. As a clerk he proved honest and efficient. One day a woman came into the store and bought some articles. They added up to two dollars and six and a quarter cents, or the young clerk thought they did. The bill was paid, and the woman was entirely satisfied. But the young store-keeper, not feeling quite sure as to the accuracy

of his calculation, added up the items once more. To his dismay he found that the sum total should have been only two dollars. "I've made her pay six and a quarter cents too much," said Abe, disturbed. It was a very small sum, and many clerks would have dismissed it as such. But Abe was too conscien?tious to forget about the overcharge.

"The money must be paid back," he decided. This would have been easy enough had the woman lived just around the corner, but, as the young man knew, she lived two or three miles away. This, however, did not alter the matter. It was night, but he closed and locked the store, and walked to the home of his customer. Having arrived there, he explained

the matter, paid over the six and a quarter cents, and returned satisfied. This anecdote won him a new name: Honest Abe.

Appendix I - 99 -

Part II Text A

lext Organization


Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas

Part One Paras 1-4 The waiter was disappointed to find that the Richest Man in America led so simple a life.

Part Two Paras 5-13 Being friendly, easy-going and never flashy, Walton carries on like plain folks and never wants any special treatment.

Part Three Paras 14-22 With the Wal-Mart team in mind, Walton devotes himself heart and soul to making the business a great success.

2. Character Traits

1) free of self-importance

2) friendly and easy-going

3) never flashy

4) hard working

5) generous


waits in line like everyone else to buy shells at the local Wal-Mart; has no reserved seat in church asks his employees to call him by his first

name steers clear of reporters, dreamers, and schemers; manages to keep himself off the front page attends sales meetings, the executive pep rally set up a college scholarship fund and a disaster relief fund Vocabulary

I. 1. 1) local

3) deserved

5) system

7) remote

2) headlines 4) folks

6) steer clear of 8) get away with


Appendix I

9) open up 10) hold to

11) retire 12) rally

13) reserved 14) qualify

15) cultivate

2. 1) These serious problems deserve careful consideration in restructuring our educational sys-


2) The college is liable to stop her scholarship because of her failure in the final examination.

3) San Francisco is, by all accounts, a city easy to fall in love with.

4) Snow White received such bad treatment from her step-mother that she had to flee from her home.

5) The United States, Canada, and Mexico make up North America.

3. 1) The principal's daughter didn't receive special treatment from her teachers. She was re-

warded for her excellent performance. When she graduated from high school in 1998, she had straight A's and scholarship offers from some of the most famous universities in the country.

2) Our boss is fully aware that his employees feel a lot of loyalty to the company because they are treated right. Besides a handsome pay check and a stock option, he has laid down a system under which employees are granted stock for the

ir retirement.

3) You are liable to be offered a discount or a reduction on things you buy at the local super?market on weekends.

II. Collocation

1. about

3. at/on

5. with

7. from

2. for

4. into 6. to

8. with

III. Usage

1. a savings account

3. a goods train

5. a sales tax

7. a current affairs program

2. arms race

4. communications equipment

6. a customs officer

8. a clothes shop

Appendix I - 101 -

Unit 3

Part I Pre-Reading Task

Script for the recording:

Have you ever heard about the famous American folk musician Bob Dylan? Listen, he's about to sing you a song called The Times They Are A-changin':

The Times They Are A-Changin'

Bob Dylan

Come gather round people

Wherever you roam

And admit that the waters Around you nave grown

And accept it that soon

You'll be drenched to the bone. If your time to you

Appendix I - 105

Is worth savin'

Then you better start swimmin' Or you'll sink like a stone

For the times they are a-changin' . Come writers and critics

Who prophesize with your pen And keep your eyes wide

The chance won't come again And don’t speak too soon

For the wheel's still in spin

And there's no tellin' who

That it s namin’ .

For the loser now

Will be later to win

For the times they are a-changin' . Come senators, congressmen

Please heed the call

Don't stand in the doorway

Don't block up the hall

For he that gets hurt

Will be he who has stalled There's a battle outside

And it is ragin .

It'll soon shake your windows And rattle your walls

For the times they are a-changin' . Come mothers and fathers Throughout the land

And don t criticize

What you can't understand

Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your command


- 106 - Appendix I

Your old road is

Rapidly agin'.

Please get out of the new one

If you can't lend your hand

For the times they are a-ckangin' .

The line it is drawn

The curse it is cast

The slow one now

Will later he fast

As the present now

Will later he past

The order is

Rapidly fadin'.

And the first one now

Will later he last

For the times they are a-changin' .

The song you have just heard was also written by Bob Dylan when a young man in his early twenties. Like many a young man throughout the ages he felt misunderstood by his parents' genera?tion, a generation he was quite happy to blame for all the ills of the world. He saw a gap between young and old, a gap made wider by different attitudes to change, the young welcoming it, the old resisting it. But change is coming whether we like it or not, coming like a flood that no one can escape. So you had better:

... admit that the waters around you have grown

And accept it that soon you'll he drenched to the hone.

For those whose job it is to comment on the news and to predict what will happen next, we live in interesting times.

Come writers and critics

Who prophesize with your pen And keep your eyes wide The chance won't come again

Appendix I - 107 -

But they should not be too quick in predicting what is going to happen. The wheel of fortune is still spinning and those at the bottom of society may find themselves later rising up. And so:

... don't speak too soon For the wheel's still in spin Ana there's no telling who That it' s naming For the loser now Will he later to win Many of Dylan's early songs were, like this one, protest songs, songs aimed against injustice. And so he warns politicians not to stand in the way of those who are fighting for justice, a fight that will

... soon shake your windows And rattle your walls.

He sees his parent's generation as too ready to criticize their children and unable to understand their hopes and dreams:

Come mothers and lathers Throughout the land And don't criticize What you don't understand

Dylan sees the older generation's way of doing things as outdated. If they are unwilling to change their ways then they should step aside and let a new generation take over. As he says to them:

Your old road is

Rapidly a gin

Please get out of the new one

If you can't lend your hand

For the times they are a-changin'

- 106 - Appendix I

Part II Text A

Text Organization

No. Settings

1 A fast-food restaurant

2 The Thompson family dining room

3 An office at a high school


Scenes Main Ideas

Scene One Father embarrassed Sean by talking too proudly to the restaurant Manager.

Scene Two Father embarrassed Diane by persuading a work-mate into pressing his son to ask her to the senior prom.

Scene Three Father embarrassed Heidi by boasting to an official of her new school about how bright she was.


Unit 4

Part I P

re-Reading Task

Script for the recording:

When an idle moment turned up at work, people used to reach for the newspaper, providing the boss wasn't looking. Nowadays they are more likely to spend their spare moments surfing the Internet. Needless to say, the boss is usually no more happier than before, thinking that his staff should be looking for some useful work to do. So what happens to the surfer who hears the boss's footsteps approaching? This is the situation the writer of the poem you are about to hear found himself in. Will he be caught in the act?

Surfing the Internet

Stepping into the lab, I round no one is inside. So I think I'm in the clear Because the boss is nowhere in sight. I log onto the web and start to surf And then my hair stands up with fright.

The footsteps coming down the hall Are quickening in pace. There is no time to exit, No way to save my race.

-So I press the power button

And relax just a bit.

There is no way he can tell

Appendix I -113-

Exactly what I nit.

I act all surprised, Don't know why my machine died. "Simply unpredictable these Computers are!" I cried.

"So we'll get you a new one,

A computer that won't crash" he exclaims.

Do you think he'll wonder

When the new one acts the same?

Part II Text A

Text Organization l.

Contents Paragraphs

1. Description of the author's virtual life 2-3

2. How she feels about it after staying on the Net for a while 1,4-10, 13

3. What she does to return to the real world 11

4. How she feels about the real world 12

2. The first paragraph tells about the consequences of living a virtual life and the last tells about the author's return to it. Together, they show us the dilemma people at present are in: Because of modern technology, we have a choice between a virtual life and real life, but we find both unsat?isfactory. The author, however, finally has to choose the latter despite its negative effects.

- 114 - Appendix I

2) relationship

4) symptom

6) abusing

8) took (her) in 10) communicate 12) insight

14) data


I. 1. 1) conversely

3) but then

5) spitting

7) tone

9) editing

11) Internet

13) stretched

15) angles

2. 1) The sight of teenagers smoking cigarettes jars on me.

2) I turned on the TV just to relax a little bit after a heavy dinner, but soon I found myself getting sucked in by the fascinating plot of a science fiction film.

3) Jeffrey's computer crashed again this morning. The manager has arranged for a technician from the computer store to check and repair it.

4) During the Vietnam War, many young Americans fled their country to avoid military ser?vice.

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