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B. 套话、惯用语或文言句式的转换:翻译时一般应遵循译入语的习惯,尽量找到对应的惯用表达。(汉语多用四字结构)汉译英时可套用英语的程式化的、特别正式的词语,以保译文和原文意义和风格的一致。

●(15) Thank you for your kind consideration.


●(16) The extreme shortage of recent goods made us feel regretful being unable to offer the




●I venture to invite you to have a look at our stand, and you may rest assured that you will

not be pressed to buy.



●Notice is hereby given that HAIER Co., Ltd. Will take all necessary measures against any

party manufacturing and/or selling any products bearing the trade mark of "HAIER"

without being authorized.


●Party A agrees to pay to Party B an amount hereinafter called royalty equal to 5% of the

gross sales.



●Yueyang Fishing Corporation (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Xiamen Seafood Co.

Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Party B) have reached the following agreement after friendly consultation and negotiation.

●An Enquiry for Quotation of Hand-made Gloves (1)


●Dear Sirs, (2)


●We learn from Thomsa H. Pennie of New York that you are producing hand-made

gloves in a variety of artificial leathers.(3) There is a steady demand here for gloves of high quality at moderate(4) price.



●Will you please send me a copy of your glove catalogue, with details of your prices and

terms of payment? I should find it most helpful if you could supply samples of these gloves.(5)



●Yours faithfully,

●X X X

●XXX 敬上

● A Reply to the Enquiry of Hand-made Gloves


●Dear Sir,

●We welcome your enquiry of 2nd April and thank you for your interest in our

products.(6) A copy of our illustrated catalogue is being sent to you today, with samples of our products.(7)




●Mr. Smith, our overseas director, will be in Rome early next month and will be glad to

call on you.(8) He will have with him a wide range of our manufactures, and when you see them we think you will agree that the quality of the materials used, and the high standard of craftsmanship will appeal to the most selective buyers.(9)



●We also manufacture a wide range of hand-made leather shoes in which we think you

may be interested. They are fully illustrated in the catalogue and are of the same high quality as our gloves.(10) Mr. Smith will be able to show you samples when he calls.(11) ●本公司还生产多种多样手制皮鞋,你们或许也感兴趣。其优质水平与手套无异,


●We hope the samples will reach you in good time and look forward to your order.(12) ●Yours faithfully,

●X X X


●X X X 敬上


●Proposing a Toast


●Beloved ladies, Gentlemen and Friends,



●First of all, on behalf of our company, let me extend a warm welcome to the members

of the American Delegation who have been invited to (visit) this country by this company.



●I think that your visit will promote the rapid development of our business relations.

Since my return from the United States last September, our exchanges have been very fruitful. Your visit in Changsha shows a further step in our cooperation. Mr. Brown has done a lot in this respect. I’m much honored to host the dinner for you all tonight.




●We really appreciate Mr. Brown’s effort in coming to Changsha to talk about the

feasibility of a joint venture. We look forward to the success of our mutual collaboration.

China has a long way to go to realize its modernization. Thank you for your offer to help us create a stronger China in the near future. We’d like to promote our cooperation and make it profitable for both sides in the spirit of mutual benefit and equality and supplying each other’s needs.



●Now, please join me in toasting to the health of Mr. Brown, to everybody else present,

to the success of our relationship. Cheers!

The genre characteristics of the texts concerning Politics and Law

A.Strict and accurate diction;

“交还” "restore" not "return"

B. New words and new concept.

E.g. 农转非agricultural people to be given non-agricultural status, “三个代表” Three Represents; “三讲”教育three emphases education

C. Chinese sentences have the characteristics of non-subject sentence, while in English we should supply the appropriate subject.

(1) 实施扩大内需的方针,适时采取积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策,克服亚洲金融危机和世界经济波动对我国的不利影响,保持了经济较快增长。

By pursuing the principle of stimulating domestic demand and adopting the proactive fiscal policy and the sound monetary policy in good time, we overcame the adverse effects the Asian financial crisis and world economic fluctuations had on China, and maintained a relatively rapid economic growth.

D. English sentences are subject projected while Chinese sentences are theme projected.


We should be bolder than before in conducting reform and opening to the outside and have the courage to experiment. We must not act like women with bound feet.


Once we are sure that something should be done, we should dare to experiment and break a new path.

4. Explaining the translation method.

A. Ways of dealing with the redundant elements in Chinese sentence:


“财政赤字” (financial) deficit, “广大人民群众” (broad) mass (of the people), “进一步提高” (further) improve


Since the beginning of reform and opening up, we have pressed on with political restructuring and improved socialist democracy.



It is essential to improve policies toward the cultural industry, support its development and enhance its overall strength and competitiveness.

B. Demonstrating with examples the skills of transforming Chinese "theme+rheme" sentence pattern into English "subject+predicate" sentence.

翻译汉语“主题+述题”及无主句时,关键就在通过变换或增添、拆合、反译等为译句物色一个恰当的主语,以便再现原文的严格逻辑。一般可用we, 泛指主语one,用it充当形式主语,译成被动结构或其他特殊的处理技巧。


In conceiving and implementing a major reform, we will fully consider if the country’s financial resources, the enterprises and the people are able to sustain its impact.


In the course of development, we will steadfastly give priority to education and devote more energy and financial resources to accelerating its development.

About the Human Rights

The worldwide championing of human rights is not an attempt to impose alien values on citizens of other countries or to interfere in their internal affairs.(1)



The Universal Declaration calls upon "every individual and every organ of society...to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance..."(2)

《世界人权宣言》呼吁“每一个人和社会机构......促进对权利和自由的尊重,并通过国家的和国际的渐进措施,确保这些权利和自由......得到普遍而有效的承认和遵行”。President Bush has committed the United States to working with other democracies and men and women of goodwill across the globe to reach a historic long-term goal:" the end of tyranny in our world."(3)


To be sure, violations of human rights and miscarriages of justice(4) can and do occur in democratic countries. No governmental system is without flaws.


Human rights conditions in democracies across the globe vary widely, and these country reports (5) reflect that fact. In particular, democratic systems with shallow roots and scarce resources can fall far short of (6) meeting their solemn commitments to citizen, including human rights commitments.


Democratic transitions can be tumultuous and wrenching. Rampant corruption can retard democratic development, distort judicial processes, and destroy public trust.(7)


Nonetheless, taken overall, countries with democratic systems provide far greater protections against violations of human rights than do nondemocratic states.

但总体而言,民主制国家为人权免遭侵犯所提供的保护措施要远胜于非民主制国家The United States' own journey toward liberty and justice for all has been long and difficult, and it is still far from complete(8).


Yet over time our independent branches of government, our free media, our openness to the world, and, most importantly, the civic courage of impatient American patriots help us keep faith with our founding ideals and our international human rights obligations.(9)



The Master Work Plan for 2005


This year is crucial for accomplishing all the tasks of the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2001-2005) and for laying a solid foundation for development during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010).


The basic ideas for the work of the government this year are: to take Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Three Represents as our guide; to conscientiously put into practice the guidelines of the Sixteenth National Congress of the Party and the Third and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the Sixteenth Central Committee;

to continue to guide overall economic and social development by a scientific outlook on development; to strengthen and improve macroregulation; to make the reform and opening up the driving force for all our work; to build a harmonious socialist society; and to promote the simultaneous progress of socialist material, political and spiritual civilization.