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Unit 1 Urban Agriculture的



Urban forestry involves (refers to / is concerned with) forestry activities introduced from wildness and countryside to populous cities where economy, culture, industry and business (commerce) are aggregated (clustered). Most metropolitan cities are currently prosperous but noisy (clamorous) with deteriorating ecological environment. People living in such a crowded and narrow space suffer from a worsening physical quality. To develop urban forestry can beautify living places, purify air, reduce noise and adjust local climate (microclimate), so that the living quality of urban people can be improved. Generally, urban forestry has provided a new approach to the urban environmental problems.


B. 社区的物质框架结构被称为它的基础设施。这些在城市里发挥作用的庞然大物可以被分为绿色和灰色两种。绿色结构是为乔木、灌木、草地所覆盖的区域,而灰色结构指建筑、道路、公用事业设备、停车场的所在。绿色结构是渗水的,土壤让水渗进去,自然地过滤掉污染物,然后水进入河流。灰色结构却不能穿透,它迫使水走向地面,入河之前一定要经过处理和清洁。



Unit 2 Forestry Management的



With the development of both economy and civilization in human society, people have

greatly improved their knowledge and understanding about forests. They therefore have also dramatically changed their social demands for forestry. As a result, more world attention has been widely paid to the function that forests play to maintain and improve environment. In 1992, UN Conference on Environment and Development bestowed priority on forestry and it became a political promise of the highest rank. In addition, it was particularly emphasized in the meeting that nothing has been more important than forestry among the problems that the world summit conferences will deal with. It is a distinct milestone in world civilization history to place forestry issues at such a high position.


有关全球热带森林遭到乱砍滥伐、令人痛心的报道层出不穷,但是痛陈现存林木状况的报道却少之又少。事实上,联合国分支机构——国际热带木材组织(ITTO )新近开展的一项研究,首次对热带森林管理现状进行深入调查。其发现虽然令人沮丧,但从中我们还是看到了一线希望。

ITTO 调查的对象是“永久性森林地产”,也就是被ITTO 所属33 个成员国政府正式划作森林地域,从而受到某种形式的管理或保护的土地。它涉及国家森林公园和木材的特许经营,包括国营和私营。地产总面积达8.14 亿公顷,约占全球热带森林面积的三分之二。

此项研究报告的作者之一邓肯· 玻尔解释说,这一概念意义重大,因为我们不可能,也不值得对每一片濒临消失的小树林都一直进行保护以避免其被农田或住宅侵占。相反,政府应当集中精力养护好那些最具有商业和科学价值的森林。可是ITTO 的研究人员却发现,在“永久性森林地产”中,仅15% 有着相应的管理方案,而能坚持贯彻执行这一方案的不到5%。报告中提到,自1988 年以来,森林管理取得了显著的进展,因为这不足5% 的面积总共仍相当于一个德国的大小。当年一项粗略的早期调查发现,热带地区国家中只有特立尼达和多巴哥对森林管理较为完善。但是,相对于同期已然消亡的森林而言,这片管理得当的森林显得无足轻重。

Unit 3 Biodiversity的




China is one of the countries boasting the richest biodiversity and also one of the earliest adopting the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Chinese Government has highly valued the work of biodiversity conservation by formulating and enforcing a series of related laws and regulations, so that a legal system on the conservation and biodiversity has fundamentally formed. In addition, it has established and consolidated the coordination mechanism on the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as the scheme of Inter-ministerial Joint Meeting on biological species

resources, laid down and issued the National Action Plan on the Conservation of Biodiversity of China and other related plans in this regard, based on which various relevant sectors have mapped out and executed their own action plans.


在今年举办生物多样性国际日纪念活动,适逢今年是2011 国际森林年。联合国大会宣布今年为2011 国际森林年,是为了让全球社会了解森林的价值以及失去森林将产生的极端社会、经济和环境成本。


Unit 4 Wetlands的


中国有很多湿地,并且其中很多还是世界上非常重要的湿地资源,中国的黄海湿地就是其中之一。它位于江苏盐城,是很多种鸟类和动物的家园。其中有世界最大的麋鹿保护区,超过700只麋鹿自由地生活在那里。世界上仅存很少的丹顶鹤,是每年冬天你在黄海湿地的丹顶鹤自然保护区都能看见它们的一些身影。湿地的温度不是太高也不是太低,并且雨量充足,日照充裕,的确是野生动物的天堂。There are many wetlands in China and some of them have become the world’s important wetlands. The Chinese Yellow Sea Wetlands are among them. They are in Yancheng, Jiangsu

Provinc e. They are home for many different kinds of birds and animals. The world’s largest milu deer nature reserve is located in them. More than 700 milu deer live freely there. There are not many red-crowned cranes in the world, but every winter you can see some in the Red-Crowned Cranes Nature Reserve in the Yellow Sea Wetlands. The temperature in the wetlands is usually neither too high nor too low. There is a lot of rain and sunshine, too. They are really good places for wildlife.



湿地曾被当作荒芜之地。在过去的大约一百年中,人们把湿地的水抽干填平,然后在上面建筑房屋,兴建城市,修建道路。几千亩的湿地被抽干,改造成了农田。湿地的另一威胁来自化学、农药等的污染。科学家推测,自1900 年以来,大约丧失了50% 的湿地,而仅存的湿地也将或正在恶化。

Unit 5 Agricultural Technology的




Agriculture still has the responsibility to feed the world in spite of the serious challenge of climate change. Agriculture needs to produce more food, waste less, and make it easier for farmers to get their produce to consumers. Besides, agriculture has to find ways/approaches/methods to reduce negative impacts resulted from environmental change - including lowering greenhouse gas emissions, planning/managing food security and rural development as a whole, etc. Only through the development of agricultural high technology can the above be realized/All these are only possible through the development of agricultural high technology.


无土栽培或水培法是一种在营养液(含有营养物质的水)中栽培植物的技术,它可以使用或不使用人工基质(如沙、砾石、蛭石、岩棉、珍珠岩或锯末)为植物提供支持。水培法一词源于希腊词汇hydro (水)和ponos (劳作)的结合。


Unit 6 Low-Carbon Agriculture的



Chinese agriculture has to undergo a low-carbon development with characteristics of being resources-saving, production-clean, environment-friendly and quality-efficiency-oriented. Therefore, in terms of technology, great efforts must be made to develop a series of key technologies and promote/polarize/generalize/spread their practical application. For example, resources-saving technology including energy-saving, soil-saving, water-saving, fertilizer-saving, insecticides-saving, seeds-saving, materials-saving and labor-saving techniques, and so on, technology of reducing the use of agricultural chemicals and developing their substitutes, technology of cultivating new plant species with a high light absorption and carbon sequestration, technology of sequestratrating soil carbon, technology of developing clean energies, clean environment-friendly production technology, technology of nuisance-free proposal and reclamation of wastes, and so on.

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