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Unit 1
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording:
Ways of learning is the topic of this unit. It is also the topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach Your Children sung by Crosby, Stills and Nash.
Teach Your Children
Crosby, Stills and Nash
You, who are on the road,
Must nave a code that you can live by.
And so, become yourselr,
Because the past is just a goodbye.
Teach your cbildren well,
Their lather's hell did slowly go by.
And reed them on your dreams,
The one they picks, the one you'll mow by.
Don't you ever ash them why, ir they told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.

Appendix I - 93 -

And you, oi tender years,
Can't know the rears that your elders grew by.
Ana so please help them with your youtb,
They seek the truth before tbey can die.
Teacb your parents well,
Tbeir children's bell will slowly go by.
And reed them on your dreams,
Tbe one tbey picks, tbe one you'll know by.
Don t you ever ask them why, ir tbey told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know tbey love you.

The first part of die song is about how parents can inspire their children through sharing with them their dreams, their hopes for a better life. It starts with advice on how you need a set of rules, "a code diat you can live by," to guide you on the road of life. Only then will you be able to fully realise all that is within you and "become yourself." Therefore, parents need to teach their children well.
And children — "you of tender years" — also have something to teach their parents, for learning is not a one-way street. Children should share their own dreams with their parents so that young and old can get to understand each otiier better.
That said, one should not go too far. For some things are perhaps better left unsaid between parents and children. "Don't you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry." At such mo?ments all that there is left to do is to look at one another and sigh, happy in each otiier's love.
Part II Text A Text Organization
1. 1) The text begins with an anecdote/incident.
2) His thoughts are mainly about different approaches to learning in China and the West.
3) The end winds up the text with a suggestion in die form of a question.

Points for Comparison/Contrast Chinese Americans
1) ways to learn to accomplish a task show a child how to do something, or teach by holding his hand teach children that they should rely on themselves for solutions to problems

94 - Appendix I

2) attitudes to creativity and skills give greater priority to de?veloping skills at an early age, believing creativity can be promoted over time put more emphasis on fos?tering creativity in young children, thinking skills can be picked up later

1) insert 2) on occasion
3) investigate 4) In retrospect
5) initial 6) phenomena
7) attached 8) make up for
9) is awaiting 10) exception
11) not... in the least 12)

13) working on 14) in due course
15) emerged
1) There is a striking contrast between the standard of living in the north of the country and
the south.
2) Natural fiber is said to be superior to synthetic fiber.
3) The city's importance as a financial center has evolved slowly.
4) His nationality is not relevant to whether he is a good lawyer.
5) The poems by a little-known sixteenth-century Italian poet have found their way into some English magazines.
3. 1) Chinese isn't a subject that can be picked up in a month. You can't accomplish your goal of mastering the language unless you work at it for years. Well, it sounds as if I'm exag?gerating the difficulties, but the fact is I'm only telling the truth.
2) The principal is somewhat disappointed with the performance of the children. From what she has gathered, some of the teaching staff have neglected their pupils. She has just announced that strict work regulations have been made and that they apply to both Chinese and overseas teachers.
3) The teacher-directed and the child-directed approaches to teaching art represent two ex?tremes of opinion. Too many teacher-directed activities cannot be expected to effectively assisLchildren in learning because of the rigid structure. On the other hand, too many child-directed activities may see a curriculum that is totally unstructured and out of con?trol. There are valid reasons to believe a teacher-guided approach would be a superior way

Appendix I - 95 -
to guide children's development. This approach combines some form of structure with the child leading the direction.

II. Confusable Words
1) continual 3) continual 2
1) principal 3) principle 5) principal

2) continuous 4) continuous
2) principal
4) principles

III. Usage
1. themselves
3. herself/by herself/on her own
5. ourselves

2. himself/herself
4. itself
6. yourself/by yourself/on your own

1. 1) Simon's ill — so much so that he can't get out of bed.
2) She herself believed in freedom, so much so that she would rather die than live without it.
3) Piles of work have kept us busy — so much so that we can't manage to take a holiday this year.
4) Many contestants later failed drug tests, so much so that the race had to be rerun.
2. 1) Assuming (that) this painting really is a Picasso
2) Assuming (that) the proposal is accepted
3) assuming, of course, that she's prepared to listen
4) Even assuming (that) smokers do see the health warnings
Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze
1. contrast 2. exaggerating
3. priority 4. on the other hand
5. promoting 6. pick up
7. assist 8. accomplish
9. on occasion 10. neglecting

- 96 - Appendix I
11. worthwhile 12. superior
1. to 2. affect/influence
3. others 4. each/them
5. without 6. controlled
7. about 8. value
9. They 10. little
11. right 12. but
13. in 14. what
15. worth 16. and
II. Translation
I consider it worthwhile trying to summarize our experience

in learning English. Here I would like to make three relevant points.
First, wide reading should be taken as a priority in the learning process, because it is through reading that we get the most language input. Next, learning by heart as many well-written essays as possible is also very important. On the one hand, rote learning/learning by rote is indeed of little help, but on the other hand, memorization/learning by heart with a good understanding will cer?tainly be of benefit/do good to us. With an enormous store of excellent essays in our heads, we will find it much easier to express ourselves in English. Finally, it is critical that we should put what we have learned into practice. By doing more reading, writing, listening and speaking, we will be able to accomplish the task of perfecting our English.
Part III TextB
Comprehension Check
1. c 2. c
3. d 4. a
5. c 6. b
(#ja Appendix III)

Appendix I - 97 -

Language Practice
1. adopt
3. plus
5. furthermore
7. annual
9. pace
11. on demand
13. perspective 15. fell apart
17. access
19. deposit
2. account
4. ended up
6. fund
8. keeping track of
10. intends
12. devise
14. undoubtedly
16. protest
18. resources
20. from your point of view
Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Model paper
How I Learn at College
I went to school in a small town near Chengdu and now I am studying law at Fudan University in Shanghai. Passing from one to the other you have to get used to many new things, not the least being the different way of learning.
At school I found my timetable full throughout the day. One lesson came close on the heels of
another with little time to call one's own. At university, in contrast, only a few hours of each day are
taken up with classes or lectures. In the time made available you are expected to learn on your own.
When and where is up to you. At the same time what you are meant to learn shifts from memorizing
masses of facts to developing an ability to understand theories and present arguments. There are, of
course, still facts to be learned. One should not exaggerate the differences. Nevertheless, learning at
university certainly teaches me greater self-reliance and to think for myself. (169 words)

- 9& - Appendix I
Unit 2
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording:
You have heard about Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, haven't you? He came from a poor family, but rose to become one of the most fondly remembered presidents in his country's history. There are many stories about him. Here is one of them.
When Abraham Lincoln was young he worked in a store. As a clerk he proved honest and efficient. One day a woman came into the store and bought some articles. They added up to two dollars and six and a quarter cents, or the young clerk thought they did. The bill was paid, and the woman was entirely satisfied. But the young store-keeper, not feeling quite sure as to the accuracy

of his calculation, added up the items once more. To his dismay he found that the sum total should have been only two dollars. "I've made her pay six and a quarter cents too much," said Abe, disturbed. It was a very small sum, and many clerks would have dismissed it as such. But Abe was too conscien?tious to forget about the overcharge.
"The money must be paid back," he decided. This would have been easy enough had the woman lived just around the corner, but, as the young man knew, she lived two or three miles away. This, however, did not alter the matter. It was night, but he closed and locked the store, and walked to the home of his customer. Having arrived there, he explained the matter, paid over the six and a quarter cents, and returned satisfied. This anecdote won him a new name: Honest Abe.

Appendix I - 99 -
Part II Text A
lext Organization

Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas
Part One Paras 1-4 The waiter was disappointed to find that the Richest Man in America led so simple a life.
Part Two Paras 5-13 Being friendly, easy-going and never flashy, Walton carries on like plain folks and never wants any special treatment.
Part Three Paras 14-22 With the Wal-Mart team in mind, Walton devotes himself heart and soul to making the business a great success.

2. Character Traits
1) free of self-importance
2) friendly and easy-going
3) never flashy
4) hard working
5) generous

waits in line like everyone else to buy shells at the local Wal-Mart; has no reserved seat in church asks his employees to call him by his first name steers clear of reporters, dreamers, and schemers; manages to keep himself off the front page attends sales meetings, the executive pep rally set up a college scholarship fund and a disaster relief fund

I. 1. 1) local
3) deserved
5) system
7) remote

2) headlines 4) folks
6) steer clear of 8) get away with


Appendix I

9) open up 10) hold to
11) retire 12) rally
13) reserved 14) qualify
15) cultivate
2. 1) These serious problems deserve careful consideration in restructuring our educational sys-
2) The college is liable to stop her scholarship because of her failure in the final examination.
3) San Francisco is, by all accounts, a city easy to fall in love with.
4) Snow White received such bad treatment from her step-mother that she had to flee from her home.
5) The United States, Canada, and Mexico make up North America.
3. 1) The principal's daughter didn't receive special treatment from her teachers. She was re-
warded for her excellent performance. When she graduated from high school in 1998, she had straight A's and scholarship offers from some of the most famous universities in the country.
2) Our boss is fully aware that his employees feel a lot of loyalty to the company because they are treated right. Besides a handsome pay check and a stock option, he has laid down a system under which employees are granted stock for the

ir retirement.
3) You are liable to be offered a discount or a reduction on things you buy at the local super?market on weekends.

II. Collocation
1. about
3. at/on
5. with
7. from

2. for
4. into 6. to
8. with

III. Usage
1. a savings account
3. a goods train
5. a sales tax
7. a current affairs program

2. arms race
4. communications equipment
6. a customs officer
8. a clothes shop

Appendix I - 101 -
1. 1) Only by rewarding success can you bring out the best in your employees.
2) Only by working at evenings and weekends was Mary able to complete the report by the deadline.
3) Only when I myself became a mother did I realize the value of my parents' advice.
4) Only after they had finished watching the football game did they begin to prepare for the math examination.
2. 1) The young woman described to the policemen the way the man ran up to her and grabbed the
bag from her hand.
2) All the people working for Sam Walton admire the way he manages Wal-Mart and the way he treats his employees.
3) The neighbors were disgusted at the way he talked to his old father.
4) It's amazing the way the eight-year-old boy managed to stay so calm when he faced the emergency.

Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze
1. cheerful
3. executive
5. reward
7. loyalty
9. qualified
11. folks
1. from
3. spent
5. through
7. built
9. led/lived
11. millionaires 13. answer
15. by

2. threw his weight around
4. treatment
6. cultivate
8. stock
10. scholarships 12. local
2. their
4. away
6. to
8. who
10. it
12. then
14. wealth
16. character


- 102 - Appendix I
II. Translation
George was on the run since the moment he came aboard. He was always cheerful and devoted himself heart and soul to his work. Because of his excellent performance he was pro?moted to CEO. From then on he tried hard to blend in with the workers and never threw his weight around. He also laid down/ introduced a reward system to encourage the workers to work hard. He believed that loyalty and hard work would greatly contribute to the success of the company. By all accounts he was an outstanding chief executive officer.
Part III TextB
Comprehension Check

l.c 3. a 5. d

2. b 4. d 6. c

(#JE Appendix III)

Language Practice
1. replace
3. selected
5. conducted
7. additional
9. confronted
11. crisis
13. resolve
15. appeals to
17. In the opinion of
19. factors

2. take ... on
4. involved
6. range
8. tremendous
10. call... in
12. naturally
14. related
16. former
18. of their choice
20. project

Appendix 1


Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Model paper Informal invitation
1324 ShuiDian Road Shanghai 200434 21/11/01 Dear Tom,
I'm having a party to celebrate my birthday in a couple of weeks time on Saturday 2nd December, starting at seven. It would be lovely if you could make it, please let me know whether you ca

n or not.
Best wishes,
Informal acceptance

Dear Bob,
I'd love to come to your party then. and help celebrate your birthday. Look forward to seeing you
Bye for now,

- 104 - Appendix I
Informal regrets

Dear Bob,
I'd love to come to your party but unfortunately I've already agreed to make a visit to my
relatives in Suzhou that weekend and won't be able to get away. 3ut I hope you have a lovely
birthday and that we can get together some time soon. All the best,

Unit 3
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording:
Have you ever heard about the famous American folk musician Bob Dylan? Listen, he's about to sing you a song called The Times They Are A-changin':
The Times They Are A-Changin'
Bob Dylan
Come gather round people
Wherever you roam
And admit that the waters
Around you nave grown
And accept it that soon
You'll be drenched to the bone.
If your time to you

Appendix I - 105
Is worth savin'
Then you better start swimmin'
Or you'll sink like a stone
For the times they are a-changin' .
Come writers and critics
Who prophesize with your pen
And keep your eyes wide
The chance won't come again
And don’ t speak too soon
For the wheel's still in spin
And there's no tellin' who
That it s namin’ .
For the loser now
Will be later to win
For the times they are a-changin' .
Come senators, congressmen
Please heed the call
Don't stand in the doorway
Don't block up the hall
For he that gets hurt
Will be he who has stalled
There's a battle outside
And it is ragin .
It'll soon shake your windows
And rattle your walls
For the times they are a-changin' .

Come mothers and fathers
Throughout the land
And don t criticize
What you can't understand
Your sons and your daughters
Are beyond your command


- 106 - Appendix I
Your old road is
Rapidly agin'.
Please get out of the new one
If you can't lend your hand
For the times they are a-ckangin' .
The line it is drawn
The curse it is cast
The slow one now
Will later he fast
As the present now
Will later he past
The order is
Rapidly fadin'.
And the first one now
Will later he last
For the times they are a-changin' .
The song you have just heard was also written by Bob Dylan when a young man in his early twenties. Like many a young man throughout the ages he felt misunderstood by his parents' genera?tion, a generation he was quite happy to blame for all the ills of the world. He saw a gap between young and old, a gap made wider by different attitudes to change, the young welcoming it, the old resisting it. But change is coming whether we like it or not, coming like a flood that no one can escape. So you had better:
... admit that the waters around you have grown
And accept it that soon you'll he drenched to the hone.
For those whose job it is to comment on the news and to predict what will happen next, we live in interesting times.
Come writers and critics

Who prophesize with your pen And keep your eyes wide The chance won't come again

Appendix I - 107 -

But they should not be too quick in predicting what is going to happen. The wheel of fortune is still spinning and those at the bottom of society may find themselves later rising up. And so:
... don't speak too soon For the wheel's still in spin Ana there's no telling who That it' s naming For the loser now Will he later to win
Many of Dylan's early songs were, like this one, protest songs, songs aimed against injustice. And so he warns politicians not to stand in the way of those who are fighting for justice, a fight that will

... soon shake your windows And rattle your walls.
He sees his parent's generation as too ready to criticize their children and unable to understand their hopes and dreams:
Come mothers and lathers Throughout the land And don't criticize What you don't understand
Dylan sees the older generation's way of doing things as outdated. If they are unwilling to change their ways then they should step aside and let a new generation take over. As he says to them:
Your old road is
Rapidly a gin
Please get out of the new one
If you can't lend your hand
For the times they are a-changin'

- 106 - Appendix I
Part II Text A
Text Organization

No. Settings
1 A fast-food restaurant
2 The Thompson family dining room
3 An office at a high school
Scenes Main Ideas
Scene One Father embarrassed Sean by talking too proudly to the restaurant Manager.
Scene Two Father embarrassed Diane by persuading a work-mate into pressing his son to ask her to the senior prom.
Scene Three Father embarrassed Heidi by boasting to an official of her new school about how bright she was.
I. 1. 1) swallow 2) dumb
3) Overall 4) glorious
5) welfare 6) repeatedly
7) interference 8) fading
9) junior 10) frank
11) distract 12) at any rate
13) has narrowed down 14) in unison
15) has come over
2. 1) The security council consists of five generals and four police officers.
2) The new hotel will be in a location overlooking the lake.

Appendix I - 109 -
3) I was embarrassed by her comments about my clothes.
4) Do you have any proof that it was Henry who stole the computer?
5) The boy was exhausted after the long cycle ride.
3. 1) That exceptional stamp was handed down by your grandfather , and is worth a fortune. You should have known better than to trade it for a few drinks.
2) Company executives are always looking out for talented college graduates to hire as junior employees.
3) The doctor in charge of his case asked him to fill out one form after another, but kept him in suspense as to what they were for.
II. Collocation
1. adequate 2. anxious
3. certain 4. content
5. crazy 6. likely
7. fortunate 8. keen
III. Usage
1. be admitted 2. live
3. be postponed 4. buy
5. be banned 6. be
1. 1) I do whatever I can 2) Whatever does that mean
2. 3) Whatever had happened 4) Whatev

er it is that you like
3. 1) You ought to know better than to go swimming right after lunch.

2) Aunt Betty certainly knows better than to invest all her money in one company's stock.
3) Jenny is old enough to know better than to spend all her time playing computer games.
4) Allen should have known better than to lend such a large sum of money to that untrustworthy cousin of his.
? ■ ■
Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze
1. welfare 2. constant

- 110 - Appendix I

3. frank 4. talent
5. embarrassing 6. dumb
7. repeatedly 8. constant
9. interference 10. bet
11. Overall 12. trade
1. send 2. should
3. picture 4. His
5. as 6. worse
7. too 8. consider
9. But 10. However
11. from 12.it13. jacket 14. after
15. never
II. Translation
George, the son of Mr. Johnson, liked listening to heavy metal music in the evenings, and the noise interrupted the sleep of other residents in the community. Eventually the exhausted neigh?bors lost their patience and decided on direct interference. They called Mr. Johnson to tell him in a frank manner what they were thinking. Embarrassed. Mr. Johnson scolded his son: "What has come over you? You should know better than to disturb others for the sake of your own interest." As a result George traded his records for computer games software from his classmates. Overall. the whole thing has worked out quite satisfactorily.
Part III TextB
Comprehension Check
l.d 2. a
3. b 4. c
5.d 6. b
(#ja Appendix III)

Appendix I -111-
Language Practice

1. sake 2. acknowledged
3. aware 4. embraced
5. mood 6. to the contrary
7. polished off 8. beneath
9. legal 10. rare
11. justify 12. define
13. disturbs 14. notion
15. look forward to 16. respond
17. have ... to yourself 18. Let go of
19. for her sake 20. contrary
Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Model paper
Mother: Nancy, you've been home from school for three days now. Why don't you clean up your
Nancy: We don't have to clean up our rooms at school.
Mother: That's all very well, Nancy. But while you're at home, your Dad and I would like you to
keep your room clean.
Nancy: What difference does it make? It's my room.
Mother: That's as may be, but you might give a thought to your father. He's frightened to death of
the plague and now says if it is going to start anywhere in the country, it's going to start in
your room.
Nancy: Mother, you people aren't interested in anything that's relevant. Do you realize how the
major corporations are polluting our environment?
Mother: Your father and I are very worried about it. But right now we're more concerned with the
pollution in your room.
Nancy: For heaven's sake, Mother, I'm grown up now. Why do you have to treat me like a child? Mother: We're not treating you like a child. But it's very hard for us to think of you as an adult when
you go round throwing all your clothes on the floor.

- 112 - Appendix I
Unit 4
Part I P

re-Reading Task
Script for the recording:
When an idle moment turned up at work, people used to reach for the newspaper, providing the boss wasn't looking. Nowadays they are more likely to spend their spare moments surfing the Internet. Needless to say, the boss is usually no more happier than before, thinking that his staff should be looking for some useful work to do. So what happens to the surfer who hears the boss's footsteps approaching? This is the situation the writer of the poem you are about to hear found himself in. Will he be caught in the act?

Surfing the Internet
Stepping into the lab, I round no one is inside. So I think I'm in the clear Because the boss is nowhere in sight. I log onto the web and start to surf And then my hair stands up with fright.
The footsteps coming down the hall Are quickening in pace. There is no time to exit, No way to save my race.
-So I press the power button
And relax just a bit.
There is no way he can tell

Appendix I -113-
Exactly what I nit.
I act all surprised, Don't know why my machine died. "Simply unpredictable these Computers are!" I cried.
"So we'll get you a new one,
A computer that won't crash" he exclaims.
Do you think he'll wonder
When the new one acts the same?
Part II Text A
Text Organization l.

Contents Paragraphs
1. Description of the author's virtual life 2-3
2. How she feels about it after staying on the Net for a while 1,4-10, 13
3. What she does to return to the real world 11
4. How she feels about the real world 12
2. The first paragraph tells about the consequences of living a virtual life and the last tells about the author's return to it. Together, they show us the dilemma people at present are in: Because of modern technology, we have a choice between a virtual life and real life, but we find both unsat?isfactory. The author, however, finally has to choose the latter despite its negative effects.

- 114 - Appendix I
2) relationship
4) symptom
6) abusing
8) took (her) in 10) communicate 12) insight
14) data
I. 1. 1) conversely
3) but then
5) spitting
7) tone
9) editing
11) Internet
13) stretched
15) angles
2. 1) The sight of teenagers smoking cigarettes jars on me.
2) I turned on the TV just to relax a little bit after a heavy dinner, but soon I found myself getting sucked in by the fascinating plot of a science fiction film.
3) Jeffrey's computer crashed again this morning. The manager has arranged for a technician from the computer store to check and repair it.
4) During the Vietnam War, many young Americans fled their country to avoid military ser?vice.
Or: During the Vietnam War, many young Americans fled to other countries to avoid military service.
5) The new government is planning an anti-corruption campaign so as to restore people's
confidence in it.
3. 1) The traditional school will never go away, but the virtual c

lassroom is playing a more and more important role. Obviously, the online student relies on the computer. To get started, he must have his computer hooked up to the Internet through a phone line and modem. To be successful, he must keep up with the class and complete all work on time. Once he gets behind, it is almost impossible to catch up.
2) When the economy slows down, the worst nightmare for an employee is losing his job. In addition to money problems, the emotional stress is hard to bear. Hunting for a job is now the daily routine of many workers like Henry Smith. He fills out applications and writes resumes and submits them to various companies, expecting an interview. But in times of rising unemployment, even job interviews are hard to get. He takes great care not to miss any appointment, for if he missed it, it would be all but impossible to arrange for another one.
3) "The https://www.sodocs.net/doc/bc16998099.html, bubble has burst. Venture capitalists have become cautious in putting more

Appendix I - 115
money into the IT industry and small investors are taking their cue," said the chairman in his concluding speech. It is clear from these remarks that the ever-optimistic economist has changed his tune.
II. Collocation
1. We came here all the way on foot.
2. Private cars are not allowed on campus.
3. They are on vacation in Florida.
4. Mary has been talking to her friend on the phone for an hour.
5. Don't worry, Lucy is always on time.
6. Industrial demand on fuel is on the rise.
III. Usage
l.hard 2. difficult
3. impossible 4. tough
5. hard 6. easy
1. 1) Anyone who has talked with him will see Mark is a person of remarkable intelligence.
2) The book is of no value to one who is not familiar with the subject.
3) She is a woman of wealth. She never has to worry about money.
4) In today's job market, basic skills in computer science and foreign languages are of great importance.
2. 1) you will find yourself penniless in a month.
2) he found himself lying in a hospital ward
3) she found herself faced with the toughest job she had ever taken
4) Susan found herself in a trap from which she could not escape.
Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze
1. Internet 2. click
3. nightmare 4. sucked
5. email 6. rely

116 - Appendix I

7. communicating 8. emotional
9. At times 10. flee
11. on line
1. between 2. The
3. to 4. away
5. on 6. work
7. enables 8. local
9. reach 10. benefits
11. because 12. provides/brings
13. does 14. in
15. making 16. with
17. Nor 18. virtual
II. Translation
Perhaps you envy me for being able to work from home on the computer. I agree that the Internet has made my job a lot easier. I can write, submit and edit articles via email, chat with my colleagues on line and discuss work with my boss. With a click of the mouse, I can get all the data I need and keep up with the latest news. But then, communicating through the Net can be frus?trating at times. The system may crash. Worse still, without th

e emotional cues of face-to-face communication, the typed words sometimes seem difficult to interpret.
Part III TextB
Comprehension check
1. c 2. a
3. a 4. b
5. d 6. c
(#ja Appendix III)

Appendix I


Language Practice
1. vehicle 2. hooked on
3. intense 4. communication
5. worldwide 6. overnight
7. individual 8. slipped
9. version 10. on the whole
11. called forth 12. outwards
13. acquaintances 14. Needless to say
15. to my knowledge 16. On top of that
17. innocent 18. tendencies
19. plot 20. Scattered
Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Model paper
The Internet Will Not Isolate Us from One Another
Since I bought a computer last month, a new world has opened up before me, a world that reaches far beyond my immediate surroundings.
Every morning, the first thing I do after opening my eyes is to access the Internet to look at the top news stories of the day. In the evening, I will again sit by my computer and roam the world. The Internet brings me live World Cup football games and the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. It also enables me to communicate with my friends via email. The other day I got a message from an old classmate whom I hadn't heard from for years. She got my email address just by searching the website of my university! In addition to helping us keep up old ties, it also brings me new friends with whom I meet virtually in chat rooms. We exchange views on topics of interest and pour our hearts out to one another like intimate friends.
So, instead of isolating us from one another, the Internet serves to shorten or eliminate distance,
and helps to bring friends closer. (187 words)

- 116 - Appendix I
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording:
Often it is in overcoming hardship that we come to appreciate the value of life. Gloria Estefan wrote this song when she was recovering from a serious road accident that had left her badly injured and near to death. She sings of the hard struggle she had to recover her health:
Up to now for me it's been hands against stone
and of the search to find something that would give meaning to her life:
Spent each and every moment Searching tor what to believe.
But now she is beginning to get better; she can see light at the end of the tunnel. As she says:
Coming out of the dark, I finally see the light now It's shining on me.
It has been a tough road to recovery, but one made easier by the presence of her loved ones:
... I have felt you Near all the way
as she tells them. Ahead life holds out the promise of a new beginning, for:
Starting again is part of the pi an.

Appendix I -119-
She looks forward to this happy in the knowledge that she is loved and cared for. For she feels that with love you can stand up to anything. As she sings:
Forever, forever I stand on the rock or your love Love is all it takes, no matter what we race.
Now let's listen to her as she sings her song Coming Out of the Dark.

Coming Out of the Dark
Gloria Estefan
Why be afraid if I'm not alone
Though life is never easy the rest in unknown
Up to now for me it's been hands against stone
Spent each and every moment
Searching for what to believe
Coming out of the dark, I finally see the light now
It's shinning on me
Coming out of the dark, I know the love that saved me
You're sharing with me
Starting again is part of the plan And I'll be so much stronger holding your hand Step by step I'll make it through I know I can It may not make it easier but I have felt you Near all the way
(repeat chorus)
Forever, forever I stand on the rock of your love
Forever I'll stand on the rock
Forever, forever I stand on the rock of your love

- 120 - Appendix I
Love is all it takes, no matter what we race
(chorus out)
Part II Text A
Text Organization

Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas
Part One Paras 1-2 Michael faced the most challenging competition in his pole-vaulting career.
Part Two Paras 3-5 Michael' s childhood was marked with dreams and tough training.
Part Three Paras 6-12 Michael topped his personal best, won the championship and set a new world record.
Part Four Para 13 What was most unusual about Michael's victory was that he was blind.
2. 1) It also has the element of flying, and the thought of flying as high as a two-story building is a mere fantasy to anyone watching such an event. As long as Michael could remember he had always dreamed of flying. 2) All of Michael's vaults today seemed to be the reward for his hard work.

I. 1. 1) startled
3) tension
5) sweating
7) vain
9) anxiety
11) emotions
13) In my mind's eye
15) mere

2) core
4) tense
6) stretched out
8) On one occasion 10) detail
12) ashamed of
14) recurring

Appendix I - 121 -

2. 1) Mrs. White's birthday coincides with her husband's, iiovi
2) The writer was assisted in the preparation of this article by other members of her family.
3) It has been a week of alternate sunshine and rain.
4) Politics and philosophy had been his lifelong passions, although he studied economics at university.
5) She grew tense as she waited for her first TV interview.
3. 1) Jessica's victory in the World Championships, which has aroused the media's attention,
again bears out the fact that she is one of the best gymnasts in the world. And no one can deny that it is a delight to watch her performing various skills with natural grace.
2) With so many relatives along with friends coming to their wedding to congratulate them on their marriage, the young couple felt like the happiest people in the world.
3) Frank had made full preparations for his oral presentation. However, when he did begin to speak, he was so overwhelmed by the intensity of the situation that he couldn't find a way
to relax himself and made numerous mistakes.

II. Collocation

1) Mike, a Green, made the suggestion that a large park be built near the community.
2) In a le

tter to his daughter, Mr. Smith expressed his wish that she (should) continue her educa?tion to acquire still another degree.
3) There is no reason to hold the belief that humans have no direct moral responsibility to safe?guard the welfare of animals.
4) Children need to feel safe about the world they grow up in, and it is unwise to give them the idea that everything they come into contact with might be a threat.
5) Anxiety can result from the notion that life has not treated us fairly.
6) Nobody believed his claim that he was innocent.

III. Words with Multiple Meanings

1.1 work out in the gym for one hour every morning.
2. Florence has worked as a cleaner at the factory for five years.
3. The wounded man worked his way across the field on his hands and knees.
4. The safe load for a truck of this type works out at about twenty-five tons.
5. It is difficult to understand how human minds work.
6. To my disappointment, the manager's plan of promoting the new products doesn't work at all.
7. The teacher has a lot of experience of working with children who don't know how to learn.

-122- Appendix I
8. The medicine began to work one hour after the child took it.
1. (Answers may vary.)
1) It was his dream and hard work that made it possible for him to set a world record in the pole vault.
2) It was nine years ago that I began to learn English.
3) It is my parents who have exerted the greatest influence on me.
4) It was in Central Park that I met John.
2. 1) Obviously what the speaker wanted to emphasize was the impact of these findings rather than
the process that led to these findings.
2) It seems that he is never bothered about what people would think about his behavior.
3) The CEO never hesitates to let his employees know what he is planning for the company.
4) The scientist will show the audience what a tele-operated robot can do for a family.

Comprehensive txercises
I. Cloze
1. In my mind's eye
3. sweating
5. tense
7. preparation
9. media
1. what
3. an
5. will
7. got
9. in
11. support
13. After
15. face

2. detail
4. relax
6. fantasy
8. congratulate 10. emotion
2. for
4. rarely/never
6. longed/wished
8. Then
10. life
12. to
14. run
16. but

Appendix I - 128 -
II. Translation
Psychologists have used numerous facts to bear out the argument/statement/claim that in order to recover speedily from negative emotion, you should allow yourself to cry. You needn't/ don't have to be ashamed of crying. Anxiety and sorrow can flow out of the body along with tears.
Consider the case of /Take Donna. Her son unfortunately died in a car accident. The inten?sity of the blow made her unable to cry. She said, "It was not until two weeks later that I began to cry. And then I felt as if a big stone had been lifted from my shoulders. It was the tears that brought me back to earth."
Part III TextB

Comprehension Check
l.b 3. b 5. c

2. c 4. b 6. a


(#J& Appendix III)

Language Practice
1. aid
3. inclined
5. horrible
7. dismiss
9. impatient
11. optimistic
13. ease
15. install
17. shortcomings 19. bumped

2 traits
4. in spite of
6. penetrated
8. has suffered from 10. progressive
12. to a degree
14. hold on to
16. in good health 18. interval(s)
20. miserable

- 124 - Appendix I
Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
■ ■
Model paper
The Change in Mr. Manwaring
There is no doubt about it. Hal Manwaring has definitely changed. And changed for the better. He still limps, of course, still has trouble getting in and out of his car and climbing stairs. He still needs his stick to get about. Everyone feels sorry for him, naturally. They always have, ever since he first started suffering from his disease all those years ago. But, to be honest, in recent years people started to avoid him, he had become so bitter he hadn't a good word to say about anyone or anything. Understandable, you might say, but that didn't make him any better company.
Then, all of a sudden, ever since that big storm we had last month, he picked himself up and
now has a cheerful word and a smile for everyone. Where once you would see him sitting hunched
up on his porch for hours on end, now you see him hopping about all over town. He has even taken
up helping to teach on the adult literacy programme. Just what happened he won't say, but whatever
it was it certainly did him a power of good. (189 words)
Unit 6
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording:
To begin with, let's listen to a song called / Am Woman.

I Am Woman
Helen Reddy
1 am woman, near me roar In numbers too big to ignore

Appendix I
And I know too much to go back and pretend Cause I've heard it all before And I've been down there on the floor No one's ever gonna keep me down again
Whoa, yes, 1 am wise
But it's wisdom born of pain
Yes, I’ve paid the price
But look how much I gained
If I have to, I can do anything (Anything)
I am strong (Strong), I am invincible (Invincible), I am woman
You can bend but never break me
'Cause it only serves to make me
More determined to achieve my final goal
And I come back even stronger
Not a novice any longer
'Cause you've deepened the conviction in my soul
Oh, yes, I am wise
But it's wisdom born of pain
Yes, I've paid the price
But look how much I gained
If I have to, I can do anything (Anything)
I am strong (Strong), I am invincible (Invincible), I am woman
I am woman, watch me grow
See me standing toe to toe
As I spread my lovin' arms across the land
But I'm still an embryo
With a long, long way to go
Until I make my brother understand
Whoa, yes, I am wise
But it's wisdom born of pain

-126- Appendix I
Yes, I've paid the price, but look now much I gained
If I nave to I can face anything (Anything)
I am strong (Strong), I am invincible (Invincible), I am woman
I am woman
I am invincible, I am strong,

I am woman
I am invincible, I am strong, I am woman
The singer of this song would undoubtedly have agreed with Mao Zedong that women hold up half the sky. Here she gives us the voice of woman, roaring bravely like a lion. She sings of how she is determined not to go back to playing a traditional woman's role and pretending to like it. And it is no good trying to persuade her otherwise, for she has heard all the old arguments too often.
And I know too much to go back and pretend 'Cause I've beard it all before
She has been held down in the past:
And I’ve been down there on the floor But no one is going to hold her back any longer:
No one's ever gonna keep me down again.
Her suffering has taught her wisdom and struggle has made her strong. As she says
You can bend but never break me 'Cause it only serves to make me More determined
Women are supporting one another, standing side by side, "toe to toe", but they still have a long way to go. They are only in the early stages of their struggle to get what they want and to get men to change their ideas.

Appendix I


But I'm still an embryo
With a long, long way to go
Until I make my brother understand.
Part II Text A
Text Organization

Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas
Part One Paras 1-3 Despite her friend's advice, the author, unable to resist the temp?tation, falls for superwomen stories again.
Part Two Paras 4-7 Her encounter with a superwoman and its impact on her.
Part Three Paras 8-11 She tells about what prevents her from becoming a superwoman herself.
Part Four Paras 12-14 She analyzes why she is still fascinated by modern superwomen tales.
Part Five Para 15 She comes to the conclusion that to her, admiring a heroine is something worth doing.
2. The author explains how difficult it is to be a superwoman mainly by d. personal experiences And give facts to support your choice.
1) She is unable to get her act together.
2) She can almost expect something to go wrong as soon as she sets to work.
3) Anything might happen that would take up much more of time she puts aside for a certain job.
4) She usually feels exhausted after a busy day.

I. 1. 1) incredible
3) hits home

2) remainder 4) investment


Appendix I

5) by nature 6) lap
7) decorate 8) harmony
9) move on to 10) bulletin
11) at intervals 12) client
13) theory 14) item
15) military
2. 1) Though Roger is absolutely convinced that the plan will work, I am still skeptical of/about
2) Carol's worrying about her daughter has much to do with her being hooked on the Internet recently.
3) Alison's so disorganized— I wish she'd get her act together.
4) Despite her resolution not to believe such modern fairy tales any more, she couldn't resist the idea of admiring superheroines.
5) Mention of the controversy over the matter would still undo her.

1) Don't be taken in by his charming manner; he is hard and cruel by nature and rarely shows pity fo

r the poor, rusrnc
2) The rescue team is racing the clock to salvage (打捞) the bodies of the sailors trapped in the sunken submarine (潜水艇) with sophisticated equipment.
3) The original draft of the declaration strongly reproaches some big powers for possessing large numbers of nuclear weapons and consuming too much of the earth's natural re?sources.
2. as well/too
4. also
6. too
8. Also
II. Synonyms
1. also
3. too
5. as well/too
7. also
III. Usage
1. I used to hate jogging but I'm actually growing to like it now.
2. We didn't have the chance to see her — she was too busy.
3. It seems she was coming to understand it better as she grew older.
4. How did you manage to become a television anchorwoman?
5. Gradually I came to like the proposal she brought forward in the group discussion.

Appendix I - 129 -
6. You're becoming more and more like your mother.
1. 1) If only it were that simple!
2) We could go out this afternoon if only it would stop raining.
3) If only she hadn't told David about that, everything would have been all right.
4) If only she hadn't come into the room at that particular moment.
2. 1) Tom is/was too intelligent for his class so he is/was not learning anything there.
2) The task is/was far too difficult for a nine-year-old.
3) There are/were too many people for such a small room.
4) The noise became too much for me so I went and complained.

Comprehensive Exercises
I. Cloze
1. incredible
3. care for
5. decorate
7. put pen to paper
9. piece of cake 11. despite
3. having
5. wrong
7. with
9. to
11. in
13. true
15. Eventually 17. later

2. corporation
4. set aside
6. move on
8. draft
10. get our act together
12. charmed
2. when
4. However
6. not
8. if
10. reads
12. should
14. up
16. plus

II. Translation
Barbara has dreamed of becoming a CEO for a long time. To achieve her heart's desire, she

- 130 - Appendix I
applied for a job in many a multi-national corporation, but failed to get it. However, nothing seems to be able to undo her. With a loan from a local bank she opened a restaurant not long ago. While doing business she is having two young children to care for. Also, she is working at/studying for an MBA degree. Despite all this she manages to get her act together. Nevertheless, even to her, racing the clock is by no means a piece of cake. It's a very exhausting job.

Part III TextB

Comprehension Check

l.b 3.d 5. d 7. a

2. a 4. b 6. c

(#J& Appendix III)

Language Practice
1. set out
3. temporary
5. weighed down
7. plentiful
9. pleaded
11. in control of 13. expense
15. reaction
17. at every opportunity 19. soak up

2. renewed
4. sought after
6. quit
8. takes all the credit 10. died of
12. party
14. lives for
16. semester
18. stir
20. take ... back


Appendix I - 181
Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning

Model paper
Women Hold up Half the Sky
"Men are born free but everywhere they are in chains," wrote the French philosopher Rousseau. Being a man he forgot to add that the chains that hold women back are often stronger and heavier. It is true that women are no longer tied to the home, and have entered fully into the world of work. Nevertheless, childbirth and greater responsibilities for childcare can put women at a disadvantage in competition with men. The situation is made all the more difficult by discrimination against women in selection and promotion in certain professions.
There are a number of ways to remedy this situation. Improving women's confidence about
what they can achieve is one. Destroying male prejudices is another. But the answer lies not just in
changing ideas. Material support in the form of improved childcare facilities is needed, as is greater
protection from the law against sexual discrimination. (152 words)
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Script for the recording:
English is the most widely used language in the history of our planet. One in every seven human beings can speak it. More than half of the world's books and three quarters of international mail are in English. Of all languages, English has the largest vocabulary — perhaps as many as two million words — and one of the noblest bodies of literature.
Nonetheless, let's face it. English is a crazy language. There is no egg in eggplant, neither pine or apple in pineapple and no ham in a hamburger. English muffins weren't invented in England or French fries in France. Sweetmeats are candy, while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat.
Sometimes I wonder if all English speakers should be sent to a madhouse. In what other

-132- Appendix I
language do people drive on a parkway and park in a driveway? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship?1 Have noses that run and feet that smell?2
How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise guy and a wise man3 are opposites? How can overlook and oversee are opposites, while quite a lot and quite a few are alike? How can the weather be hot as hell one day and cold as hell the next?
You have to marvel at the glorious messiness of a language in which your house can burn up as it burns down, in which you fill in a form by filling it out and in which your alarm clock goes off by going on.
English was invented by people, not computers, and it reflects the creativity of the human race, which, of course, isn't a race at all. That is why when stars are out they are visible, but when the lights are out they are invisible. And why, when I wind up my watch I start it, but when I wind up this speech I end it.
Part II Text A
Text Organization 1.

Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas
Part One Paras 1-3 Massive borrowing from other languages is a major feature of the English language.
Part Two Paras 4-16 Tells about the history of the English language from the Indo-European parent language to modern English

Part Three Paras 17-19 Tolerance, love of freedom, and respect for the rights of oth?ers — these qualities in the English-speaking people explain the richness of their language.
1 Ship by truck and send cargo by ship: The first "ship" means "send", the second one "a large boat".
2 Have noses that run and feet that smell: This refers to what people usually say" have a running nose", "have smelly feet".
3 a wise guy and a wise man: The former refers to a person who pretends to know more than he does; the latter to a man of unusual learning.

Appendix I - 188

Paras 4-9 The introduction of the Indo-European language — the parent language of En-
riyioj won-gksh
Paras 10-11 Germanic tribes came to settle in Britain and brought Anglo-Saxon words — Old English
Para 12 The Christian religion enriched English with words from Greek and Latin
Para 13 The Vikings from Scandinavia came with words from Old Norse
Para 14 The Norman Conquest — French influence
Para 15 The European Renaissance and the printing press brought many new words from Latin and Greek
Para 16 The American revolution — the emergence of a new variety — American En?glish

I. 1. 1) independent 2) Strictly speaking
3) drifted 4) resembles
5) virtually 6) invaded
7) conquered 8) fascinating
9) snack 10) will be put into practice
11) classics ..12) source
13) climate 14) surrendered
15) were ... aroused
2. 1) In the United States, private cars are an absolute necessity rather than a luxury.
2) Everyone thinks that the new member is a valuable addition to the football team.
3) I am afraid the fire will get out of control if the firemen do not arrive within ten minutes.

4) As all flights to the United States have been cancelled, you have no alternative but to go via Vancouver to get to Seattle.
5) The government has declared all beef imports will be banned for the next six months for fear of the spread of mad cow disease.
3. 1) Through systematic research, scientists have invented many drugs that are said to help us
live longer, but the cause of aging remains, to a very real extent, one of life's mysteries. 2) The two parties have reached an agreement to establish a joint venture in Beijing, but before a formal contract is signed, some clauses in the draft agreement need to be modi-

- 184 - Appendix I
fied/modifying so that no misunderstanding will arise as to their interpretation. 3) Our ancestors have passed onto us the wisdom that to ensure the long-lasting prosperity of a country, we must show tolerance for the errors made by those who strike out revolution?ary paths. These people, with their new ideas and practice, will enrich the national experi?ence.

II. Synonyms
1. a) wish
2. a) skin
3. a) rear/raise
4. a) royal

b) wish
b) hide/skin
b) raise
b) kingly/royal

c) want
c) hide
c) rear/raise c) sovereign

d) wish/want d) skin
d) raise
d) royal/kingly

III. Usage 1.Indeed 3.

5. To my knowledge 7. Nevertheless
9. instead

2. though
4. Moreover
6. however
8. Yet
10. in other words


1) We are literally crawling. There must be some traffic accident ahead.
2) Thomas sounds very knowledgeable about traditional Chinese medicine. He must have had some special training.
3) The draft document is complete in virtually every detail. It must have taken him months to prepare it.
4) Cathy must have missed the train. She should have arrived here two hours ago.
5) What? It cost you one thousand dollars to fill a hollow tooth? You must be exaggerating!
2. 1) Are we supposed to deposit our bags before entering the supermarket?
2) The spaceship is supposed to land on Mars at 10:40 this morning.
3) As a car driver, you are supposed to know how to change a tire.
4) The nurses in the hospital are supposed to take good care of the patients.
5) We are supposed to speak only in English when we discuss text organization.

Appendix I - 185 -

Comprehensive fxercises
I. Cloze
1. fascinating
3. invented
5. ban
7. out of control
9. Fortunately
11. sources
1) early
3) found
5) source
7) in
9) how
11) given/delivered
13) by
15) without

2. tolerance
4. addition
6. corrupt
8. establishing
10. Massive


2) those
4) must
6) further
8) began
10) in
12) than
14) so
16) common

II. Translation
Though how the English language came into existence remains a mystery, linguists/language scientists now tend to believe that English and most other European languages have descended from a common source; the Indo-European parent language. English was first spoken by the Anglo-Saxons who invaded England in the fifth century. They passed onto us the basic vocabu?lary of English. In its over 15 centuries of development, English has borrowed from other lan?guages massively, and such borrowing has greatly enriched its vocabulary. As settlers landed in America and established the United States as an independent nation, a new variety was added to the English language: American English. Though some people worry that the language is running out of control, many native speakers of English take pride in the tolerance of their language.

- 136 - Appendix I
Part III TextB
Comprehension Check
1. c 2. c
3. c 4. d
5. b 6. d
(#J& Appendix III)

Language Practice
1. give way to 2. predict
3. substantial 4. integrate
5. in transition 6. aspect
7. professionals 8. genuine
9. economic 10. to name a few
11. authority 12. dominate
13. crude 14. trend
15. shift 16. had contributed to
17. unique 18. exceeding
19. rid yourself of 20. status
Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks
Model paper
Estimates of English Speakers from 1950 to 2050
This graph shows the changes of the estimated numbers of English speakers from 1950 to 2050. English speakers are divided into three groups, i.e., LI speakers, L2 speakers and EFL spea

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