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Unit 1

Key to Exercises

Part I Pre-Reading Task

Script for the recording:

Ways of learning is the topic of this unit. It is also the topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach Your Children sung by Crosby, Stills and Nash.

Teach Your Children

Crosby, Stills and Nash

You, who are on the road,

Must nave a code that you can live by.

And so, become yourselr,

Because the past is just a goodbye.

Teach your cbildren well,

Their lather's hell did slowly go by.

And reed them on your dreams,

The one they picks, the one you'll mow by.

Don't you ever ash them why, ir they told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.

Appendix I - 93 -

And you, oi tender years,

Can't know the rears that your elders grew by.

Ana so please help them with your youtb,

They seek the truth before tbey can die.

Teacb your parents well,

Tbeir children's bell will slowly go by.

And reed them on your dreams,

Tbe one tbey picks, tbe one you'll know by.

Don t you ever ask them why, ir tbey told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know tbey love you.

The first part of die song is about how parents can inspire their children through sharing with them their dreams, their hopes for a better life. It starts with advice on how you need a set of rules, "a code diat you can live by," to guide you on the road of life. Only then will you be able to fully realise all that is within you and "become yourself." Therefore, parents need to teach their children well.

And children — "you of tender years" — also have something to teach their parents, for learning is not a one-way street. Children should share their own dreams with their parents so that young and old can get to understand each otiier better.

That said, one should not go too far. For some things are perhaps better left unsaid between parents and children. "Don't you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry." At such mo-ments all that there is left to do is to look at one another and sigh, happy in each otiier's love.

Part II Text A Text Organization

1. 1) The text begins with an anecdote/incident.

2) His thoughts are mainly about different approaches to learning in China and the West.

3) He winds up the text with a suggestion in die form of a question.

Points for Comparison/Contrast



1) ways to learn to accomplish a task

show a child how to do something, or teach by holding his hand

teach children that they should rely on themselves for solutions to problems

2) attitudes to creativity and skills

give greater priority to de-veloping skills at an early age, believing creativity can be promoted over time

put more emphasis on fos-tering creativity in young children, thinking skills can be picked up later

1. Vocabulary

1) insert

2) on occasion

3) investigate

4) In retrospect

5) initial

6) phenomena

7) attached

8) make up for

9) is awaiting

10) not …in the least

11) promote

12) emerged

2. Rewrite each sentence

1) There is a striking contrast between the standard of living in the north of the country and the south.

2) Natural fiber is said to be superior to synthetic fiber.

3) The city's importance as a financial center has evolved slowly.

4) His nationality is not relevant to whether he is a good lawyer.

5) The poems by a little-known sixteenth-century Italian poet have found their way into some English magazines.

3. 1) Chinese isn't a subject that can be picked up in a month. You can't accomplish your goal of mastering the language unless you work at it for years. Well, it sounds as if I'm exag-gerating the difficulties, but the fact is I'm only telling the truth.

2) The principal is somewhat disappointed with the performance of the children. From what she has gathered, some of the teaching staff have neglected their pupils. She has just announced that strict work regulations have been made and that they apply to both Chinese and overseas teachers.

3) The teacher-directed and the child-directed approaches to teaching art represent two ex-tremes of opinion. Too many teacher-directed activities cannot be expected to effectively assist children in learning because of the rigid structure. On the other hand, too many child-directed activities may see a curriculum that is totally unstructured and out of con-trol. There are valid reasons to believe a teacher-guided approach would be a superior way to guide children's development. This approach combines some form of structure with the child leading the direction.

II. Confusable Words


1) continual 3) continual


1) principal 3) principle 5) principal

2) continuous 4) continuous

2) principal

4) principles

III. Usage

1. themselves 2. himself/herself

3. herself/by herself/on her own 4. itself

5. ourselves 6. yourself/by yourself/on your own

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze


1. contrast 2. exaggerating

3. priority 4. on the other hand

5. promoting 6. pick up

7. assist 8. accomplish

9. on occasion 10. neglecting

11. worthwhile 12. superior


1. end 2. perform

3. facing 4. competent

5. equipped 6. designed

7.approach 8. rest

9. definitely 10. quality

II. Translation

1. sentences

1) It takes an enormous amount of courage to make a departure from the tradition.

2) Tom used to be very shy, but this time he was bold enough to give a performance in front of a large audience.

3) Many educators think it desirable to foster the creative spirit in the child at an early age.

4) Assuming (that) this painting really is a masterpiece, do you think it’s worthwhile to buy/ purchase it?

5) If the data is statistically valid, it will throw light on the problem we are investigating.

2. passage translation

To improve our English, it is critical to do more reading, writing, listening and speaking. Besides, learning by heart as many well-written essays as possible is also very important. Without an enormous store of good English writing in your head you cannot express yourself freely in English. It is also helpful to summarize our experience as we go along, for in so doing, we can figure out which way of learning is more effective and will produce the most desirable result. As long as we keep working hard on it, we will in due course accomplish the task of mastering English.


Text A

A Life Full of Riches

I. Vocabulary

1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases…

1) abrupt 2) emotional 3) bless 4) wear and tear
5) dated 6) consequences 7) seemingly 8) in contrast to
9) Curiosity 10) genuine 11) primarily 12) sentiments

2. Rewrite each sentence…

1) confronted with more than one problem, try to solve the easiest one first

2) vital to the existence of all forms of life

3) some confusion among the students about what to do after class to follow up on the subject

4) nothing more than a job and an apartment to be happy

5) tickled him to think that she’d come to ask his advice

3. Complete the sentences

1) a lingering, fabricating, sentiments

2) fill out, every item, vital, consequences

3) be denied, tangible, cherish, attain

II. Words with Multiple Meanings

1. It is a long trip and will take us five hours by bus.

2. She arrived early and took a front row seat.

3. Don’t take me for a fool.

4. It takes a lot of imagination to fabricate such a story.

5. My uncle will take me (alone on his trip) to the Arctic this summer.

6. He took the dinner plate I passed to him.

7. Kevin took second prize in the weight-lifting competition.

8. If you don’t take my advice, you will regret it.

III. Usage

1. hanging 2. to give 3. to return 4. being praised
5. not having 6. to say 7. to open 8. being helped


rehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

1) well-off/affluent 2) dated 3) falling into 4) bracket 5) deny 6) tangible

7) pursuit 8) cherishes 9) out of place 10) abrupt 11) focus 12) donations

2. Theme-related

1) consume 2) fueled 3) annual 4) plain 5) physically
6) security 7) indicates 8) equally 9) traditional 10) follows

II. Translation

1. Translate the Sentences

1) The company denied that its donations had a commercial purpose.

2) Whenever he was angry, he would begin to stammer slightly.

3) Education is the most cherished tradition in our family. That’s why my parents never took me to dinner at expensive restaurants, but sent me to the best private school.

4) Shortly after he recovered from the surgery, he lost his job and thus had to go through another difficult phase of his life.

5) In contrast to our affluent neighbors, my parents are rather poor, but they have always tried hard to meet our minimal needs.

2. Translate the passage

With more and more donations coming in, our university will be much better off financially next year. We will thus be able to focus on the most important task that we, educators, must take on: to encourage students to attain their scholarly/academic goals, to train them to be dependable and responsible individuals, to prepare them for the life ahead, and to guide them in their pursuit of spiritual as well as material satisfaction.

U3Unit 3 The Generation Gap

Text A Father Knows Better

I. Vocabulary

1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases…

1) typical 2) dumb 3) junior 4) glorious 5) welfare 6) came over 7) interference

8) fading 9) narrowed down 10) frank 11) schemes 12) at any rate

2. Rewrite each sentence…

1) consists of five generals and four police officers.

2) will be in a location overlooking the lake.

3) was humiliated by her comments about my family background in front of so many people.

4) have any proof that it was Henry who stole the computer?

5) was exhausted after the long cycle ride.

3. Complete the sentences

1) hysterical, was handed down by, should have known better than

2) twisted, over and over, talented son,

3) patience, not to keep him in suspense, assured…repeatedly

II. Collocation

1. adequate 2. anxious 3. certain 4. content

5. crazy 6. likely 7. fortunate 8. keen

III. Usage

1. be admitted 2. live 3. be postponed

4. buy 5. be banned 6. be

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

1) typical 2) welfare 3) constant 4) frank 5) talent 6) dumb 7) know better than that

8) repeatedly 9) dread 10) interference 11)b

et 12)assure

2. Theme-related

1. despite 2. really 3. same 4. contact 5. admitted 6. attempt 7. not

8. tend 9. different 10. manner

II. Translation

1. Translate the Sentences

1) Have scientists found proof of water on Mars?

2) The planning committee has narrowed down the possible locations for the nuclear power plant to two coastal towns.

3) Sam not only lost his job but also both legs; he had to live on welfare for the rest of his life.

4) A jury consisting of 12 members voted in unison that Mary was guilty.

5) Sean felt humiliated to hear his talent being questioned.

2. Translate the passage

George, the son of Mr. Johnson, liked listening to heavy metal music in the evenings, which made it hard for other residents in the community to fall asleep. Eventually the exhausted neighbors lost their patience and decided on direct interference. They called Mr. Johnson to tell him in a frank manner what they were thinking. Mr. Johnson assured them that he would certainly settle the issue. As soon as he put down the phone he scolded his son, “What has come over you? You should know better than to disturb others for your own amusement.” In the end George traded his CDs for computer games software from his classmates.

Unit 4

Text A A Virtual Life

I. Vocabulary

1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases…

1) conversely 2) but then 3) symptom 4)spitting 5) abusing

6) tone 7) took (her) in 8) editing 9)have arranged 10) in sight

11) stretched 12) data

2. Rewrite each sentence…

1) smoking cigarettes jars on me.

2) find themselves getting sucked in

3) has arranged for a technician from the computer store to check and repair it.

4) fled their country to avoid military service/ fled to other countries to avoid military service.

5) restore people's confidence in it.

3. Complete the sentences

1) the virtual/ on line/ via

2) nightmare/ routine/ any appointment/ arrange for

3) cue/ remarks/ his tune

II. Collocation

1. We came here all the way on foot.

2. Private cars are not allowed on campus.

3. They are on vacation in Florida.

4. Mary has been talking to her friend on the phone for an hour.

5. Don't worry, Lucy is always on time.

6. Industrial demand on fuel is on the rise.

III. Usage

l. hard 2. difficult

3. impossible 4. tough

5. hard 6. easy

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

1) Internet 2) click

3) virtual 4) routines

5) arrange 6) nightmare

7) annoying 8)


9) crawls 10) take in

11) spit 12) data

13) sucked into 14) At times

15) flee 16) on line

2. Theme-related

1) companion 2) deliver

3) access 4) enables

5) customers 6) delights

7) provides 8) small

9) remote 10) information

II. Translation

1. Translate the Sentences

1) Research shows that laughter can bring a lot of health benefits.

2) A slow Internet connection speed is really annoying.

3) As the law stands, helping someone commit suicide is a crime.

4) In her report, Mary tries to interpret the data from a completely different angle.

5) Sue is a girl of great talent. Her amazing memory sets her apart from her classmates.

2. Translate the passage

Perhaps you envy me for being able to work from home on the computer. I agree that the Internet has made my job a lot easier. I can write, submit and edit articles via email, chat with my colleagues on line and discuss work with my boss. With a click of the mouse, I can get all the data I need and keep up with the latest news. But then, communicating through the Net can be frustrating at times. The system may crash. Worse still, without the emotional cues of face-to-face communication, the typed words sometimes seem difficult to interpret.

Unit 6 Women, Half the sky

Text A A Woman Can Learn Anything a Man Can

I. Vocabulary

1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases…

1) cultural/culture 2)indication 3) miniature 4) ironic 5) stumbled into 6) decent

7)buzzing 8) abnormal 9) mechanical 10) shuddering 11) implied 12)leap

2. Rewrite each sentence…

1) Convert RMB into US dollars in the foreign exchange office

2) Didn’t know the first thing about cooking as she looked puzzled as to how to cook rice with the rice cooker

3) Their faulty equipment the team had accomplished some very useful work.

4) Allowing me to work flexible hours as long as I work eight hours a day

5) Couldn’t help thinking the book must be quite fascinating.

3. Complete the sentences

1) will not panic/ feel panic, will be at a disadvantage

2) hybrid, transmission

3) carve, one indication, to distinguish

II. Collocation

1. also 2. as well/too 3. too 4. too

5. as well/too 6. too 7 also 8. also

III. Usage

1. I’ve had enough 2.when I was old enough to work and earn money

3. can’t get enough sleep at night 4. had so far collected enough of them

5.have strong enough arms 6. have just enough money to live on

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

1) stumbled into 2) not know the first thing about 3) mechanical 4) wh

en it comes to

5) hybrid 6) gritted her teeth 7) premise 8) at a disadvantage 9) panic

10) cultural 11)flexible 12)imply

2. Theme-related

1. chair 2. force 3. secrets 4. painstaking 5. recognized 6. steered 7. essentially

8.obsevation 9. women 10. tutor 11.inspired 12.unless

II. Translation

1. Translate the Sentences

1) He is a man of few words, but it comes to playing computer games, he is too clever for his classmates.

2) Children who don’t know any better may think these animals are pretty cute and start playing with them.

3) There is no way to obtain a loan, so as to buy the new equipment, I’ll just have to grit my teeth and sell my hybrid car.

4) The hunter would not have fired the shots if he had not seen a herd of elephants coming towards his campsite.

5) I find it ironic that Tom has a selective memory --- he does not seem to remember painful experiences in the past, particular those of his own doing.

2. Translate the passage:

Nancy Hopkins is a biology professor at MIT. She craves knowledge and works hard. However, as a scientist, she could not help noticing all kinds of indications of gender inequality on campus. Men and women professors did the same work, but when it came to promotion the administrators were rather selective. It is ironic that after so much cultural progress, women were still at a disadvantage in institutions of higher education. When her request for more lab space was refused, she knew she had to fight. So she gritted her teeth and complained to the President. The fight ended in victory and Nancy was converted into a gender-equity advocate.

Unit 7 Learning about English

Text A The Glorious Messiness of English

I. Vocabulary

1. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases…

1) Strictly speaking 2) drifted 3) resembles 4) invaded
5) is conquered 6) fascinating 7) snack 8) put into practice
9) source 10) climate 11) surrendered 12) were aroused

2. Rewrite each sentence…

1) an absolute necessity rather than a luxury

2) is a valuable addition to the football team.

3) will get out of control, if the firemen do not arrive within ten minutest

4) alternative but to go via Vancouver to get to Seattle.

5) declared all beef imports will be banned for the next six months as an emergence measure to stop the spread of mad cow disease

3. Complete the sentences

1) systematic, have invented, to a very real extent, mysteries

2) to establish, to be modified/ modifying

3) tolerance towards, strike out, enrich

II. Synonyms

1. wish, wish, want, want/wish

2. skin, hide/skin, hide, skin

3. raise/rear, raise, rear/raise, raise

4. royal, kingly/royal,

sovereign, royal/ kingly

III. Usage

1. Indeed 2. though 3. Frankly 4. Moreover 5. To my knowledge

6. however 7. nevertheless 8. Yet 9. instead 10. in other words

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

1) fascinating 2) tolerance 3) invented 4) addition 5) ban

6) corrupt 7) out of control 8) influenced 9) elite 10) came up with

11) establishing 12) Massive 13) sources 14) enrich

2. Theme-related

1) early 2) similar 3) source 4) observation 5) examine
6) features 7) declared 8) stronger 9) accident 10) sprung

II. Translation

1. Translate the Sentences

1) Many small businesses have sprung up in the city since the new policy went into effect.

2) On hearing the news, she smiled briefly, and then returned to her habitual frown.

3) He paused for effect, then said:” We can reach/ enter these markets through new channels.

4) The addition of a concert hall to the school will help it nourish young musical talents

5) We have no way to protect our personal liberties until we have established a sovereign state./ We can’t protect our personal liberties unless we, first of all, establish a sovereign state.

2. Translate the passage

Though how the English language came into existence remains a mystery to many people, linguists believe that English and most other European languages have descended from a common source: the Indo-European parent language. English was first spoken by the Anglo-Saxons who invaded England in the fifth century. They passed onto us the basic vocabulary of English. In over fifteen centuries of its development, English has enriched itself by massive borrowing. As British immigrants landed in America and established the United States as an independent nation, a new variety was added to the English language: American English. Though some people worry that the language is running out of control, many native speakers of English take pride in the tolerance of their language.

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