UNIT FOURTEEN FOREIGN POLICY 第一篇
复杂而深刻的变化complex and profound changes
各种问题相互交织various threats are intertwined
指导国际关系的准则norms governing international relations
切实履行implement in real earnest
以强凌弱的霸权主义bully the weak and pursue hegemony 文明的多样性the diversity of civilizations
万物并育而不相害all living creature grow together without harming one another
道并行而人不相悖ways run parallel without interfering with one another
相互借鉴、取长补短learn from each other in mutual emulation
相互包容、求同存异mutual tolerance, seek agreement while shelving differences
减免债务reduce and forgive debts
动辄诉诸武力resort to use or threat of force
摈弃冷战思维the Cold War mentality should be done away with
核武器扩散nucleus weapons proliferation
永远不称霸never seek hegemony
维护国家主权和领土完整safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity
睦邻、安邻、富邻政策the policy of creating an amicable, secure and prosperous neighborhood
奔腾不息的时代潮流irresistible tide of the times
monetary structure 货币组织
military deterrence 军事威慑
utmost purpose 最高宗旨
downright distrust 不信任的传统
take…into account 考虑到
the IMF 国际货币基金组织
trade deficits 贸易赤字
military alliance 军事联盟
The world is undergoing complicated and profound changes.
On the whole, the international situation is moving towards greater relaxation, with an increasing tendency to settle disputes through peaceful negotiations.
With a growing trend developing towards multi-polarity, a vast number of developing countries are playing an active role in international affairs.
Economic factors are increasingly prominent in international relations.
Safeguarding world peace and promoting economic development have become the common aspiration of people around the world.
6．但是霸权主义和强权政治依然存在，局部地区的武装冲突还在继续，天下仍不太平。However, hegemonism and power politics continue to hang on, regional armed conflicts persist, and the world is still not tranquil.
Over the year, the exchange of visits of government leaders between China and foreigner countries has promoted the development of our bilateral relations.
China has further developed her good-neighborly relations with her surrounding countries, strengthened her solidarity and cooperation with developing countries, and further improved her relations with the West.
China has expanded her foreign trade and the areas for economic and technological cooperation with other countries.
China has actively participated in international affairs and has played an important role in the peaceful settlement of international disputes and in the promotion of regional and global economic cooperation.
立和发展关系，反对霸权主义和强权政治，维护世界和平，推动社会发展，促进人类进步。Looking ahead, the Chinese government will unswervingly pursue its independent foreign policy of peace by establishing and developing friendly relations with other countries and opposing hegeminism and power politics so as to safeguard world peace and promote social development and the progress of mankind.
China will as always, purse a good-neighborly policy, and conduct extensive friendly cooperation all surrounding countries.
We shall further strengthen ouor solidarity and cooperation with the great number of developing countries and enhance our consultations with these countries on bilateral and international issues, with a view to further improving our existing friendly relations, and jointly safeguard the rights and interests of developing countries.
On the basis of mutual respect, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, and equality and mutual benefit, we hope to further improve and develop the relations with Western countries, increase our exchange and maintain the momentum in economic cooperation and trade.
A strong effort to safeguard world peace and stability, China will not pose a threat to any country. 16．中国愿意通过平等对话和以双边谈判的方式解决争议问题。
China is willing to resolve any disputes through dialogues on the basis of equality and by means of bilateral consultation and negotiation.
We maintain that countries, big or small, strong or weak, are all equal members of the international community and have the right to choose their own social systems and paths for development.
We do not impose our social systems or ideology upon others and we are resolutely opposed to any attempts by other countries to impose their social systems or ideologies upon us.
China advocates active international economic, commercial, scientific and technological cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.
China stands firmly opposed to any practice of inequality and prejudice.
It is China's position that a new international political and economic order, an order which is characteristically peaceful, stable, just and equitable, should be established on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and other universally recognized norms governing international relations.
China has consistently devoted herself to the lofty cause of peace and development. We are ready to make unremitting efforts along with other countries to build a wonderful new world of peace, stability and prosperity.
1．The greater problem confronting the United States during the transition from the Cold War era to the post-Cold War era is a loss of cohesion.
从冷战时期到冷战后期的转轨过程中，美国面临的更为严重的问题是人民凝聚力的消失。2．As Americans divert their attention to domestic issues, their tolerance for domestic problems shrinks and they vent their frustration at every opportunity.
3．In addition, a price must be paid for Clinton's reforms, many of which offer no short-term benefits.
此外，一笔款项必须用来支付克林顿的改革措施，它们中的许多都不会带来短期效益。4．However, the fact that Democrats lost the election despite the economic revival and diplomatic achievements does not necessarily mean that the problems are especially serious.
5．As far as US foreign policy is concerned, we are aware that President Clinton has paid far more attention to foreign affairs than he did last year, even though his primary focus remains on domestic issues.
6．Washington has made certain overtures and achieved certain results.
7．The president realized that as a superpower, the United States cannot isolate itself from world events, and it must play its role in order to protect its own
8．However, Clinton was forced to make his foreign policy under both domestic and international pressure.
9．The involvement, deep or shallow, inevitably invited criticism against the Clinton Administration.
美国对国际性事件的介入，无论程度深浅，必定会招致人们对克林顿政府的批评。10．The United States is also paying greater attention to economic interests, and its calls for human rights and global democratization are no longer as vocal.
美国也更为重视其经济利益，已不再像以前那样慷慨陈词地呼唤人权和全球民主化。11．Economic interests prevail when various diplomatic goals run into conflict. 当各项外交目标发生矛盾时，美国的经济利益则高于一切。
12．From an overall perspective, US foreign policy has gained greater flexibility and is more responsive to setbacks.
13．For example, Washington used force in Haiti, but made major concessions to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
14．The United Nations has also become an important factor in US foreign policy and provides a multilateral arena for carrying our Washington's initiatives.
15．This in no way implies, however, that the United States is bound by this world organization. 但是这全然不意味着美国会因此受制于这一国际组织。
16．Washington is seeking a balance between Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. This is a striking departure from its earlier emphasis on the former.
17．The United States has yet to find a way to deal with the major powers, as its relations with Russia, China, Japan and Europe face uncertainty.
18．Of course the new Republican-dominated Congress will restrain the president form making resolute decisions on foreign affairs.
当然，由共和党控制的新一届国会将对总统在外交事务上的果断决策行为起着制约作用。TEXT FOR PRACTICE
Ladies and Gentlemen:
The world has witnessed the most profound readjustments in international relations unleashed since the end of the Cold War.
Political forces disintegrated, or were reorganized, and the trend toward a mult- polar order continued.
The relaxation of tensions, peace and development has become the universal call in today's world. 5．全球的经济开始好转，国际经贸合作呈上升趋势，经济在国际关系中发挥着越来越重要的作用。
The worldwide economy has taken a turn for the better, and international economic and trade cooperation is on the rise, with economics playing an increasingly important role in international relations.
6．然而影响稳定的不确定因素依然存在，保全主义和强权政治不愿退出舞台。Nonetheless, destabilizing factors of uncertainty remain, with hegemonism and power politics retaining a foothold.
Occasional regional and local armed conflicts flare up, and economic competition is becoming ever more acute.
8．许多发展中国家仍然为经济困难所困扰，发达国家和发展中国家之间的差距继续多大。Many developing countries are still plagued with economic hardship, and the gap between developed and developing countries continues to widen.
The world still faces untold challenges in terms of peace and development.
China carries out an independent foreign policy of peace.
Our active foreign relations endeavors have helped create a sound international environment for China's on-going reform and opening effort, while at the same time contributing to maintaining world peace and promoting common prosperity.
12．但是，由于国际舞台上经常出现的新情况和新问题，中国外交工作面临着艰难的局面。The Chinese diplomatic effort, however, is facing an arduous task in light of new conditions and problems which constantly emerge in the international arena.
Therefore, continuously striving to create a favorable international peaceful environment for domestic modernization and serving economic development, reform and opening to the outside world remain the primary goal of China's foreign diplomacy.
China sincerely hopes the world will remain peaceful and stable.
China will actively participate open economic cooperation, live in harmony with countries throughout the world, and jointly develop on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit.
As the new century approaches, the major subject for countries across the world is how to go about establishing new international relations.
China will continue to purse an independent foreign policy of peace, while at the same time further developing friendly cooperative relations with all nations on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.
You have emphasized that the policy of one China is the basis and the precondition for the reunification of China. By insisting on the one-China policy, do you mean that Taiwan should unconditionally accept the People's Republic of China, or can you accept the formation of a Republic of Taiwan, to be reunited with the mainland in the form of a confederation or a federation?
2．In his eight-point proposal President Jiang made it clear that under the concept of one China, anything, save the independence of Taiwan, can be discussed. If one admits that there is but only one China, then there is no such thing as Taiwan joining the United Nations. Recent years has witnessed more frequent non- governmental exchanges and closer economic ties across the Taiwan Straits. The reunification of the Chinese nation is a general trend which cannot be blocked. We hope that the Taiwan authorities will comply with the aspirations of the people and take concrete action to end hostility and promote the expansion of the relations between Taiwan and the mainland.
3．China has been criticizing the United States for initiating the human rights resolution at UN Human Rights Commission in Geneva. Does this mean that China will suspend its human rights dialogue with the United States?
On the contrary, China stands for an exchange of views and dialogue on human rights, but this should be done on the basis of mutual respect. We oppose the practice of some countries initiating resolutions against China or, for that matter, against any country at such multilateral forums as the UN Human Rights Commission meeting in Geneva. We've explained our position to all the countries concerned, including Western countries.
5．Is there going to be any concrete effect on US-China dialogues on human rights or anything else? Will China retaliate against the United States? Second, why is China so opposed to Lee Teng-hui visit the United States?
Although the US move is not conductive to the bilateral dialogue, we're not going to stop the dialogue yet. Mr. Lee's visit to the United States is a major matter of principle concerning one China, or "one China, one Taiwan", or "two Chinas". The essence of the three Sino-US joint communiqués is the Taiwan issue. That is, the United States commits to not developing any official contacts with Taiwan.
7．Germany supported a resolution against China at the Geneva conference of UN Human Rights Commission. Will this harm economic and cooperative relations between Germany and China?
We have never linked economic relations with anything else. However, this did not prevent us
from advising some countries not to do foolish things since they have failed many times. 9．How do you assess Sino-Russian relations today?
I believe the current development of Sino-Russian relations is good. In addition to high-level exchanges, cooperation exists in all other areas. During the recent visit of Russian Foreign Minister, we exchanged views on many issues. Although some local Russian officials have brought up the border issue in ways that do not conform with the agreement signed by the two countries, the Russian government has made it clear that it will abide by the agreement signed by the two governments and ratified by the legislative bodies of both countries. We are satisfied with this situation.
11．Why do you insist that the British Hong Kong government should transfer the archives of civil servants and other properties directly to the central government of China?
12．中国和英国达成协议，1997 年7 月1 日英国把香港交还给中国，中国将对香港恢复行使主权。英国必须把财产、文件和档案交给中国，这是毋庸置疑的。根据特别行政区的基本法，香港将享有高度自治。
China and Britain reached an agreement that on July 1, 1997, Britain is to return Hong Kong to China will resume its sovereignty over Hong Kong. Britain should transfer property, documents and archives to the Chinese government. There is no question about that. According to the Basic Law of the Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy. 13．What are China's territorial rights in the South China Sea? What will China's long-term military development be to reflect those rights? What is your message to those regional governments who are concerned that China could be a threat to the region?
14．中国对南沙群岛拥有不可争辩的主权。70 年代前从未有何争议发生，到了70 年代，一些邻国开始提出领土要求。中国队此一直持克制的态度，并且主张各方"搁置分歧，共同发展"。我认为南中国海域不存在什么紧张局面或危机。最近当地政府盖了一些这笔设施，那只是为在那里作业的渔民提供防护和安全，这不是军事行动，不会对任何国家构成威胁。China holds indisputable sovereignty over Nansha Island. No controversy whatsoever arose until the 1970s when some neighboring countries began to make territorial claims. China has exercised restraint over the issue and advocates the practice of "putting aside disputes for common development." I don't think there is any tension or crisis in the South China Sea area. Recently local protection and safety of the fishermen working there. It is not a military action and posed no
threat to any country.