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新编大学英语综合教程1-unit5

Unit 5 Animal World

In-Class Reading Do Animals Have a Culture?

动物拥有文化吗?

1 只有人类有文化呢,还是某些动物也同样有文化,这是社会科学家们最近才提出来的问题。说到文化,我们指的是某一类人群共有的生活方式。文化包涵了我们形成的信念和看法。正是人们的行为模式促使他们生活在一起,也正是人们的行为模式把不同的群体区分开来。人类失去了蛮力、爪子、长牙及其他自卫功能,然而文化为我们弥补了这些缺失。人类使用工具,相互合作,并借助语言进行交流沟通。但人类行为的这些方方面面,或称之为“文化”的东西,在某些动物的生活中也同样存在。

3 我们过去一直认为会不会使用工具是人和其他动物的分界线。然而,最近我们发现情况并非如此。黑猩猩不但能够使用工具,事实上还能自己制造工具。与仅仅捡起身边的东西加以利用相比,这已经向前迈出了一大步。例如,有人看到黑猩猩把树叶扯掉,将树枝伸进白蚁巢穴。当白蚁啃咬树枝时,黑猩猩就把树枝抽回,然后把枝条底端的白蚁吃掉——就像我们使用餐叉一样。

4 我们曾一度认为,尽管人类可以学习文化,但却不可能教会动物学文化。或者,即使动物能够学习,它们也不会像人类那样互相传授。然而,这一观点也同样是不正确的。日本京都大学猴子研究中心对一群日本猴进行过研究。科学家们给猴子白薯,想把它们引到海岛的岸边。一天,为了去掉白薯上面的沙子,一只年轻的母猴开始用水来洗白薯。这一做法马上传遍了整个猴群。这是学来的行为,不是向人类学的,而是从其他猴子那里学到的。而凡是没有跟这一猴群接触过的其他所有的猴子几乎都不会用水洗去沙子。这样,动物间就存在了“文化差异”。

5 我们已经把使用和发明工具从区分动物和人类行为的方法中排除出去了, 同样也把学习和互相传授行为排除在外了。但我们仍抓住语言这最后一个特点不放。然而,即便是语言的使用也无法把人类文化和动物文化区分开来。教猿猴说话的尝试虽然失败了,但这是因为猿猴没有合适的发声器官。如果我们愿意采纳口语之外的其他语言形式的话,应该说教猿猴学习语言一直是非常成功的。有两位心理学家曾训练一只名叫华秀的黑猩猩,教它使用美国标准手语。这种语言同样供聋人使用。用这种语言,“交谈”是通过手势来完成的,而不是把单词用一个个字母拼出来。当华秀长到五岁时,她掌握了130个手语词汇。而且,她还能用原先未教过的新方法来组合这些词汇。这表明她能创造性地使用语言,而不是单纯地模仿。她自己能遣词造句,表达真实的意思。这使双向交流得以实现,超越了单向的指令、反应模式。

6 当然,动物文化有其局限性。据我们所知,没有任何猿猴曾建立起任何诸如宗教或法律等社会制度。而且,尽管有些黑猩猩有可能学会手语,但这种语言形式在表达抽象思想时有局限性。而使用口头语言使我们能把整个文化传递给任何一个会同种语言的人。也许最重要的一点是,人和动物的分界线并不像我们过去认为的那样清清楚楚

After-Class Reading

动物的玩耍

1 也许人人都看到过动物幼崽如小猫小狗玩耍。这些幼年的动物看起来肯定玩得很开心。它们相互追逐、打滚、摔跤、打转,还玩诸如球和木棒之类的物体。任何看过熊猫打滚和玩耍的人都明白,熊猫玩得痛快着呢。

2 所有动物都玩耍吗?它们玩耍的目的是什么?这些是科学家提出的问题。为了回答这些问题,我们首先必须就“玩耍”的定义取得一致意见。这可难了,因为即使动物科学家们对“玩耍”的定义都莫衷一是,更何况动词“玩耍”包含有许多不同的意思。(译者注:英文中play 除“玩耍”外还有很多其他意思。)

3 在本文的讨论中,我们将依赖我们的常识来决定什么是玩耍。根据我们的经验,可以说玩耍是人与动物为了娱乐而做的事情。玩耍常常很像严肃且有目的的活动,但它并不实现什么严肃的目标。当然了,人们玩起来往往会非常认真。体育运动就是严肃认真而且精心设计的玩耍的例子。

4 动物为什么玩耍?最重要的理由很可能是为了学会生活中一些严肃而重要的活动。比如说,成年动物需要找寻食物、搏斗、寻觅伴侣,以及与同类中的其他动物相处。幼年动物可以通过玩耍来练习这些生活中的重要活动。通过玩耍,它们能够模仿猎获食物、打斗以及求偶。它们能学会怎样控制自己的行动、怎样协调适应它们生活的环境以及怎样和自己群体中的其他动物相互交往。

5 并非所有的动物都玩耍。动物科学家们告诉我们,实际上,只有脊椎动物玩耍,其中,主要是高级脊椎动物。比如说, 昆虫、鱼和爬行动物不玩耍, 但是大多数哺乳动物都玩耍,尤其是在它们年幼时。总的来说,我们可以说高智商动物比低智商动物玩耍得多。换句话说,动物的智商越高,玩耍就会越复杂。

6 黑猩猩被公认为是与人类最接近的动物,是非人类哺乳动物中最聪明的。这种灵长类动物以一种精心策划而又复杂的方式玩耍。黑猩猩相互追逐、摔跤,还发明了种种游戏。在玩耍的方式上,只有人类比他们强。其他灵长类动物,比如猴子和大猩猩也喜欢玩耍,但不如黑猩猩玩耍得多。一些其他的脊椎动物诸如海豚也很聪明,它们之间相互嬉戏,也与包括人类在内的其他动物嬉戏。对于这些聪明的动物来说,玩耍是一种取乐的方式,但也是一种培养创造性的方式,而且是一种采用新的方法使自己与所处环境相互协调的方式。也许人类在音乐、艺术和科学方面的创造性,就是以玩耍开始的。

课内阅读练习答案

Part One Preparation

1. A Guessing Game

Sample

(One student thinks of an animal. The other students ask him or her questions about the animal.)

Q = Question A = Answer

Q: Does it live in water?

A: No, it doesn’t.

Q: Does it live in trees?

A: No, it doesn’t.

Q: Does it have legs?

A: Yes, it does.

Q: Does it have four legs?

A: Yes, it does.

Q: Does it hunt other animals?

A: No, it doesn’t.

Q: Does it run fast?

A: Yes, it does.

Q: Is it a mammal?

A: Yes, it is.

Q: Does it have spots?

A: No, it doesn’t.

Q: Is it trained to help humans?

A: Yes, it is.

Q: Is it a horse?

A: Yes, it is.

2. How to Describe It?

Sample

As far as I know, elephants are the strongest among all the animals that exist in the world. Elephants are very big and heavy, even in their infancy. It’s not unusual to find a baby elephant that weighs over a ton. Also, its skin is so thick that an elephant rarely gets hurt or injured either in their daily life or when attacked by others. Even with so many strong factors, elephants have never gained the glorious titles such as the king of the jungle. They are mild-tempered, but fierce animals like tigers, lions and wolves dare not disturb or attack them because an adult elephant can easily tread on and kill them while the smaller, aggressive animals can do nothing harmful to this giant.

As for which animal is the most beau tiful, I’d like to vote for the tiger. To me, tigers are the symbol of power, dignity and nobility. The pattern on its body and head is rather fascinating. Tigers are known as “the king of all beasts”, a special honor people have given to them. Some wolves are also considered to be beautiful and they possess a kind of spirit, which is appealing. As for the dragon, though they exist only in stories or legends, they’re the symbol of China. Almost every Chinese thinks the dragon is beautiful. The elephant is c ute. It’s mild in nature and usually

meek. Of the animals we choose to rate, it is the strongest and friendliest animal. I do not really believe that a shark is beautiful but compared with a snake or a crocodile, a shark may rank as the fifth beautiful animal in the list.

2.What Is It?

Sample

? It’s a very tall kind of bird, with long legs and neck, which appear too thin to support its body and head. Its beak is long and pointed, and when it falls asleep it lifts up one leg to let the other support the whole body. (crane)

? It crawls on the ground, with a rope-shaped body and a triangular head. Deadly poison may be found in its fangs, which can cause death within minutes. In legends, it was the animal which seduced Adam and Eve. (snake)

? It’s a swimming anim al with smooth brown fur and it eats fish. You may regard it as the laziest animal since it sleeps most of the day, but at night, it turns out to be the greatest builder, its masterpiece—the dam. (beaver)

Part Two Reading-Centered Activities

In-Class Reading

Post-Reading

Reading Comprehension

1. Paras. 1-2—C Para. 3—A Para. 4—D Para. 5—E Para. 6—B

2. 1 D 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 C 6 A 7 D 8 D

3. Sample

? I think animals have a culture. We can easily find facts to support this. For example, animals of the same species can communicate with each other, with language unknown to us humans.

We have read a lot of stories about wolves. When a wolf is in danger or hurt by a human, very soon

it will get other wolves in its group to take revenge. Even insects like ants can work together very well. If they didn’t share a language of their own, how could they move something much larger than themselves over a long distance to their nest? Besides, animals such as chimpanzees can use and make tools to get food, and monkeys are found to be able to learn and share behavior. Surely, animals don’t have any religion or law. Obviously, this does not prove that they don’t have a culture but shows that their culture is different from ours or there are limits to their culture.

? I don’t think animals have a culture. Culture is a very broad term. It covers many aspects such as politics, economics, literature, law, and religion. Animals do not have language, at least they do not have a written language, nor do they have politics and economi cs. It’s true that they can learn and share such behavior as washing sweet potatoes to get rid of sand, but I doubt whether they can learn more complicated behavior. What’s more, scientists only

observed this sharing of behavior among certain monkeys. It is known to all that there are many species of animals and that they differ greatly in their intelligence. So how can we reach the conclusion that animals have a culture only because some animals are able to use and invent tools, or share knowledge? Even if animals have a so-called culture, there are limits to their culture.

Vocabulary

1 1 handy

2 cultural

3 untrue

4 belief

5 scientist

6 successful

7 religious

8 defenses

9 strength 10 social

2 1 A limit B limit 2 A contact B contacted

3 A attempting B attempt

4 A commanded B command

5 A form B form

3 1 gesture 2 create 3 abstract

4 individual

5 invention

6 feature

7 make up for

8 remove

9 response 10 rule out

4 1 remove

remove: take sth. away from a place

move: change position or place

2 received, accept

accept an invitation: say yes to it

receive an invitation: get one

3 allow

allow: let sb. do sth.; permit sb. to do sth.

agree: have the same opinion

4 lately

lately: recently

later: a time after the present time

5 shore

shore: the land along the edge of a sea, lake or wide river

beach: a nearly level area of sand or small stones beside the sea or other area of water

6 taught

teach: provide instruction in a particular subject

train: give sb. the knowledge needed to do a job

7 object

object: sth. that can be seen and touched

subject: sth. that is discussed, examined or researched

8 attract

attract: draw sb. towards oneself

attack: try to hurt or defeat sb. or sth. using violence

Translation

1 I used to go to the cinema a lot, but I never have the time now.

2 The two workers cooperated with each other to fix the broken pipe.

3 This is a cruel practice which should be stopped immediately.

4 What aspect of your job / work is (the) most difficult, and what aspect is (the) most rewarding?

5 He thought he had already solved the problem, but that was not the case.

6 I’ll help as much as I can, but there is a limit to what I can do.

Part Three Further Development

1.Grammar Review

1 I never like the way how doctors speak to you. (in which; or d elete “how”)

2 I’d like another drink, and so did John. (would)

3 One of the reasons for coming to England are to make money. (is)

4 In those days, the only means of lighting the house at night were oil lamps. (was)

5 It was so a cold night that we stayed at home. (such)

2.Vocabulary Review

Section A

1 A agree with B agreed with C agree on D agreed to

If you “agree with” someone about something, you both have the same opinion about it. If you “agree with” an action or suggestion, you approve of it. If two o r more statements, ideas, sets of numbers, etc. “agree with” each other, they are the same or very similar (与……一致,相符合). If you “agree to” do something or “agree to” something, you say that you will do it or you allow someone else to do it. If people “agree on” something, they reach a decision or agreement about it.

2 A activity B act C action D act

Both “act” and “action” can be used as a countable noun to mean “sth. that sb. has done.”

“Act” nearly always refers to a specific deed, for example, in Sentence B, “act of kindness” is

a specific deed having been done. “Action” is usually a more generalized usage, or a process

of doing something. For example, in Sentence C, “We must take action” means that we must do something, but it is generalized and does not refer to a specific deed which must be done.

“Activity” is used for something that is done regularly.

3 A adapting B adopted C adapt D adopt

adopt: a) start to use a particular method or plan采用;b) legally become the parent of another person’s child 收养

adapt: gradually change your behavior and attitudes so that you get used to a new situation and can deal with it successfully 适应

4 A laying B lied C lay D lay

“Lie” (lying, lay, lain) is an intransitive verb, meaning “be in a position in which your body is flat” (躺). “Lay” (laying, laid, laid) is a transitive verb, meaning “put on a surface” or “produce eggs”. There is another intransitive verb “lie” (lying, lied, lied), meaning “say sth.

untrue”(撒谎).

5 A weather B climate C weather

The word “weather” means “the climate at a certain place and time, how much wind, rain, sunshine, etc. there is and how hot or cold i t is” (天气,气象). “Climate” means “the normal weather conditions of a particular region over a period of time” (气候).

6 A invented B discovered

You use “invent” to say that someone is the first person to think of something or make something. You use “discover” to say that someone finds out about something which exists but which was not previously known.

7 A fun B funny C funny

“Fun” is an uncountable noun. If something is “fun”, it is pleasant, enjoyable, and not serious.

“Funny” is an adjective. It describes s omething that makes you laugh or that is strange.

8 A stripped B stripes C stripped

“Strip” can be used as a verb, meaning “remove the covering or parts of” or “take off one’s clothes”. “Stripe” is a noun, meaning “a band of color against a background of a different color”.

Section B

1C H I M 2P A N Z E E

A

N 3D O G

4I D 5E I

N 6C H A 7M E L E O N

S O E 8O W 9L

E 10G 11P U P P Y S I

C I S H A O

12T U R T L E A U N

A N R

F 13C A T

F

E

3.Who Is the King of the Jungle?

STEP TWO

Sample

? (a ca ndidate speech from the monkey)

Ladies and gentlemen:

I’m here today because I want to become the King of the Jungle. I know there is a question on

your mind: Why are you thinking about running for the King of the Jungle? So I will give you the reasons.

I’m running because the animal kingdom must be prosperous. Wealth is not invented by the King but created by all of you. But the King can create an environment where you can dream and realize your dreams. I’m running because all the animals must live a happ y and peaceful life. I’m running because we must do something to protect our environment. And I’m running to achieve all the above.

I know I’m not the strongest animal in the jungle. But as the animal most closely related to

humans, I’m intelligent. I beli eve that in modern times intelligence is far more important than physical strength.

Finally, I hope you will support me with your enthusiasm and confidence.

Thank you.

? (a candidate speech from the lion)

Ladies and gentlemen:

I’m really excited to be here attending the meeting. I’d like to tell you that I want to be the King of the Jungle. I believe I’m qualified!

First of all, human beings now dominate in the world, so we have to take their thoughts into consideration. You must have heard about the famous film The Lion King. As you can see, they already regard us lions as the king. You may say that there is the “Monkey King” in Chinese films. But Monkey King’s power doesn’t exist in reality. Only we lions are the strongest both in the film and in reality. As far as I know, the lion is also the symbol of the constellation “LEO”, that’s why we get a lot of respect from man. So I’m not only the qualified King of the Jungle but also a great bridge between humans and us animals.

When I’m the king, I’ll have th e confidence to protect all of you from being hurt or attacked and no humans will invade our kingdom because I have won enough human respect and can talk with them about animal rights. Now it’s time to vote for me!

? (a candidate speech from the tiger)

Ladies and gentlemen:

Good morning! Today I am here to run for the King of the Jungle for two reasons.

First, I am the strongest and the bravest. I have incomparable power. My teeth are as long as daggers, my paws are as sharp as knives and my action is very agile. So I can kill any enemies easily and protect every one in the jungle. In fact, just my appearance will scare any invaders to death. Although there are animals who look bigger and stronger than me, their strength and

wisdom will never surpass those of mine. I can kill a gaur which weighs several hundred kilos and I can kill a crocodile within minutes. In ancient Rome, people let us tigers fight with lions, and we were always the winners!

Second, I am the most experienced in taking charge of the jungle. Since I have been the King for a long time, I know very well how to rule the animal world and how to be a successful king.

I can keep everything in order as quickly as possible and I can handle problems as perfectly as

possible. Under my governance you will never have difficulties. I promise I will work harder and do my best to ensure that all of you live a happy life and that the jungle will be a paradise in the world!

So, please vote for me! It’ll be your best choice!

4. A New Animal

R = Reporter E = Explorer

Sample

?

R: Now, Professor Davis, I hear that you’ve discovered a very strange animal.

E: Yup!

R: We’re all curious about it, and this is the reason why we invited you here today.

E: OK.

R: I have a report from you in my hand. So tell us: Why did y ou name the animal “Dymi”?

E: This is quite interesting, because I was extremely attracted by its everlasting alert and dynamic behavior the first time I saw it. The word “Dymi” actually came from dynamic, one might say.

R: Thank you. Now, what do you mean by “it lives in every appropriate place”?

E: Well, it’s very odd that I found the animal never lived in a specific place. It can be found in

a cave, in the grass, or in a nest left by other animals, in a tree, and so forth. And it only takes

naps, half an hour or so each time.

R: Where do you think the significance lies since we’ve found the animal?

E: I believe we can get to know more about ourselves—the human being—by making a detailed study of the animal. Because I find the animal closely related to us to some extent. It takes protein, fiber, fat, and vitamins from food; it gets on very well with the environment; it lives a rather long life compared with animals of the same size. But I think the most important point is that we can find out the relation between their little sleep and their extremely dynamic behavior, which is very useful to modern, busy human beings.

R: Right. You give us a wonderful report, Professor Davis. Thank you very much for being with us.

E: It’s my pleasure.

A Report

Name: Dymi.

What does it eat? Grass, nuts, little animals like rats and squirrels.

How many hours does it sleep? Only takes naps, half an hour or so each time, every three hours.

Where does it live? In every appropriate place.

How long does it live? 30 to 50 years.

A Report

Name: Darwin.

What does it eat? Leaves.

How many hours does it sleep? Unknown.

Where does it live? Tropical forest in Africa.

How long does it live? Three to five years.

R: It’s alleged that you’ve discovered a strange species of animal in th e tropical forests of Africa. Would you please give a brief description to the readers?

E: Of course. The mysterious animal I discovered is named after Darwin, the founder of the evolution theory. This special insect has four sets of legs instead of three sets of legs as we have found about that species of insect before.

R: But are you sure that it belongs to the group of insects?

E: Certainly, after careful identification in the lab, it takes on the common characteristics of insects. So the conclusion could be drawn that it belongs to a branch of insect species.

R: How can that be?

E: It’s a great proof of Darwin’s evolution theory, I suppose. However, it needs further confirmation. We hope new evidence will be found to support the theory.

R: Thanks for your excellent introduction.

E: You’re welcome.

5.I’d Rather Be…

Sample

? I would like to be an eagle. Soaring high above the mountains, I take the vast expanse of sky as my territory. Creatures on the ground are small but clear in sight. I love the view and enjoy the feeling when I’m high up in the sky. I can pick anything I like as my food with the sharp claws and beak and nothing could hurt me except human beings.

? I’d rather be a turtle. Although turtles move very slowly and seem to be rather stupid, I regard them as the wisest kind of animal. They have evolved to stand the pressure from the outside and they can get an upper hand in the battle against nature. Unlike lions and tigers, whose strength is powerful but can only last for a short time, turtles maintain their potential till

the end of their days so that they can cope with any difficulty at any time.

? I’d like to be a cat. It is said that cats have nine lives and that cats can survive even after falling off high buildings. If I had nine lives, I wouldn’t be afraid of death and could venture a lot. Most importantly, cats are lovely and graceful animal that humans like to keep as pets. I’d love to be such a cat.

Part Four Writing and Translation

3.Translation Practice

1 express one’s feelings convey messages carry heavy loads guide the blind

guard / protect people’s possessions catch pests bring pleasure / happiness to people

add joy to people’s life make the world more colorful maintain the balance of nature

2 Dogs are perceived t o be humans’ best friends. They are loyal to people and can help people

do a lot of things.

3 Cats are graceful, lovely and obedient. They are excellent companions of human beings.

People like keeping them as pets.

4 Parrots have very beautiful feathers. They are good at imitating human languages.

5 Monkeys are very intelligent. They can be trained to amuse people by performing different

tasks.

4.Writing

Sample 1

Dogs are the kind of animal I like best. They are capable of helping human beings complete different tasks. For instance, dogs are trained to pull sleighs, to guide the blind, to guard people’s possessions and so on. Sometimes they are even used in medical service to help treat patients, because of their obedience and great understanding of human beings. Furthermore, dogs can be wonderful companions. They are loyal to their owners. They are quiet listeners when people complain and a source of joy when people are blue. This kind of emotional intimacy between humans and dogs can’t be matched by any other intimacy between humans and animals. No wonder dogs are perceived to be the best friends of human beings, and undoubtedly I consider them my favorite animal.

Sample 2

It is a sheer coincidence that my favorite animal is the same as Walt Disney’s. We both like the so-called “notorious” mice, but our reasons are different. As Walt Disney’s legend goes, the mouse he met in his garage played such an important role that it helped him survive loneliness and overcome his mental depression at the beginning of his artistic career. My reason is much simpler—I was born in 1984, and naturally began to like mice (rats). It is true that the mouse has been a symbol of dirtiness and ugliness, and everybody seems to bear a deep-rooted hatred against them. Nevertheless, they are cunning and swift, and some are even lovely. This accounts for why there are people who like to keep mice as their pets. Though rats as a carrier of plague had once brought tremendous disaster to human beings, the interesting thing is that the carriers themselves had not been ruined. This has already opened up new fields of study in biology in the hope of exploring human beings’ true physical nature.

Nowadays, hundreds of rats die in laboratories every single day in experiments carried out by sci entists. In this sense, the mouse’s contribution to the human race has outweighed their destruction to us, which makes me like them still more.

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